Based on the organizational identification literature, a number of studies have posited a chain between employee-company identification, customer-company identification, and customer-company loyalty (“the chain of organizational identification”). Yet, it is expected to have another chain between professional identification, customer-professional identification, and customer-professional loyalty (“the chain of professional identification”) in professional service. I conducted an online survey of 206 clients in legal services, one of the most typical types of professional services, and in-depth interviews of seven lawyers and seven clients, and examined (1) the existence of the chain of professional identification and (2) the relationship between the two chains, based on the Value Profit Chain model. The analysis revealed that the chain of professional identification is stronger than the chain of organizational identification in legal services, and the latter does not work unless the organizational identity to clients does not arise. The results show the effects and risks caused by the relationship between the two chains.
Internship system which aims at developing top management of small and medium-sized enterprises, provided by the Japanese Government, is effective to get some insight for management. In order to do that, interns should realize their mission deeply in advance, and get a yardstick for improving their own enterprises through the experience.