Since Aug.1, 2008, ELV (Experimental Law Variations) comprising of 13 articles have been experimentally implemented worldwide on all levels. The objective of this research is to investigate on the changes in the choice of play and game aspect following the implementation of ELV and to look for the effective strategies under ELV, by comparing games on the world top level and the domestic top level played in 2007 and 2008. The result was, a change in the game aspect was observed, in such as the increase of kicks in smaller degrees. We also observed several strategies which may possibly be effective under ELV, like the collapse of a maul, a scrum following it, or defense from line-out.
The objective of this study is to obtain basic materials for constructing an ideal instruction method for baseball players at junior high schools. For this purpose, we conducted questionnaire survey, targeting university baseball players, concerning baseball activities in junior-high school days comparing junior-high school's clubs (hereinafter “school clubs”) with hard-ball baseball club teams (hereinafter “hard-ball clubs”), to make it clear how the reality of athletic environment and actual instruction have influenced their athletic competence today. The target of the survey was baseball players belonging to university hard-ball baseball teams. The target teams are, one university in Tohoku District, three universities in Kanto District, one university in Hokuriku District; five universities in total, all of which belong to the top league of each league; the target persons are 340 players from freshmen to juniors of universities. The result of the survey has revealed the following. As for the instructors, the baseball career of those at hard-ball clubs tends to be higher in level. The number of instructors also tends to be larger for hard-ball clubs. As for the practice environment, hard-ball clubs tend to be more environmentally advantageous in terms of the number of balls and availability of a dedicated baseball ground. As for practice methods, it seems that basic practice like “sacrifice bunt”, “long toss”, and “half”tends to have been done more frequently at school clubs. On the other hand, the practice that simulated actual game conditions, like “free batting”, “seat batting”, and “game knock” tends to have been done more frequently for ex players at hard-ball clubs. As for the effect on present status affected by the baseball life in junior-high school days, more ex players at hard-ball clubs seem to consider that they make the best use of the technique and strategic instruction acquired in junior-high school days.