Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence
Online ISSN : 2435-8614
Print ISSN : 2188-2266
Volume 6 , Issue 5
Showing 1-35 articles out of 35 articles from the selected issue
Print ISSN:0912-8085 until 2013
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Preface
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 629
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Minoru KANEHISA, Katsumi NITTA, Akihiko KONAGAYA, Hidetoshi TANAKA
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 630-640
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Osamu WATANABE
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 641-650
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Takenobu TOKUNAGA, Kentaro INUI
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 651-662
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Masayasu ATSUMI
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 663-673
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    In the temporal reasoning, it is necessary to cope with incomplete knowledge since continuance or changes of occurrences usually depend on uncertain situations or have exceptions. Incomplete continuance of occurrences is usually treated by the default rule which assumes that occurrences can continue so long as they are consistent. Incomplete changes of occurrences can be treated by assuming and testing what changes can happen consistently. In this paper, we present the assumption-based temporal reasoning system VATS which deals with the above incompleteness. VATS has the following characteristics; (1) It selects a causal view from a causal view network in order to control a focus of attention in assumption-based temporal reasoning. A causal view is a kind of frame structure that consists of selected assumption formation rules and selected causal and temporal constraints for a given goal and premises. (2) It infers a hypothetical world which is represented in terms of a set of occurrences that are interrelated by causal and temporal constraints. Each occurrence has a temporal point or a temporal interval it occurs or continues. (3) Possible changes are assumed by the default assumption formation rules or the selective assumption formation rules. An assumption formative set is used for forming assumptions selectively. (4) A minimal set of minimal inconsistent environments is used for making consistency maintenance of hypothetical worlds efficient. It is also used for selecting more plausible hypothetical worlds by adding temporal constraints. This paper shows the occurrence-based hypothetical world representation and the view-guided assumption-based temporal reasoning algorism of VATS.

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  • Makoto IWAYAMA, Takenobu TOKUNAGA, Hozumi TANAKA
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 674-681
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    This paper presents a computational model for understanding metaphors using the measure of salience. Understanding metaphors is a property transfer process from a source concept to a target concept. There are two questions arise in the transfer process. One is which properties are more likely transferred from the source concept to the target concept, and other is the representation of highlighting the transferred properties. We use the measure of salience to answer these questions. The measure of salience represents how typical or prominent a property is. In understanding metaphors, typical properties are easy to transferred from a source concept to a target concept, so the measure of salience can measure the transferability of properties. And, the transferred properties become typical properties in the target concept, so highlighting the properties can be represented by increasing the measure of salience. For now, many researches have used the measure of salience in the process of understanding metaphors^^<(l)-(4)>, but they have not described precisely how the measure of salience is calculated. This paper presents the method of calculating the measure of salience based on the information theory. We use the redundancy of a property and the distribution of the redundancy among similar conceps. We think this method meet well with the human's intuition.

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  • Kou MUKAINAKA
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 682-689
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    This paper presents a model of machine translation system that uses examples to translate idioms, collocations and other expressions requiring structural changes. The evaluation result of the model is also presented. It is difficult to find an example that fits for source text exactly. If an example has similar context to source text, the phrase of the example in a target language can be used for target text. So, the model searches an example dictionary for an example that is used in similar context, and adapts the example. An idiom or collocation in the target language corresponds generally to more than one expression in the source language. If the expression in an example has the same meaning as that in source text, it is desirable to convert the expression to fit for the source text and use the example. In the model, some words or phrases in examples are written by general expressions. That is, nouns are expressed as words having some attributes, and verbs are expressed as words that require some cases or have some action attributes. Idioms, collocations and other expressions that require structural change in an example, must agree with the expression in the source text but other phrases that can be translated by general rule can be expressed by general expressions. It is better to use an example when input text has the same meaning with the example, even if it has the different expression on the surface. So, the model accepts the difference between input text and an example. The allowable differences are synonym, the conversion between numeral and ordinal, and the expressions that can be converted to equivalent expression. The model refers to the example dictionary in the phases that are provided between conventional phases and uses words and semanitics structures of examples prior to analysis and generation by general rules. The model is evaluated using about 115,000 examples, and the hit rate of examples and effective rate of expression conversion are calculated. The hit rate of examples is 65% in the sentences that require structural change or have collocations. The hit rate is about 1.7 times as much as it used to be by the use of expression conversion.

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  • Nobuhisa MIYAKE, Atsushi TOGASHI, Shoichi NOGUCHI
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 690-700
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    We have implemented an amalgamated language, AMLOG which has integrated the features of logic and functional programming languages. The programmer can write programs more naturally in the amalgamated language. However AMLOG in its primitive form doesn't have a good debugging environment. The AMLOG has a tracer for debugging which gives programmers a trace of the execution steps. But the tracer output does not reflect the execution model of AMLOG, and is difficult to understand. In this paper, we propose a three-layer model which is the execution model of AMLOG. A block of execution process is represented by a box. The flow of execution, e. g. backtracking and retrying, is represented by arrows and the arrangement of boxes. We have implemented an execution monitor which is based on the three-layer model, using bitmap display. The monitor displays the execution graphically in a direct fashion. By using the monitor, a programmer can easily follow the execution flow and is able to carry out debugging in a top down style.

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  • Kazuhiko NISHIMURA, Kazunori MATSUMOTO
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 701-709
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    In this paper, we describe techniques to improve efficiency of problem solving systems. Abstraction has been expected to be one of the most applicable method for that purpose. ABSTRIPS is a typical problem solver which introduces the idea of abstraction into STRIPS. It solves a problem hierarchically by considering relative importance of operator's preconditions. That is, firstly ABSTRIPS solves the problem in the most abstract space, and then it successively embodies the answer. We have to assign critical values to all preconditions before abstract problem solving. These values are used to define abstraction hierarchy. Some heuristics are proposed to assign them. However we can not expect fully automatic assigning, that is, user assistance is required. We propose new method to assign the critical values automatically. This method consists of following four stages: (1) generating operator taxonomic hierarchies from a set of primitive operators. In this case, two operators which share one or more literals on their add lists are allocated in the same hierarchy. (2) assigning provisional critical values to operator's preconditions according to their locations in the hierarchy. (3) analyzing difficulty of achieving each precondition, and (4) determining final critical values by considering both provisional values and difficulty. We have been implemented ABSTRIPS-like problem solver to show the effectiveness of our method. Final part of this paper, we investigate the exprimental results and identify some problems to be solved in the future works.

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  • Masayuki NUMAO, Masamichi SHIMURA
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 716-724
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    Analogical inference systems have generally used similarity between precedent examples and a target, both of which are described using a knowledge representation such as a semantic network. To find similarity, such systems have to enumerate pairings between nodes in semantic networks. This enumeration causes problems since it results in a combinatorial explosion of pairings. In this paper we propose that analogical inference be a combination of generalizing examples and applying them to a target. This method infers the target without using similarity, but is still different from conventional learning methods in that it determines the generalization referring to the target. We use explanationbased learning to acquire a concept, which is extracted and generalized based on a partial structure of an explanation. This process need not enumerate pairings since it extracts an explanation from causal relations in examples. Although Winston's framework regards causal relations as the most important, it does not refer to any explanation explicitly, and it requires pairings, which leads to a combinatorial explosion. In contrast, our method enables efficient analogical inference and constructive generation of a result, rather than checking a given result or selecting one from given choices. We demonstrate our method by using the cup example and the geometric analogy.

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  • Hirokazu TAKI, Satoshi TERASAKI
    Type: Technical paper
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 725-733
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    This paper describes a proposal guided knowledge acquisition support system which generates and proposes candidates of knowledge by induction. This system is an enhanced version of the interactive knowledge acquisition support system EPSILON/One. This system elicits basic information from an expert, makes hypothesis, and modifies target knowledge with the expert. Some of the major problems of using induction is that it requires a large amount of computing power and creates numerous hypotheses. In order to make hypotheses by induction more efficient, the forms of hypotheses must be limited. EPSILON/One has a knowledge representation, Expert Model, which consists of operations. The operations are limited to seven types which are derived from analyzing real diagnostic knowledge bases. The system realizes efficient inductive hypothesis generation by using this limited numbers of operation representations. This papers discusses inductive operation presumption algorithms and interactions between the expert and the system in this architecture.

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  • Katsumasa MATSUURA
    Type: Research note
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 734-738
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    A new method for construction of multi-layered neural networks capable of direct and inverse Fourier transformations of an arbitrary wave form is developed. In this method, a direct or inverse Fourier transformation neural network with one point input is arranged individually at every point of the sampled wave, or at the real or imaginary part of every complex spectral line, respectively. Each network is then individually trained using a certain number of input data for expressing an arbitrary wave form or spectrum. The direct and inverse Fourier transformations concerning the entirety of an arbitrary wave form or spectrum are obtained by superposing the transformation results by the individual point networks already learnt enough. The neural networks constructed in this way successfully achieved the direct and inverse Fourier transformations of a wave sampled at 16 points.

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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Other
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 739
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 741
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 742-743
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 744
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    Download PDF (115K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Corner article
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 745
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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    Download PDF (98K)
  • Type: Other
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 746
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 747-751
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 752-766
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 767-770
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 771-776
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 777-781
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 782
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 783
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 784
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 785-786
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Other
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 739_2-740
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 782_2
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Activity report
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages b001-b014
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Other
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages b015-b020
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Cover page
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages c005
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Cover page
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages c005_2
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Table of contents
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages i005
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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  • Type: Table of contents
    1991 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages i005_2
    Published: September 01, 1991
    Released: September 29, 2020
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