The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of resolving the issue of jurisdiction in “athletic” from discussions of the Administrative Investigative Committee and the Administrative System Council established for examining this issue. The study focuses on the basic direction of administration and financial adjustment in the party cabinet era. Further, the study aims to clarify what meaning has been given to“ athletic” through these discussions.
The first Kato Cabinet advanced the selection of the Chief of Cabinet Legislation Bureau in anticipation of the administrative and public finance and further repeated the instructions according to which each ministry and agency are required to follow the leadership of the party government. In the background was the recognition that the organizational system of the administration was complicated and fragmented. Due to this, the first and second Kato Cabinet claimed that the general public were being inconvenienced. The Administrative Investigation Committee was established in anticipation of the fact that these administrative problems had to be solved.
The Administrative Investigation Committee was suitably composed to incorporate the Party
Cabinet's intention with respect to the human and organizational aspects. The Chief of Cabinet
Legislation Bureau was in a position enabling him to demonstrate initiative at the Administrative
Investigation Committee. The decision of the Chief of Cabinet Legislation Bureau coincided with the
claim of the first and second Cabinet to emphasize the convenience of the private sector.
From these perspectives, it is possible to understand the deliberations on the jurisdiction of
athletic in the Administrative Investigation Committee. This issue was about whether it was the
Ministry of Education or the Ministry of Home Affairs was responsible for the athletic outside
the school. Opinion of the people related to athletic directed giving the Ministry of Education
the jurisdiction of the athletic. In addition, the Ministry of Education insisted on the educational
significance of athletic, and the Ministry of Home Affairs insisted on the health significance of
athletic. The proposals submitted by the legislative bureau and the remarks of the Chief of Cabinet
Legislation Bureau followed opinion of the people related to athletic. The Administrative System
Council set up by the Tanaka Cabinet succeeded the deliberation of the Administrative Investigation
Committee. The Administrative System Council decided jurisdiction of “athletic” in the Ministry of
The following is a summarization of the above. The Administrative Investigation Committee and
the Administrative System Council are a reflection of the intentions of the party cabinet, and the
jurisdiction of athletic are determined in accordance with these intentions. In this process, athletic
was given educational significance.
People in China experienced unprecedented confusion under the directed political ideology, power
and class struggle in the decade of the so-called‘ Proletarian Cultural Revolution’ during 1966
and 1976. The violence that occurred during the Cultural Revolution left a deep shadow on the
development of sports activities such as football. This paper will explore Liu Qi’s Football Fan’s
Diary（ 1966-1998） as a primary source and use it in an analysis of a new sport history that considers
the political sensitivities of the era.
The contents of Football Fan’s Diary describe the transition of the circumstances of football from
prior to the Cultural Revolution to changes that occurred following it. In particular, the‘ Proletarian
Class Strife’ slogan‘, Friendship First, Competition Second’, caused social confusion. The diary
provides an excellent account of the characteristics and significance of the relationship between
football and politics of the era.
To put an emphasis upon competitive and entertaining aspects in football was not encouraged in
the era. As a result, football was partly separated from the nature of sports as a play. Football was
forced to be a tool through physical education to adapt to the political purpose of implementing the
Under the standardized authoritative value and belief brought by the Cultural Revolution, the
democratic value of sports was suppressed, which eventually caused the delay in the development of
football as modern sports with a‘ play theory’ in China.
Die Gymnastikbewegung, die in den 1920er Jahren anfing, erschien in den 60er Jahren ihre Aufgabe
zu erfüllen und ausgereift zu sein. Aber in den 70er Jahren änderte sich der Anblick der Gymnastik.
Wir können so ein Beispiel in der Medau-Schule sehen.
Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es zu klären, was in der Gymnastik der 70er geschah, mit der
Medau-Schule und dem Zustand der damaligen Gesellschaft, der die Gymnastik umringt, im Fokus.
Dabei soll H. Erbguths und H. J. Medaus “Porträt einer Gymnastikschule” usw. berücksichtigt werden.
H. Medau fasste in “Moderne Gymnastik. Lehrweise Medau” 1967 die Erfolge von der Gymnastikbewegung,
die er mit anderen neuen Gymnastikschulen vorangetrieben hatte, zusammen. Er hielt
die holistische Körpererziehung als Ideal hoch, führte die rhythmische Bewegungserziehung auf der
Grundlage der Körperbildung durch und leitete die Medau-Schule. Sie übernahm in den 70er Jahren
H. J. Medau, der H. Medaus Sohn, Internist und Kardiologe war. Dabei wurde die Medau-Schule
eine Schule für Gymnastik-Ausbildung und Krankengymnastik-Ausbildung. Wir könnten sagen,
daß H. J. Medau die H.Medau-Gymnastik entwickelte und dem Zustand und der Forderung der Gesellschaft,
besonders der Aufforderung der wissenschaftlichen Rationalität anpasste. Aber unter
Berücksichtigung der Tatsache, daß die H.Medau-Gymnastik die Erfolge der Gymnastikbewegung
antritt, könnte das eine große Richtungsänderung von der holistischen rhythmischen Gymnastik
zur der, der physiologischen Richtigkeit den Vorzug gebenden Gymnastik, sein.
This study analyzes newspaper articles in Chinese concerning the 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games
（Tokyo Olympics）. The objective of the study is to clarify the media perspectives of mainland China
and Hong Kong, a region which was under the sovereignty of the U.K., and both of which were
under different political systems. The historical materials examined include articles of “Renmin
Ribao” from mainland China and“ Wenhui Bao” from Hong Kong published in 1964 when the Tokyo
Olympics were held. This study shows that China then non-participating in the Tokyo Olympics
for political reasons. Among them were articles criticizing the IOC and President Avery Brundage
concerning the participation issue of Indonesia and North Korea to the Tokyo Olympics. The study
suggests that the articles, based on the tone of the press that the One China principle had to be
maintained, were published to strengthen Chinese nationalism by politically utilizing the Tokyo
Olympics. The “Wenhui Bao” stayed in line with Renmin Ribao politically, but published a number
of articles covering the Tokyo Olympics including comprehensive reports and objective evaluations
concerning the organization, operation and competitions of the Tokyo Olympics from the perspective
of a region that participated in the Tokyo Olympics.