Cause of unsatisfactory preparation in the field of gastric cytology are studied from many elements. Most important elements are, nature of cell materi als, centrifuging technics, technic for smear method, fixation technics, fixative solutions, and duration of fixation etc. i. If washing material contains a great deal of mucin, pumping is needed to solve mucin, and then, collection of cells are taken from median layer of tube, and smear will be made up in X-style (see photo.). ii. Bloody material have to be centrifuged in high speed and to be collected from ober layer, if centrifugation is done in low speed, collection of cells must be taken from lower layer, Smear me thod needs W-style (see photo.). iii. If material contains bile, all handling have to be carried as possible as rapid. iv. If material contains a great deal of food sedimeut, material will be filtered by gauze, and then collection of cells have to be taken from ober layer of tube v. Hyperaciditic material must be handled as possible as rapid.
Phagocytic activity by means of carbon particle method of ascitic effusion are examined. There are 2 types of phagocytic phase. 1) Carbon particles are found mainly in peripheral part of cytoplasma. Defect of carbon film outer side of cytoplasma which contain many particles are found. 2) Carbon particles can not be found in peripheral part of cytoplasma, but recognized mainly in Go lgi area. Defect of carbon film outer side of cytoplasma can not be found. 3) Activity of acid phosphatase of phagocytic cells in effusion shows intensive reaction. But after examination of positive phagocytic test, acid phosp hatase reaction shows decreasingly weak reaction. It is interesting that cells which have low phagocytic reaction remain the moderate enzyme reaction. These reaction is found mainly in Golgi area. 4) By the serial observations of acid phosphatase reaction, there are different finding of enzyme activities between the diffuse type and Golgi localized type. 5) By the serial observations of acridine orange fluore.Ecence, concentration of dye tray be carried out in Golgi area. By these reason, carbon particles mainly recog nized in Golgi area may be taken as a kind of “pinocytosis”.
Squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus, oralcavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus are studied from the view point of cytomorphological characte ristics. There are various kinds of cancer cells. Organspecifity of morphological characteristics are found, and morphological differences of case by case are found in same organ. Cells which are constantly recognized in all organs and in all caseshave green cytoplasma (Papanicolaou staining), round shaped nucleus and have large round nucleolus. Perinuclear hallo is constantly found in sharply demarcated style. This is an important point to differentiate from adenocarcinoma cell.
Ten cases of oat cell carcinoma were studied cytologically, histologically and electron microscopically. Exfoliated tumor cells in sputum stained by Papanicolaou's method were compared with the cell inthe bronchial secretion or material obtained by the TV-brushing method. Two types of tumor cell, i. e., large cell and smallcell, were observed even in the same slide of samematerial from same patient of oat cell carcinoma, and they have also two tinctorially different quality, i. e., one with light stained nucleus (light cell) andthe other with dark stained nucleus (dark cell).Tumor cells of small cell type were found in allcases, while those of large cell type were found in 8 out of 10 cases. These findings were also confirmed by the electron microscopic study. Tumor cells of small cell type have round oroval nuclei, while tumor cells of large cell type haveround or irregularly shaped nuclei. Nuclear borderof these cancer cells is generally thin and nucleolusis not distinct. Pycnotic nucleus which has an appearance justlike india ink spot seems to come from necrotic area. After the Endoxan treatment, the increase in number of the light cells having granular chromatinsubstance and the increase in number of the darkcells having india ink spot were observed, and thisfinding is appeared to be useful for the evaluationof cancer chemotherapy.