Standardized uptake value (SUV) has been widely used as a semi-quantitative metric of uptake in FDGPET/ CT for diagnosis of malignant tumors and evaluation of tumor therapies. However, the SUV depends on various factors including PET/CT scanner specifications and reconstruction parameters. The purpose of this study is to harmonize the SUV among two PET/CT models of different generation: two units of Discovery ST Elite Performance(DSTEP) and Discovery 690 (D690) PET/CT scanners. The NEMA body phantom filled with 18F solution was scanned for 30 minutes in list-mode. The D690 PET images were reconstructed with OSEM, OSEM+TOF, and OSEM+PSF. Gaussian post-filters of 4-9 mm FWHM were applied to find the parameters that provides harmonized SUV. We determined the SUV-harmonized parameter for each reconstruction algorithm. Then, the 10 PET images simulating clinical scan conditions were respectively generated to evaluate the bias and variability of SUVmax and SUVpeak. The SUVmax strongly depended not only on spatial resolution but also on image noise. On the other hand, the SUVpeak was a robust metric to image noise level. TOFimproved the variability of SUVmax and SUVpeak. Thus, we were able to harmonize the spatial resolution using SUVpeak based on the phantom study. Because SUVmax was also strongly affected by image noise, sufficient count statistics is essential for SUVmax harmonization. We recommended that TOFreconstruction and SUVpeak metric should be used to harmonize SUV.
Using radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter, we measured the entrance skin dose (ESD) in 46 cases and analyzed the correlations between maximum ESD and angiographic parameters [total fluoroscopic time (TFT); number of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) frames, air kerma at the interventional reference point (AK), and dose-area product (DAP)] to estimate the maximum ESD in real time. Mean (± standard deviation) maximum ESD, dose of the right lens, and dose of the left lens were 431.2±135.8 mGy, 33.6±15.5 mGy, and 58.5±35.0 mGy, respectively. Correlation coefficients (r) between maximum ESD and TFT, number of DSA frames, AK, and DAP were r=0.379 (P<0.01), r=0.702 (P<0.001), r=0.825 (P<0.001), and r=0.709 (P<0.001), respectively. AK was identified as the most useful parameter for real-time prediction of maximum ESD. This study should contribute to the development of new diagnostic reference levels in our country.
In vascular access intervention therapy (VAIVT), carbon dioxide is used as negative contrast medium for patients with iodine allergy or for those who have vascular access but not started with dialysis yet and have not endangered their remaining kidney function. To capture the movement of jet-injected carbon dioxide during the carbon dioxide angiography, we performed imaging at a rate of 15 frames per second. This method has a higher level of radiation exposure than angiography using an iodine contrast medium. Therefore we developed a catheter with 20 helical side holes in the tip (carbon dioxide angiography catheter), which allows large numbers of tiny bubbles to be generated simultaneously. In our study, we evaluate whether the use of this catheter can reduce the number of frames taken per second thus reducing the radiation exposure. A comparative experiment with existing angiography catheters with no side holes suggested that the use of this carbon dioxide angiography catheter to be useful for reducing the radiation exposure to patients and operators. Moreover, angiography using this catheter is highly useful from viewpoint of improving the stenotic vesselvisibility and reducing the side effects of using carbon dioxide, and we expect that the carbon dioxide angiography method is effective for patients and operators.