Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence
Online ISSN : 2435-8614
Print ISSN : 2188-2266
Volume 6 , Issue 4
Showing 1-35 articles out of 35 articles from the selected issue
Print ISSN:0912-8085 until 2013
  • Saburo TSUJI
    Type: Preface
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 465
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Teruo FUKUMURA
    Type: Cover article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 466-467
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Setsuo OHSUGA
    Type: Special issue
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 468-469
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Kazuhiro FUCHI
    Type: Special issue
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 470-471
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Masanao TODA
    Type: Special issue
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 472-473
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Shigekoto KAIHARA
    Type: Special issue
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 474-475
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Yumi IWASAKI
    Type: Special issue
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 476-477
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Takeo KANADE
    Type: Special issue
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 478-479
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Jun-ichi TSUJII
    Type: Special issue
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 480-481
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Shuji DOSHITA, Setsuo ARIKAWA, Toyoaki NISHIDA, Hiroshi MOTODA, Shun-i ...
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 482-500
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Fumiaki ITO, Mitsuru ISHIZUKA
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 501-509
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    The handling of incomplete knowledge is a key technology for next-generation knowledge-based systems. A logic-based hypothetical reasoning can deal with incomplete knowledge as hypothesis. Most hypothetical reasoning system have been built so far using SLD resolution with depth-first search strategy embedded in Prolog. The inference speed of these systems is not satisfactory for practical use, because it includes a number of backtrackings due to the inconsistency among adopted hypotheses in addition to the ordinary failure of proving a goal. This paper describes a fast hypothetical reasoning system named KICK-SHOTGAN, which avoids inefficient backtracking by forming a compiled inference-path network followed by the foward synthesis of necessary hypothesis combination along this network. The formation of this inference-path network is based on a linear-time algorithm for the satisfiability testing of propositional Horn clauses. This system differs from ATMS mainly in its total problem solving nature. That is, it works for the logical problem-solving framework which yields a solution for a given goal, whereas the ATMS calculates possible data supported by hypotheses incrementally in response to the input of a justification (rule) from a problem solver existing outside the ATMS. The inference speed of this fast hypothetical reasoning system is thousands of times faster than that of existing systems implemented in Prolog.

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  • Takenobu TOKUNAGA, Kentaro INUI
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 510-519
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Atsushi TOGASHI, Kazuya CHIBA, Shoichi NOGUCHI
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 520-531
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    This paper presents a synthesis algorithm for term rewriting systems realizing algebras by examples based on inductive inference. This is an incremental algorithm similar to the one by Shapiro. The algorithm reads an enumeration of facts, an infinite sequence of input and output examples, and reduces the left hand side of an example with the current set of rules R_c so far generated. If the result is wrong, R_c is modified by deleting a buggy rule from R_c, or adding a new rule to it. It is shown that if there exists a terminating term rewriting system with respect to a given reduction ordering ≻ which realizes a given algebra, the algorithm eventually generates such a system in the limit.

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  • Yoshihiko OHTA, Katsumi INOUE
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 532-544
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    Hypothesis-based reasoning is a basic technique for building AI systems based on incomplete knowledge. The hypothesis-based reasoning system derives conclusions despite the absence of total domain knowledge. When we modify the knowledge base, the beliefs of the conclusions should be partially revised on the system. An assumption-based truth maintenance system (ATMS) is a hypothesis-based reasoning system whose inputs are a set of propositional Horn clauses and a set of assumptions. The ATMS is often used with a problem solver because we need logical variables to represent domain knowledge. APRICOT/0, a hypothesis-based forward-reasoning system, consists of a compiler, the Rete-based inference engine and the ATMS. The compiler translates first-order Horn clauses and normal defaults into a Rete-like network. The Rete-like network consists of a root node,one-input nodes, two-input nodes and terminal nodes. Allowing faster hypothesis-based reasoning, the inference engine gives intermediate justifications to the ATMS at two-input nodes and store the sets of hypotheses where those intermediate data hold. However, the whole of the input knowledge base has to be recompiled and the previous beliefs of the conclusions have to be revised on the whole when the input knowledge base is partially modified by the user. Therefore, both an incremental compiler and an incremental inference system are required. This paper presents an incremental hypothesis-based reasoning system which includes an incremental compiler and an incremental inference system. The incremental compiler is implemented with a modified ATMS which is called RATMS. The RATMS can efficiently offer the inference engine the updated Rete-like network. The incremental inference system can partially revise previous beliefs of conclusions with additional knowledge including variables. The incremental hypothesis-based reasoning system has been applied to a logic circuit design problem. The expermental result shows that beliefs of the solutions are efficiently revised with additional knowledge about datapath design.

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  • Toyoaki NISHIDA, Shuji DOSHITA
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 545-558
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    A set of all orbits in a phase space corresponding to solutions of ordinary differential equations is called the phase portrait. Phase portraits provide global qualitative information about how dynamical systems behave under different initial conditions. In this paper and succeeding two papers^^<(l)(2)>, we present a method called Topological Flow Analysis for analyzing the topological structure of phase portraits for two dimensional piecewise linear differential equaions. Topological Flow Analysis has been implemented as a program called PSX using Common Lisp. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of Topological Flow Analysis, introduce basic concepts underlying it, and in particular analyze the characteristics of flow of two-dimensional piecewise linear differential equations.

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  • Toyoaki NISHIDA, Shuji DOSHITA
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 559-568
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    In this paper and two other papers^^<(l)(2)>, we present Topological Flow Analysis, a method of qualitative analysis of two dimensional piecewise linear differential equations. The purpose of this paper is to present detailed description of an algorithm for local analysis, which implements the observation concerning local nature of two dimensional linear flow, obtained in the previous paper^^<(l)>. The algorithm presented here calls for only four arithmetic operations and square root to constrain local flow into finite number of possible interpretations. We have devised simple data structure called landmark orbit specification which enables to account geometric constraints as simple list manipulation.

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  • Toyoaki NISHIDA, Shuji DOSHITA
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 569-579
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    This paper concludes what is presented by previous two papers^^<(1)(2)>. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to provide detailed description of the algorithm of global analysis for Topological Flow Analysis, a method of qualitative analysis of two dimensional piecewise linear differential equations, and (b) to provide the readers with an idea of how Topological Flow Analysis works as a whole, by illustrating a couple of concrete examples taken from experiments with a Common Lisp implementation of the theory. The paper presents two versions of the global analysis algorithm: one is faster but less powerful than the other. The basic idea underlying those algorithms is that global characteristic of phase portrait can be captured by examining the structure of orbits abstracted as mappings.

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  • Takayasu KASAHARA, Naoyuki YAMADA, Yasuhiro KOBAYASHI
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 580-591
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    The generic task method is a powerful route to easier construction of knowledge processing systems. The problem solving process is regarded as an information processing task, and the knowledge processing system is constructed by adding task implementation knowledge to the generic task, which is a pre-defined building block of an expert tool for a specific information processing task. The weak point of the method is that the collection of problem solving methods is not systematic. According to the characteristics of a problem to solved, users select a best-fit generic task and adjust formalization of the problem solving method to this selected generic task. In most cases, the load of the adjusting process is not negligible. Systematic classification of problem solving methods is the key to enhancement of the expert system tool. In order to construct the knowledge processing system more easily, we propose an expert tool which has a problem-directed inference program generation function. With the proposed expert tool, users then construct a knowledge processing system in the following way. (1) Users divide the process into search modules. (2) Users formalize search module as a search, (3) Users input the search strategy by selecting the classification items of the search classification tree, which the tool has prepared. (4) The tool produce the problem-directed inference program by setting appropriate program parts in the template of the general search algorithm. The program parts are prepared as an abstract data type in the tool. (5) The tool adds task implementation knowledge to the problem-directed inference program, and completes the search module. (6) The tool integrates each search module and completes the knowledg processing system. The tool is applied to construction of three types of scheduling systems. They are a maintenance scheduling system, construction scheduling system, and job-shop scheduling system. By using the proposed tool, problem-directed inference programs are produced. Comparing the inference programs implemented by using a conventional tool, equivalent performance and a two-thirds reduction in program step numbers required as the programmers' input are realized.

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  • Satoshi SATO
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 592-600
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    Traditional rule-based machine translation has a serious problem, called knowledge acquisition bottleneck. To overcome the problem, Nagao proposed Translation by Analogy or Example-Based Translation. The basic idea of it is very simple: translate a source sentence by imitating a translation example of a similar sentence. According to this idea, we propose MBT1, which is a method to select the best target words in verb-frame translation based on examples. MBT1 consists of three components: translation database, definition of metric, and translation process. Translation database is the collection of translation examples. A translation example is a pair of verb-frames. A verb-frame is one verb with several nouns as its arguments. We define a metric between a translation candidate (a pair of verb-frames) and a translation example in the database. In the translation process, MBT1 generates all candidates of translation. For each candidate, MBT1 retrieves the most similar translation example and get the score of the candidate based on the metric. MBT1 uses the score to evaluate the correctness of the candidate. We implemented MBT1 in English-Japanese translation.

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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Other
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 601
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Other
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 602
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 603-606
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 607
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    Download PDF (113K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 608
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    Download PDF (112K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 609
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Other
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 610-611
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 612-618
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 619-621
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 622-626
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 627-628
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages b001-b010
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Cover page
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages c004
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Cover page
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages c004_2
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Table of contents
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages i004
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Table of contents
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages i004_2
    Published: July 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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