Die vorliegende Arbeit sollte uberblickmassig uber den Sport in der Alten Welt informieren. 1. Agypten W. Decker hat eine neue Grundlage fur eine Revidierung der Beurteilung des altagyptischen Sports geschaffen. Er zeigt, dass der griechische agonale Gedanken bei den Agypten prasent war. 2. Mesopotamien W. Knauth betont, dass das Ideal der altiranischen Furstenerziehung das im Schahname gebrauchte Pahlawani war, so wie kalokagathia bei den Griechen. Der agonale Geist jst nicht nur fur die homerische Welt, sondern fur andere archaischen Gesellschaften Charakteristikum. 3. Kreta, Mykene und Homeros Die Technik des Stiersprungs bleibt fur uns noch dunkel. Der Agaisraum im 2. Jahrtausends v. Chr. war auch auf sporthistorischem Gebiet ein Schmelztiegel. Der mykenische Sport verdankt seine Entwicklung vielfaltigen Einflussen von ausserhalb. Der griechische Sport nicht erst mit Homer begann, sondern er auf solchem mykenischen Erbe aufbaute. 4. Die Olympische Spiele Fur den Ursprung der Olympischen Spiele fehlen authentische schriftliche Quellen und archaologische Materialien. M. lammer revidiert die klassische Vorstellung vom Gottesfrieden und zeigt dass Ekecheiria allen Wettkampfern und Zuschauern innerhalb eines festgelegten Zeitraumes ungehinderte Hin-und Ruckreise zu garantieren bestand.
Hokorensyu of the elementary school attached to Nara Women's Higher Normal School is a sports event that was begun by Takeji Kinoshita (1872-1946), head manager of the school. Hokorensyu was held on the last eleven days of January every year. The first nine days were called Mikasayamanobori, and the last day was called Nokai. Mikasayamanobori was training for Nokai, a walking race of about 46km. The purpose of this paper is to describe Nokai in the Taisyo Era. The point that the author will describe in detail is how the approximately 46km, walking race was held. The approach employed in this paper was a descriptive analysis of the management and the style of the course in this walking race. The results of the research are summarized as follows : 1) In 1922 the course of Nokai was constructed parallel to the railway line taking care of the safety of students. This course was the same as the round trip railroad line from Nara to Kyoto. 2) In 1923 the course of Nokai was the same style as the previous year, but the route was changed from Nara to Osaka. However, this round trip course was confronted with several problems such as distance, resting places, and the participants' retention of motivation. 3) In 1924 the course of Nokai was changed to a circular course making use of the development of the railways network in the suburbs of Nara. This circular course was called Minamiyamatoichijun and was used for twenty consecutive years. The problems of the previous course mentioned above were thus solved. As a result, the major characteristics of this walking race were established as a circular course along the railway loop. The reason that this course was realized is that a railways network was developed to transport tourists in the suburbs of Nara. The Unebi Line, between Saidaiji and Kashihara Shrine, opened by Osaka Denkikido Railway Corporation in March, 1923, was major factor in the creation of a round course. The development of this railways network, in addition, was promoted by two factors : one is the industrial growth in the Taisyo Era, and the other is the development of the railroad under private management brought about by the wartime boom of world war I.
This study investigates the nogeiko practiced by the Sekiguchi school of the Takeda family from the second year of Bunka to the end of the Edo Era. It clarifies the changes in practical form during that period and investigates the meaning of those changes as regards the evolution of kenjyutsu into a competitive sport utilizing historical nogeiko materials owned by the Takeda family. The findings of this paper can be summarized as follows : (1) There had been kenjyutsu schools which had adopted shiai, a training method using shinai (bamboo sword) and bogu (protector), before Chuzo Nakanishi, regarded as a pioneer in the reformation of training methods, adopted shinai-uchikomi-geiko during the years of Horeki. Such kenjyutsu schools played a leading role in the advancement of kenjyutsu-taryujiai when it began to spread ; the Sekiguchi school of the Takeda family was one such kenjyutsu school. (2) In the practical form of this school there were definite changes from the second year of Bunka to the end of the Edo Era as follow : a) Kata disappeared from practice and only matches were held. b) The format of matches which imitated actual fighting or which utilized traditional tactics was replaced by one which was simpler and more sportlike. c) Tosen, a duty which had been reserved for only a few kenjyutsu disciples of highest rank, came to be performed by those in each rank, including the lowest rank of the school. d) The nogeiko had been practiced by the Sekiguchi school as its own special event. But later they came to be practiced by several kenjyutsu schools gathered at one place. (3) As a background to such changes in the nogeiko, there were two factors. One was that there were qualitative changes in kenjyutsu itself, that is to say, its transformation into a competitive sport. The other was gokenbun, inspection by clan officials, adopted as a policy by clan rulers in order to promote development of the martial arts because of the tense social situation during the latter part of the Edo period.
The paper aims to discuss the ethnic play and games of Inuit of Inuqujuak village, Quebec, Canada, from the view point of acculturation. The date is mainly the oral information given by Inuit informants when the anthropological field work was done by the author in December 1995. Followings were obtained, 1. 12 out of the 30 items (boxing, archery, wrestling, rope skipping with a float, vertical jumping in a Igulu, keep away games, jumping high kick, finger pulling, ear pulling, mouth pulling, arm pulling and neck pulling) disappeared from 1960s to 1980s. 2. Most of the disappeared items related strongly to the hunting which was a main traditional economics of Inuit, so the disappearance seems to have followed the economic change. 3. In those days when the Inuit traditional life operated, homes and regional play meetings worked as a transmit medium of play and games among generations. As the permanent residing proceeded, however, they worked no more effectively, and TV took the place partly instead. The alternative transmit mediums were not created yet in Inuqujuak when the author did his field work.