In the recent years, various platform businesses are emerged. Part of the platform businesses are closely connected with service industry. For example, there are service intermediation platforms, payment service platforms, and servitization with product platforms. However, previous studies did not systematically investigate such service platforms. To make successful these platform businesses, platform providers must not only provide superior platforms but also develop the ecosystem with third party companies and consumers. This article aimed to systematize the types of service platform businesses and the significant factors related to platform ecosystems. First, we surveyed the three types of platform businesses (internal platforms, intermediary platforms, and platform ecosystems), which are studied in the research field of business and innovation management. Second, we discussed adaption of such platform business types for service platforms in the service industries. We classified service platform businesses into six types and described those features. Third, we considered the ways to realize platform ecosystems from service intermediary platforms. Finally, we proposed three future directions of service platform researches.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the overview of past researches related to Service Design (SD). As an initial step to achieve this purpose, we exploratory surveyed papers that widely reviews past and current SD research. We selected the papers through the Web search using Google Scholar. On the basis of this survey, we found five academic areas that strongly influenced current SD research, such as (1) Service Marketing / Management, (2) Interaction Design, (3) Design Theory / Design Thinking, (4) Engineering Design / Service Engineering, and (5) Participatory Design / CoDesign. For each of these academic areas, we additionally surveyed specific past researches related to current SD. The papers or books investigated in this additional survey include those selected based on the results of the first survey, as well as those newly found during the process of the additional survey. As a result, we depicted a historical map of SD research. From the map, we found that, among the five academic areas that influenced SD research, some areas have been mutually affected from the past, while others have had little direct involvement so far. Based on the map, we discuss the direction of future collaborations among various approaches to SD research. Further, we also noted that the map can be used as “boundary object” to make the discussion between the research communities with low relationships more constructive, because it explains the background theory in different research communities.