This study aims to clarify regional aspects built by supporting systems of the sports industry
through the establishment of prefectural branches of the National Physical Training Association.
This study examined, 1） the process of establishment of prefectural branches, 2） the actual conditions
of establishment as seen from the observation of the IBARAKI Physical Training Association,
and clarified the following aspects.
1） The National Physical Training Association promoted the establishment of the prefectural
branches through the enactment of Article 14 of official branch regulations and examples of branch
rules. The establishment of prefectural branches was a matter of priority for the National Physical
Training Association, but the prefectures were pessimistic due to confusion related to organizational
structure and financial aspects. The National Physical Training Association had approved the establishment
of the prefectural branches, except the Tokyo and Toyama prefectural branches, by March
31, 1943. However, as the National Physical Training Association rushed the establishment of prefectural
branches almost all of them have the date of establishment as later than the date of approval.
Contrary to the impatience of the National Physical Training Association, the enthusiastic activities
of the prefectural branches were different depending on the prefectural branch.
2） In addition to the educators, the IBARAKI Physical Training Association was composed of stakeholders
such as the military and police and the Imperial Rule Assistance Association. The management
of the IBARAKI Physical Training Association had been funded by the contributions of these
affiliates. Further, the IBARAKI Physical Training Association planned holding training meetings
and the development of guiding.
As mentioned above, the National Physical Training Association tried to build a nationwide network
grid system through the establishment of the prefectural branches. The prefectural branches
strengthened the system through the close relationships with the affiliated organizations such as
the military and the Imperial Rule Assistance Association. It can be said that such a construction of
a regional level supporting system of the sports industry, the educators and educational institutions
had a certain amount of influence.
The purpose of this study is to examine how the role as well as way of existence of The Badminton
Association （hereafter referred to as the BA）, the first association of badminton in the history, was
transformed in the period of 1893‒1934, since the establishment of BA until the establishment of International
Badminton Federation. It also examines the transition of its international functions, for
which the former had been responsible, to the latter.
The result of this study is summarized as follows.
The BA was established in 1893 by the badminton clubs in the South West England for the purpose
of standardizing the rules set by each club and promoting the game. It increased the number
of its affiliated organizations by activating badminton under the Laws of Badminton. Within England,
local spontaneous activities were boosted and led the autonomous clubs to affiliate with the BA
through its county associations. This brought the BA to establish its substantial role as a national
organization within England. In 1921, the BA established its Regulations for the County Associations
and clarified its federating structure as a national organization in England.
On the other hand, the BA also expanded its affiliated organizations beyond England. In the early
days of the BA federation, the interactions beyond borders of nations initially existed through
personal networks. In 1899, the Ireland Badminton Union （hereafter referred to as IBU） was established
as a national organization which could set its bye-laws in compliance with the Laws of
Badminton and the Regulations of the Badminton Association. Through this establishment, international
matches were organized from 1903; however, these matches were limited to being organized
within the British Isles until the 1920s. In the late 1920s, other national organizations came to be
established outside the British Isles and the international activities were conducted under the jurisdiction
of the BA. Hence, the BA had substantially undertaken the role of an international organization.
With expanding domestic activities within England as well as increased international exchanges,
with qualitative changes in its affiliated organizations, and also with quantitative alternation of its
affiliations in numbers and areas, the BA, under its dual roles as a national association of England
as well as an internationally operating organization, had expanded each of its functions. In dealing
with obstacles and discontents that arose in its federation, the BA had solved these by amending the
Regulations of the Badminton Association in order to adjust appropriately to the actual situations.
As a result, the BA itself found that it was no longer “an association” that connected its affiliated
organizations under its initial “purposes.” Therefore, the BA clearly stated in its Regulations reflecting
its actual operations.
As described above, the BA, which was initially established to standardize the Laws of Badminton
and to widely promote badminton, had transformed itself into an organization inhering two roles of
a national organizing body within England, as well as an international federating organization, following
the widely promotion of badminton under the Laws of Badminton.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of labor negotiation by Japan Professional
Baseball Players Association （JPBPA） in order to capture the change of the status of the players,
who are the important persons concerned in the professional baseball world. This article focuses the
period from 1993, when a free agent （FA） system was introduced to 2004, when the JPBPA went on
strike for the first time in baseball history in Japan.
After introduction of a FA system, the JPBPA continued to succeed in a certain level of improvement
of the working conditions.
And, since 1999, the JPBPA addressed the structural improvement of the baseball world as new
However, the Nippon Professional Baseball Organization （NPB） often made the player’s working
conditions worse without the JPBPA’s recognitions. The worst of them was the baseball alignment
in 2004. The JPBPA engaged in collective bargaining and strike with their legal rights as a labor
union. As a result, they stopped reduction of the number of the clubs, stopped making their working
conditions worse, and obtained the chances of discuss about structural improvements of Japanese
professional baseball with the NPB.
We should pay attention to having gained such achievements by the JPBPA under the condition
which the NPB seems to lead the process of the negotiation.