In the present study the deformation and motion of a parachute in the process of inflation are simulated by applying the immersed boundary technique in a fluid-structure coupling solver. It was found from simulated results that the canopy is first inflated in the normal direction to the uniform flow (in the lateral direction), and then its apex is pulled by a vortex ring generated near the canopy's outer surface due to its negative pressure. After the end of this inflation process, the canopy moves in the tangential direction to the spherical surface, the center of which is located at the payload location. This motion is caused by the breakup of an initial axisymmetric vortex, where many vortices are generated from the shear layer. The predicted maximum parachute opening force is twice as large as the payload force in the steady state, which is in good agreement with experiment.
A free piston double diaphragm shock tube with 70 × 70mm cross-section at test section was newly developed for the purpose of investigating nonequilibrium phenomena behind a shock wave. This paper presents the performance of the shock tube and the measurement system newly developed. Experimental investigation to clarify its characteristics was conducted for various operational parameters, such a rupture pressure of the first diaphragm and initial pressures of the low pressure tube, the high pressure tube, and the compression tube. Based on the characteristics experiment, a performance map of the shock tube was obtained by changing the operation parameters. The result shows that the shock tube is capable of generating the shock layer corresponding to the super orbital reentry flight conditions. The newly developed measurement system enables us to obtain the spatial distribution of spectra behind a shock wave with high spatial and time resolution. A description of the measurement system and typical examples of the measured spectra are presented.
A new point mass model of the air vehicle has been developed in our laboratory. This model employs angle-of-attack, side slip angle, bank angle and thrust, as four control variables. The existent three control variables point mass model cannot introduce the winds and active side slip angle control, while this new model can introduce them. This paper explains about the model at first. The model is applied to the YF-16 aircraft and simulations are conducted for two maneuvers as typical examples, which show the effectiveness and the preciseness of this model.
Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) is one of the most promising propellant for near future space transportation rocket engine because of its low cost and fewer handling concerns. However, for LNG propellant, erosion of engine material by sulfur (sulfur attack) and coking by LNG pyrolysis are significant problems in a regenerative cooling passage. In this study, the effects of sulfur attack and coking are experimentally evaluated for material candidates such as Inconel600, SUS316, Hastelloy-X, and some copper alloys. In the sulfur attack tests, EPMA and Raman analysis indicate that metallic sulfide can be observed only on the surface and XRD analysis indicates that sulfur attack are hardly recognized for all of material in the test conditions. In coking tests, it is clear that coking of methane with 5% propane can proceed more than those of pure methane. The thermal decomposition temperature is significantly decreased by catalytic effects of Ni in engine material. The results of coking tests will be included in the design criteria of combustion chamber, nozzle of the LNG rocket engines.
The aim of this paper is to apply a multi-objective optimization generic algorithm (MOGA) to the conceptual design of the hypersonic/supersonic vehicles with different cruise Mach number. The pre-cooled turbojet engine is employed as a propulsion system and some engine parameters such as the precooler size, compressor size, compression ratio and fuel type are varied in the analysis. The result shows that the optimum cruise Mach number is about 4 if hydrogen fuel is used. Methane fuel instead of hydrogen reduces the vehicle gross weight by 33% in case of the Mach 2 vehicle.