An X-ray spectrum measured with CdTe detector has to be corrected with response function, because the spectrum is composed of full energy peaks (FEP) and escape peaks (EP). Recently, various simulation codes were developed, and using them the response functions can be calculated easily. The aim of this study is to propose a new method for measuring the response function and to compare it with the calculated value by the Monte Carlo simulation code. In this study, characteristic X-rays were used for measuring the response function. These X-rays were produced by the irradiation of diagnostic X-rays with metallic atoms. In the measured spectrum, there was a background contamination, which was caused by the Compton scattering of the irradiated X-ray in the sample material. Therefore, we thought of a new experimental methodology to reduce this background. The experimentally derived spectrum was analyzed and then the ratios of EP divided by FEP (EP/FEP) were calculated to compare the simulated values. In this article, we showed the property of the measured response functions and the analysis accuracy of the EP/FEP, and we indicated that the values calculated by Monte Carlo simulation code could be evaluated by using our method.
The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in each radiological examination for justification and optimization of patients’ dose in medicine. The aim of our study was to propose the dose management system by utilizing dose information in diagnostic X-ray radiation dose structured report (Dose SR) in The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine to optimize radiation dose in institutions. Our dose management system is able to organize dose information obtained from various angiography systems and CTs. It is possible to provide this information to operators for justification and optimization of patient dose. Our system would be useful for the estimation of organ dose and could be used for the determination of local DRL (LDRL) for each radiological practice. In addition, the optimization became possible to compare LDRL with national DRL.
Routine management of X-ray equipment is critically important, but due to the high cost of commercial management systems it is currently not practical to deploy this valuable instrumentation at every clinical facility. This led us to develop a simple measurement system for routine management purposes that can be deployed for around ¥100 thousand in materials. The system consists of an X-ray output meter, a clamp-type X-ray tube current meter (clamp meter), and a digital oscilloscope. Compared to a standard fluorescence meter, the X-ray output meter provides equivalent accuracy and reproducibility of X-ray tube voltage, X-ray tube current, and irradiation time changes, while also displaying the X-ray output time. The clamp meter must be periodically calibrated, however provides equivalent accuracy and reproducibility to a direct contact meter, while also displaying net X-ray tube current and loading time. Finally, the oscilloscope is able to estimate the waveform of X-ray tube voltage by monitoring each waveform, thus making it an extremely useful instrument for day-to-day management of X-ray equipment installed at clinical facilities.
Several incidents involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of patients with unchecked MR-unsafe metallic products have been reported. To improve patient safety, we developed a new MRI safety management system for metallic biomedical products and evaluated its efficiency in clinical practice. Our system was integrated into the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and comprised an MR compatibility database and inquiry-based patient records of internal metallic biomedical products, enabling hospital staff to check MR compatibility by product name. A total of 6,637 biomedical implants and devices were listed in this system, including product names and their MR compatibilities. Furthermore, MRI histories for each patient at our hospital were also recorded. Using this system, it was possible to confirm the MR compatibility of the patients’ metallic biomedical products effectively and to reduce the number of unchecked internal products through systematic patient inquiry. In conclusion, our new system enhanced metallic biomedical product checking procedures, and improved patient safety during clinical MRI examinations.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate an appropriate analysis method and multicenter reproducibility of heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M) and washout rate (WR) in iodine-123-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy with a phantom. Methods: We evaluated the optimal region of interest (ROI) setting method about the mediastinum and heart by varying the position and shape of the ROI. The mathematical method was changed to a combination of decay time correction (DTC) and background correction (BC). We evaluated the reproducibility of the H/M and WR between institutions. Result: H/M decreased to 23.49% and WR increased to 20.68% by changing the mediastinum ROI position from upper to lower. H/M increased to 26.03% by changing the heart ROI position from base to apex. H/M decreased to 38.36% with BC, and WR was reduced up to 48.51% with DTC. Reproducibility of the H/M and WR between institutions was improved by performing optimization of the ROI setting and unification of the mathematical method. Discussion: The position of the mediastinum ROI should be set on the upper mediastinum. The position of the heart ROI should be set on the apex of the heart. WR should be calculated with DTC and BC. Our results suggest that the reproducibility of the H/M and WR between institutions was improved by performing optimization of the ROI setting and unification of the mathematical method.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of metal markers on dose distributions and dose evaluation indices in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for prostate cancer. The dose distribution calculation in the prostate IMRT was performed in a virtual phantom with and without insertion of the metal markers. The deviations of Dmax, Dmin, homogeneity index (HI), Dmean, D2, D98, and D95 of clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) were obtained for estimation of the influence on the dose evaluation indices. Analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) and Acuros external beam (AXB) algorithms were employed for calculating the dose distributions. There were no deviations in any dose evaluation indices in dose distributions calculated by using AAA, whereas the maximum deviations for CTV and PTV by using AXB were +7.93% and +6.43% for Dmax, −16.61% and −1.77% for Dmin, +29.46% and +8.34% for HI, +0.15% and +0.02% for Dmean, +1.50% and +0.24% for D2, respectively. Additional data were −0.20% in D98 (CTV) and −0.27% in D95 (PTV). This study suggests that local dose changes, which were produced around metal markers, affected dose distributions and the dose evaluation indices.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) imaging by time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) technique is labeled by CSF with a selective inversion recovery (IR) pulse as internal tracer, thus making it possible to visualize CSF dynamics non-invasively. The purpose of this study was to clarify labeled CSF signals during various black blood time to inversion (BBTI) values at 3 tesla (T) and 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine appropriate CSF imaging parameters at 3 T MRI in 10 healthy volunteers. To calculate optimal BBTI values, ROIs were set in untagged cerebral parenchyma and CSF on the image of the CSF flow from the aqueduct to the fourth ventricle in 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. Visual evaluation of CSF flow also was assessed with changes of matrix and echo time (TE) at 3 T MRI. The mean BBTI value at null point of untagged CSF in 3 T MRI was longer than that of 1.5 T. The MR conditions of the highest visual evaluation were FOV, 14 cm × 14 cm; Matrix, 192 × 192; and TE, 117 ms. CSF imaging using Time-SLIP at 3 T MRI is expected visualization of CSF flow and clarification of CSF dynamics in more detail by setting the optimal conditions because 3 T MRI has the advantage of high contrast and high signal-to-noise ratio.
We analyzed a number of cases about the Linac troubles in our hospital and have examined the effect of preventive maintenance with Weibull analysis and exponential distribution from April 2001 to March 2012. The total failure by irradiation disabled was 1, 192. (1) Medical linear accelerator (MLC) system was 24.0%, (2) radiation dosimetry system 13.1%, and the (3) cooling-water system was 26.5%. It accounts for 63.6% of the total number of failures. Each parameter value m, which means the shape parameter, and the failure period expectancy of parts μ were (1) 1.21, 1.46 / 3.9, 3.8 years. 3.7, 3.6 years. (2) 2.84, 1.59 / 6.6, 4.3 years. 6.7, 5.9 years. (3) 5.12, 4.16 / 6.1, 8.5 years. 6.1, 8.5 years. Each shape parameter was m > 1. It is believed that they are in the worn-out failure period. To prevent failure, MLC performance should be overhauled once every 3 years and a cooling unit should be overhauled once every 7 years. Preventive maintenance is useful in assessing the failure of radiation therapy equipment. In a radiation dosimetry part, you can make a preemptive move before the failure by changing the monitor’s dosimeter board with a new part from the repairs stockpiled every 6 months for maintenance.
On X-ray diagnostic technology, it is important to grasp a change of the X-ray high-voltage equipment and radiographic technique factors. The 1st questionnaire was performed in 1974, and it carried out after that every five years, and conducted 8th investigation. As a result, we requested 656 institutions and got a reply from 103 institutions. The response rate was 15.7%. For X-ray high-voltage equipment, the inverter-type device shifts to 83.6% from 73.4% of last time. X-ray high-voltage equipment will be shifted to inverter-type device the near future. For X-ray tube device, the target angle becomes more smaller than usual, and maximum anode heat content is increasing tendency. The spread of digital devices is being advanced, and especially the flat panel detector (FPD) increases in the devices. The spread of soft copy diagnoses is 73.8% for chest image diagnoses, and 49.5% for breast image diagnosis. For the device management, the ratio of institutions measured at purchase time was 91.2%. But, the ratio of institutions performed an invariability examination was 58.4%. It is required to grasp the performance of an X-ray equipment and peripheral equipment, and to perform accuracy control in order to obtain proper radiographic technique factors and imaging. In order to use it for the improvement in photography technology, we would like to continue to conduct this investigation periodically.