The acupuncture points are quite important in Oriental medicine. They have been known for about 3, 000 years. However, the points have not been ascertained morphologically to date. In this experiment, the acupuncture points such as Hoku (LI-4), Taichong (LV-3) and one of the auricular points, which were at first obtained morphologically using a Rydoraku point-searching apparatus (12V, DC), and then needled perpendicularly with acupuncture needle No. 30, staining the tip of the needle with carbon black ink to mark the point localizations. Small pieces of skin were marked with ink cuts and fixed with 10% neutralized formalin, and then serial paraffin sections were made for light microscopical observations. The acupuncture points seemed to be the places at which the electric resistance was usually lower than at other non-acupuncture points. Non-acupuncture points with high electric resistance were also taken for the control (Fig. 7). From the light microscopical observations of the acupuncture points, a special complex was found (Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). It was composed of a nerve fiber running horizontal to the surface of the skin, some blood and lymph vessels and a small amount of collagenous fibers. These elements seemed to be a plexus forming a complex, and the complex was usually located within the subcutaneous tissue. On the other hand, such complex had not been observed at the non-acupuncture points so far (Fig. 7). In summary, it is postulated that the acupuncture points seem to be in some way related to the nervous elements, the vascular system and collagenous fibers. Fig. 1. A schematic illustration of acupuncture points, postulated by Niboyet (1979). Fig. 2. Histological view of the acupuncture point of Hoku (LI-4) in the left foreleg of the mouse. X70 Fig. 3. At the point of Hoku (LI-4) in the right foreleg of the mouse, one can also see a complex of nervous elements (N) and the vascular system (V). X70 Fig. 4 This light micrograph also shows a complex of nervous elements (N) and vascular system (V) in Taichong (LV-3) of the left hind leg of the mouse. X150 Fig. 5. There is also observed a complex of the nervous elements (N) and vascular system (V) in Taichong (LV-3) of the right hind leg of the mouse. X150 Fig. 6. A complex of the nervous elements (N) and vascular system (V) is also observed in an acupuncture point of the mouse auricle. X150 Fig. 7. A complex of the nervous elements and vascular system is not observed in the non-acupuncture point area of the mouse foreleg. X70
It is well known that acupuncture has a curative effect for some chronic diseases such as neuralgy or lumbago, if it is administered carefully in terms of the patient. However, the mechanism of acupuncture's effectiveness remains obscure. In this experiment, using mice of the ICR strain, the protective effect of acupuncture against mouse liver injury was investigated following the administration of carbon tetrachloride. Experiment I (Fig. 1): One hundred mice were divided into two groups. The first group of animals was administered carbon tetrachloride ip on day 18. The second group was treated a total of six times with acupuncture every three days from the first experimental day to day 18 at the points of Tienshu (ST-25), Feishu (BL-13), Hsinshu (BL-15), Kanshu (BL-18), Pishu (BL-20), Weishu (BL-21), Chimen (LV-14), Chihai (CV-6), Chungwan (CV-12) and Chuchueh (CV-14) (Figs. 3, 4). Fllowing the administration of carbon tetrachloride, the mouse mortality was checked. All of the animals of the first group (carbon tetrachloride administration only) died within 72 hours, but only 84% of the animals of the second group (carbon tetrachloride and acupuncture treatments) died (Fig. 2). Experiment II (Fig. 1): One hundred and 60 mice were divided into 5 groups. The first group was used for the control (Fig. 5). The second group was injected ip with carbon tetrachloride of 3.47g/Kg BW on day 17. The third group was given a total of 5 acupuncture treatments every three days at the points as mentioned in Experiment I, and carbon tetrachloride was injected as in the second group. The fourth group was injected a total of 5 times with 0.0004mg levallorphan (an anti-opiate) every three days. The fifth group was given acupuncture treatments like the third group; levallorphan was injected before the acupuncture, and also carbon tetrachloride was injected on day 17 as in the second or third, group. The animals were sacrificed on day 20, and the liver tissues were treated as usual and then observed by electron microscopy. The hepatocytes of the second group (carbon tetrachloride only) were heavily injured, and contained, a number of fat droplets, autophagic vacuoles and degenerated cell organelles (Figs. 6, 7, 8, 9). On the other hand, the hepatocytes of the third group (carbon tetrachloride and acupuncture treatments) were almost normal, and without any cell injury (Figs. 10, 11, 12). The hepatocytes of the fourth group were not injured with levallorphan, suggesting that levallorphan has no cell toxicity (Fig. 13). The fifth group showed hepatic cell injury similar to the second group (Fig. 14). Levallorphan thus might have an antagonistic action for the acupuncture effectiveness. In summary, it was concluded that acupuncture has a protective effect against liver injury caused by carbon tetrachloride administration, and prevents not only animal death but also hepatic cell injury. The mechanism of the acupuncture effectiveness is speculated to be as follows. The stimulus of the acupuncture is conducted to the central nervous system and then the central nervous system secretes some neural hormonal substances such as endorphin or enkephalin, which might regulate or accelerate the autonomic nervous system, and then the viscerae functions are accelerated and thus might repair the injuries or dieseases. In the above-mentioned experiments, levellorphan may have disturbed the secretion or action of endorphin or enkephalin from the central vervous system, which was said to be secreted following the acupuncture treatments, resulting in the ineffectiveness of acupuncture treatments. Fig. 1. Schedules of the experiments. Fig. 2. The mortality rate of mice following carbon tetrachloride administration (Experiment I). Fig. 3. Acupuncture points on the mouse belly. Fig. 4. Acupuncture points on the mouse back. Fig. 5. A part of the hepatic cell from a normal mouse. The nucleus (N) and nucleolus (NO) are morphologic
Originally immunity started as the phenomenon of preventing disease, thus it is a form of preventative medicine. Modern immunology which is making rapid progress in the field of basic medicine, constitutes one of the various biological response systems present in the human body which define the self and non-self. It is a basic response system which maintains the biological homeostasis of the body. The immune response system is closely related with the various other biological response systems and is profoundly related with the onset and pathogenesis of diseases. It is becoming clear that acupuncture therapy brings about biochemical, phamacological and neurophysiological changes in the human body. In this study we examined immune responses due to acupuncture and the influences they exerted directly and indirectly on the immune response.
In recent years there is much talk of prevention or early detection of diseases. The number of persons undergoing complete general testing and physical examinations has increased. However among the patients coming to the acupuncture clinic are persons who upon undergoing physical examinations at hospitals were told results showed nothing wrong and yet they continue to experimence subjective or non-objective symptoms. Concerned with this problem I checked the distribution of patients coming to the clinic. 1, 838 persons from among the 2, 297 new patients who visited our clinic during the 5 years, 2-months from Oct. 1, 1973 to Dec. 30, 1980 who had been diagnosed by a physician were used as subjects of this examination. Results indicated that of these 1, 838 persons 258 or in other words, 14% of the subjects were experiencing subjective or non-objective symptoms. I reported on the 1, 649 patients who visited the clinic in 1974, however, as together with this discussion some interesting results concerning the patient distribution of non-“subjective and non-objective symptom” patients were obtained, I'd like to also report on these.
In this day and age with the complicated, rapidly changing society and living environment there has been a tendency for the number of half-healthy persons, that is those with a syndrome of indefinite symptoms, to increase. This is not a serious syndrome but for the sufferer there is a desperate search for a cure for his pain, thus jogging, calesthenics and other various forms of excercise therapy, brown rice, vegetable and other diet therapies and finally various types of “point” therapies using acupoints and meridians, the roots of acupuncture-moxibustion therapy are becoming popular. Considering acupuncture-moxibustion therapy as a therapeutic measure and approach which contributes to the primary prevention of diseases we examined by questionaire just how much of a role it plays. In addition, I examined acupuncture-moxibustion therapeutic results for this indefinite complaint syndrome using as a basis the results obtained at Osaka Medical College Anesthesioology Dept. Pain Clinic. Two points were selected as subjects of examination: 1. Normally experienced indefinite symptoms (shoulder stiffness, insomnia, headache, eye fatigue, menstrual disorder). 2. Health methods used to combat these indefinite symptoms Using the results of the above investigation I will examine the position of acupuncture-moxibustion therapy in preventative medicine especially as a primary preventative.
Using the peripheral-visceral reflex, one of the peripheral-autonomous reflexes as a clue we grappled with the problem of clarifying or explaining the acupuncture-moxibustion therapeutic effect meridians, acupoints, etc. At this time using principaly the peripheral-cardiac reflex and the circulatory function as an index, a survey examination concerning the differences in peripeheral responses with acupuncture and moxibustion was conducted. Method: Subjects: 32 healthy female and male adults between the ages of 22-40. Method of Observing Physiological Phenomena: Changesd in heartbeat were observed using an electrocardiograph (manufactured by Fukuda Electronics Inc.) and a polygraph (Nihon KODEN, Inc.). The pulse wave, respiration curve, etc., were simultaneously measured and recorded on the polygraph. Based on the above the patient was alowed to recline until the heart beat stabilized then stimulation was administered. Area and Method of Stimulation: The point of stimulation in all but 2 cases was HC-4. In 2 cases 14 points over the entire body were used. Moxibustion stimulation involved 3 cones of moxa weighing 3.65mg. each. For acupuncture stimulation 1.3 TSUN No. 3 silver needles (manufactured by Aoki) were inserted to a depth of 2cm. and pecking at a rate of once per second administered for 30 seconds. Results: The results of acupuncture-moxibustion stimulation at left HC-4 were that with acupuncture the heart beat decreases and with moxibustion stimulation quickens. In the individual 32 cases when these opposite responses of decreased pace with acupuncture, increased pace with moxibustion occured there was indicated a significant occurence with a danger rate of 1%.
Pulse diagnosis is one of the most important diagnostic method in Chinese medicine, however, the expression of this diagnostic technique is subjective and cannot be in this form compared with modern medicine. Many attempts to describe the pulse conditions objectively have been made, however, there has been little success. Any wave can be described by the frequency distribution of the energy, according to Fourier. Using this method, we tried to objectify the pulse wave. For the recording of the pulse, a pick-up (Nihon Kohden TF-11S) was fixed in a place at the radial artery and pressure applied using a micromanipulator. The output was put into a data recorder through an amplifier and monitored by an oscillograph. Data was then processed using computer (HITAC-20) and power spectrums were displayed. In the above described method, the minimum and maximum force which should be applied to detect the pulse wave varied from person to person. The range was from 10-50g and 400-600g for minimum and maximum, respectively. This can be considered as individual variations of so called “floating and sunken” pulses. The best shape of pulse waves were obtained with 100-300g of pressure. A typical power spectrum of pulse wave was composed of standard sine curve (approximately 1Hz, basic wave) and its harmonics. Sharply peaked waves occured when the basic component was great and oppositely, the flatter waves contained abundant of harmonics. The ratio of the basic wave to its harmonics represents the characteristics of wave pattern, i. e., objective description of pulse conditions can be made. We will then, investigate the correspondence of the recordings to the expressions in the Chinese medicine, influences of acupuncture, etc.
One of the idiosyncracies of Oriental medicine is pulse diagnosis, the detailed stipulation of the pulse of the radial artery from which fullness or emptiness as described in JUNIKEIRAKU one manifestation of the general physical and pathological condition of the body is determined and the treatment points along the meridians, that is the appropriate acupoints decided. In this diagnostic technique the examiner places his index, middle and ring fingers on the wrist of the patient's hand above the radial pulse and by applying weak or strong pressure compares the largeness or smallness of the pulse under each finger tip and so doing determines the fullness or emptiness of the six meridians on each side or the 12 meridians on both sides. In order to make this subjective method of fingertip touch diagnosis objective we used a fingertip size transducer and developed a way of measuring and recording pressure fluctuation changes resulting from the various absolute pressures exerted by the fingertips of the examiner. Method: The pressure transducer used was a semi-conductor curve gauge, 8mm. in diameter capable of indicating up to 500g/cm2 of direct loaded pressure. The input from this one pressure inducer was amplified through different amplifiers, the absolute pressure from DC conversion in one amp, and the pressure variation component from AC conversion in another amp. It was assumed that the pressure load in pulse diagnosis was 100g/cm2 for floating pulse, 200g/cm2 for sunken pulse and in the pressure variation component deficiency was below 5g/cm2 and excess 15g/cm2, and evaluated accordingly. Subjects: Pre-surgery patients and pain complaint outpatients were used as subjects. Measurements was recorded. Results: 1. In most of the cases pulse diagnosis at the 6 areas above the radial artery revealed that centered on the styloid process at areas approximately 1cm. apart different pressure variations were observed. 2. Measurement of the pulse of a pre-surgery stomach cancer patient revealed Stomach and Heart Constructor Excess when the patient was in a reclining position however this reading changed with changes in posture. When the patient assumed a sitting position the pulse showed Stomach Excess however the pressure variation of the Heart Cosntructor decreases. 3. The pressure variation components vary with acupuncture stimulation. 4. In our experience we observed cases in which excess or deficiency of the various meridians varied due to acupuncture stimulation. These variations obeyed the laws of “creation and harming” of the 5 Elements Theory.
Purpose: We believe there are very few therapists who in seeking therapeutic results use simply acupuncture or moxibustion. Most supplement therapy with physical therapy or some other form of therapy. We examined to see whether or not differences in results when acupuncture was used alone or accompanied by physical therapy were discernible. Methods of Observation: From among the charts of patients who visited our clinic during the year 1980 we selected periarthritis of the shoulder, lumbago and motor disturbance of the knee patients, divided them into 2 groups-acupuncture and moxibustion only group, and supplementary treatment (physical therapy techniques including infrared rays, UHF and low frequency therapy) and compared results. The evaluation was based on answers to questionairres circulated 2-3 months after the end of treatment or answers received during telephone interviews. Results: The rate of effectivity of therapeutic results was about the same however the number of treatment periods required was fewer in the supplementary treatment group. Discussion of Results: By supplementing acupuncture-moxibustion therapy with physical therapy techniques the range of diseases to which therapy is applicable is greatly, moreover it became empirically clear from this study that it is possible to quicken results.
Inflammation is a phenomenon of most disease. Western medicine has theoretically defined this phenomenon however it is interpretted as a condition to which the physical science of acupuncture-moxibustion therapy can be applied it can be considered of utmost importance as acupuncture-moxibustion therapeutic results will be heightened and at the same time it will become a fundamental principle for the understanding of these therapeutic effects as well as the foundation for a medical system independent of Western medicine. If inflammation is considered scientifically from an angle different from that of Western medicine as fever or heat, the principles by which stimulation therapy is effective to a degree in the treatment of inflammatory disease becomes clear and a medical system based on stimulation therapy emerges. I will consider inflammation according to the following items and explain the gist of acupuncture-moxibustion therapy. 1. Physical interpretation of inflammation By inflammation is meant that there is fever (heat), if there is an absence of fever there is no inflammation. Even if the fever is not obvious objectively there should be fever in the tissue of the affected area. 2. Conditions for the establishment of inflammation Inflammation begins when there is stimulation and hyperemia. If either the stimulation or the hyperemia is absent inflammation will not develop. 3. The development mechanism of inflammation The cause of disease is continuous stimulation of tissue. A defense response causes hyperemia and consequently fever. 4. Symptoms of inflammation In addition to the 5 major indicators of Western medicine, severe tenderness is a sign of inflammation. 5. Classification according to the kind of stimulation Bacterially-caused inflammation, inflammation caused by chemical matter, traumatic inflammation, inflammation due to physical causes, inflammation due to temperature, electrically caused inflammation, inflammation due to continuous overwork, etc. 6. Characteristics of inflammation Functional excitation of organs, increased secretion, increased tissue formation, conglutination, continuous inflammation, etc. 7. Treatment of inflammation Pacification of stimulation. Induction of blood to a neighboring area for hyperemia. Cold pack or wet compress for fever.