Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence
Online ISSN : 2435-8614
Print ISSN : 2188-2266
Volume 6 , Issue 1
Showing 1-28 articles out of 28 articles from the selected issue
Print ISSN:0912-8085 until 2013
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Preface
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 1
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Cover article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 14
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Toshihide IBARAKI
    Type: Special issue
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 15-23
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • G. Hiroshi OKUNO
    Type: Special issue
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 24-37
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Shoichi MASUI, Shun-ichi TANO
    Type: Special issue
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 38-46
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Akira AIBA, Koichi FURUKAWA
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 47-59
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Kenji ITOH, Minako ISHIZUKA, Kazuhisa HARADA, Shih Li CHUNG, Takao ENK ...
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 60-71
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    The manufacturing environment is complex and quickly changing, and its management involves multiple production goals and many constraints in solving problems. Job shop scheduling is a typical problem of this area, and shares the above properties. Although this problem is complex, it is generally not ill-structured. For these reasons, an AI approach, especially the employment of search techniques, is useful to cope with this problem. This paper proposes a hierarchical constraint-directed search method for application in actual scheduling problems. In this method, constraints are classified as interactive or absolute according to their interrelationships. Based on this, a three stage search is carried out to find a solution which successively satisfies the constraints. Furthermore, this method utilizes the knowledge of scheduling experts to facilitate problem solving. The above approach is applied to the scheduling of berth assignments as an example of an actual problem. A computerized scheduling system is developed using a frame-based language, and is evaluated by comparing its solution performance with that of a non-hierarchical constraint satisfaction method and that of scheduling experts. The proposed system shows good performance results, being superior to the non-hierarchical method and equal to the scheduling experts in most cases. The hierarchical constraint-directed approach thus shows promise for use in solving real world production management problems.

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  • Masayuki YAMAMURA, Shigenobu KOBAYASHI
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 72-83
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    The augmented EBL is a framework for knowledge refinement based on generalization from examples. It is different from conventional EBL that plural examples are considered simultaneously. It has been formalized on logic program, and relationships between generalization space of plural examples and operationality criteria have been discussed. In this paper, we forcus on a class of problem solving that have serially decomposable subgoals, and propose an augmented EBL learner that acquires a problem solving macrotable from examples. The learning problem is formalized on logic program. A domain theory consists of operator definitions which is the minimal knowledge for problem solving. A solution order is a sequence of generalizations of the goal. A macro table is a logic program, which is ordered reversally to the solution order. Given operator sequences of macros and their row positions in the macro table, it is shown easy to determine the instantiation of macros, that is precondition and conclusion, and the solution order. Thus it is substantial to determine operator sequences and their row positions in order to learn a macro table. We propose an augmented EBL learner that uses membership queries in addition with randomly given positive examples. Membership queries are used through two concepts of a decomposition and a serialization table. An example is decomposed into a composition of macros. The serialization table enumerates all feasible orderings of 2 macros according to results of membership queries against their compositions. The usefulness of the learner is shown by applying to 8-puzzle. The serialization table is shown complete, then the learner acquires correct macro table. The complexity of the learner is polynomial in the size of macro table when there exist no composite macros, that is decomposable into other macros. Current implementation generates exponentially many membership queries of the size of composite macros if they exist. It is a further issue to resolve this difficulty.

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  • Jun NISHIDA, Shaoxing ZHANG, Seiichi NISHIHARA
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 96-104
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    This paper describes an algorithm for restoring polyhedral scenes consistent with a given set of three orthographic views. The proposed algorithm performs a combinatorial search based on the face-oriented strategy along with heuristics aiming at search space reduction. First, the problem of restoring 3-dimensional models from 2-dimensional orthographic projections is defined concretely. Then, the constraint rules that candidate faces generated from the corresponding relation among three orthographic views should satisfy are developed, and a basic combinatorial search algorithm is presented. The algorithm adopts depth-first tree search method. It is basically composed of two procedures : search and branch, which are mutually indirect recursive procedures. The search procedure judges whether it has reached a goal node, and the branch procedure looks for the next node according to constraint rules. Further, in order to improve the time-consuming problem of checking many wasteful combinations of faces, two heuristics which try to let a computer follow the human's understanding manner to reduce useless search are introduced. One is used to select characteristic faces to be as initial search nodes and the other to determine candidate faces to be true, false, or indeterminable. The determinate false faces are deleted before the combinatorial search begins. Finally, the experimental results are also presented. It is shown that polyhedral scenes can be successfully restored by the combinatorial search approach, and the heuristics can improve search speed considerably.

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  • Kazuhisa MIWA, Noboru SUGIE, Moriya ODA
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 105-116
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    The information processing approach is one of the most popular methods of cognitive science researches. The approach is summarized as follows. First, psychological experiments are designed, and some human subjects participate in the experiments. Secondly, a model of the human thinking processes is constructed based on the experimental results. The model is described in a computer language to perform computer simulations. Finally, the model's behavior in the computer simulations is compared with the human behavior observed in the psychological experiments. If two kinds of behaviors are in agreement with each other, reasonable construction of the model is confirmed. However, human thinking processes include some individual alternations. In the comparison between results of computer simulations and human behaviors, the former represents only a common part of the latter, or a local part of the latter regarded as an important one by the experimenter. Thus, estimation of reasonable construction of the model depends on ambiguous decisions by the experimenter. For the above reasons, we give one of methods where a model represented as production system simulates individual human thinking processes. In this method, we divided the model into three parts: rule set R, parameters t_j, and rule set R′. So a model is represented as follows. R(t_1,t_2,…)+R′Rule set R is constructed of production rules, and corresponds to core parts of the medel. Parameters t_j exist at condition parts or action parts of the production rules in set R, and correspond to individual alternations which are able to be treated within rule set R. Rule set R′is constructed of production rules which are added individually to rule set R, and corresponds to individual alternations which are not able to be treated within rule set R. Moreover, we discuss efficiency of the method through a guessing task of two-dimensional arrangement of cards, which is a kind of inductive inference tasks. As the result, we succeed in computer simulations of individual human thinking processes, and acquisition of new knowledges about human thinking processes.

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  • Saburo TSURUTA, Mitsuru ISHIZUKA
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 117-123
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    In order to realize advanced AI functions, such as learning, common sence, abduction etc., it becomes necessary to manipulate incomplete knowledge. Truth maintenance systems including TMS, ATMS, CMS (Clause Management System) have been developed for the efficient management of hypothesis which is a type of the incomplete knowledge. Among these systems, CMS proposed by Reiter and de Kleer has a logical structure and suggests the important properties of knowledge compilation and abductive function. Although the generation of prime implicant clauses and minimal support clauses is important in the CMS processing, it is very expensive with respect to computing time and memory. This paper proposes a fast and efficient algorithm named "ordered clause-consensus method" for the generation of the prime implicant clauses, which allows the compilation of propositional knowledge-base. In this method, the prime implicant clauses are generated directly from axiom clauses, and the method is similar to the Tison's method in the theory of Boolean function. A compiled hypothesis-based reasoning system is constructed on the basis of this method in the Prolog language. The knowledge compiling speed of this system is 5 to 90 times faster than that of simple implementation using the basic function of Prolog. In case of generating unempty minimal support clauses with respect to a unit query clause, the inference of this compiled system is 10 to 100 times faster than an inference in interpretive mode, and 60 to 10000 times faster than a simple breadth-first inference.

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  • Seiichi NISHIHARA, Yoshikazu MATSUO
    Type: Research note
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 124-128
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    This paper deals with the parallelization of algorithms to solve consistent labeling problems, abbreviated as CLPs, which are NP-complete combinatorial search problems of finding totally consistent combinations of local interpretations. After surveying a merge method for CLPs proposed by us before, we introduce two types of parallelization having different granularities of parallelism each other : the structure-level one and the merge-level one. The efficiency of each parallelization is evaluated by experiments run actually on a multi-processor computer. The merge-level parallelization is proved to be always very effective. However, the structure-level parallelization is not necessarily efficient, sometimes, even rather harmful to cause serious inefficiency of computational time. The reason is explained by using a concrete example.

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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Other
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 129-130
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 131-137
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 138-139
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 140-141
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 142
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Other
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 143
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 144-147
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 148-150
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 151-152
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 153-154
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages b001-b016
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages b017
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Cover page
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages c001
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Cover page
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages c001_2
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Table of contents
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages i001
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Table of contents
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages i001_2
    Published: January 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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