スポーツ史研究
Online ISSN : 2189-9665
Print ISSN : 0915-1273
最新号
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
  • 2017 年 30 巻 p. 0
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • 村井 友樹, 李 燦雨
    2017 年 30 巻 p. 1-14
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    This study aims to clarify regional aspects built by supporting systems of the sports industry through the establishment of prefectural branches of the National Physical Training Association. This study examined, 1) the process of establishment of prefectural branches, 2) the actual conditions of establishment as seen from the observation of the IBARAKI Physical Training Association, and clarified the following aspects.
    1) The National Physical Training Association promoted the establishment of the prefectural branches through the enactment of Article 14 of official branch regulations and examples of branch rules. The establishment of prefectural branches was a matter of priority for the National Physical Training Association, but the prefectures were pessimistic due to confusion related to organizational structure and financial aspects. The National Physical Training Association had approved the establishment of the prefectural branches, except the Tokyo and Toyama prefectural branches, by March 31, 1943. However, as the National Physical Training Association rushed the establishment of prefectural branches almost all of them have the date of establishment as later than the date of approval. Contrary to the impatience of the National Physical Training Association, the enthusiastic activities of the prefectural branches were different depending on the prefectural branch.
    2) In addition to the educators, the IBARAKI Physical Training Association was composed of stakeholders such as the military and police and the Imperial Rule Assistance Association. The management of the IBARAKI Physical Training Association had been funded by the contributions of these affiliates. Further, the IBARAKI Physical Training Association planned holding training meetings and the development of guiding.
    As mentioned above, the National Physical Training Association tried to build a nationwide network grid system through the establishment of the prefectural branches. The prefectural branches strengthened the system through the close relationships with the affiliated organizations such as the military and the Imperial Rule Assistance Association. It can be said that such a construction of a regional level supporting system of the sports industry, the educators and educational institutions had a certain amount of influence.
  • 鵤木 千加子
    2017 年 30 巻 p. 15-29
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The purpose of this study is to examine how the role as well as way of existence of The Badminton Association (hereafter referred to as the BA), the first association of badminton in the history, was transformed in the period of 1893‒1934, since the establishment of BA until the establishment of International Badminton Federation. It also examines the transition of its international functions, for which the former had been responsible, to the latter.
    The result of this study is summarized as follows.
    The BA was established in 1893 by the badminton clubs in the South West England for the purpose of standardizing the rules set by each club and promoting the game. It increased the number of its affiliated organizations by activating badminton under the Laws of Badminton. Within England, local spontaneous activities were boosted and led the autonomous clubs to affiliate with the BA through its county associations. This brought the BA to establish its substantial role as a national organization within England. In 1921, the BA established its Regulations for the County Associations and clarified its federating structure as a national organization in England.
    On the other hand, the BA also expanded its affiliated organizations beyond England. In the early days of the BA federation, the interactions beyond borders of nations initially existed through personal networks. In 1899, the Ireland Badminton Union (hereafter referred to as IBU) was established as a national organization which could set its bye-laws in compliance with the Laws of Badminton and the Regulations of the Badminton Association. Through this establishment, international matches were organized from 1903; however, these matches were limited to being organized within the British Isles until the 1920s. In the late 1920s, other national organizations came to be established outside the British Isles and the international activities were conducted under the jurisdiction of the BA. Hence, the BA had substantially undertaken the role of an international organization.
    With expanding domestic activities within England as well as increased international exchanges, with qualitative changes in its affiliated organizations, and also with quantitative alternation of its affiliations in numbers and areas, the BA, under its dual roles as a national association of England as well as an internationally operating organization, had expanded each of its functions. In dealing with obstacles and discontents that arose in its federation, the BA had solved these by amending the Regulations of the Badminton Association in order to adjust appropriately to the actual situations. As a result, the BA itself found that it was no longer “an association” that connected its affiliated organizations under its initial “purposes.” Therefore, the BA clearly stated in its Regulations reflecting its actual operations.
    As described above, the BA, which was initially established to standardize the Laws of Badminton and to widely promote badminton, had transformed itself into an organization inhering two roles of a national organizing body within England, as well as an international federating organization, following the widely promotion of badminton under the Laws of Badminton.
  • 阿部 武尊
    2017 年 30 巻 p. 31-40
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of labor negotiation by Japan Professional Baseball Players Association (JPBPA) in order to capture the change of the status of the players, who are the important persons concerned in the professional baseball world. This article focuses the period from 1993, when a free agent (FA) system was introduced to 2004, when the JPBPA went on strike for the first time in baseball history in Japan.
    After introduction of a FA system, the JPBPA continued to succeed in a certain level of improvement of the working conditions.
    And, since 1999, the JPBPA addressed the structural improvement of the baseball world as new movements.
    However, the Nippon Professional Baseball Organization (NPB) often made the player’s working conditions worse without the JPBPA’s recognitions. The worst of them was the baseball alignment in 2004. The JPBPA engaged in collective bargaining and strike with their legal rights as a labor union. As a result, they stopped reduction of the number of the clubs, stopped making their working conditions worse, and obtained the chances of discuss about structural improvements of Japanese professional baseball with the NPB.
    We should pay attention to having gained such achievements by the JPBPA under the condition which the NPB seems to lead the process of the negotiation.
  • 高橋 敏
    2017 年 30 巻 p. 41-51
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    群馬県下には、今日なお上州(上野国)といわれた江戸時代の在村剣術から二五代にわたって受け継が れてきた古武道が確固として命脈を保っている。高崎市吉井町に現存する樋口家と馬庭念流である。兵農 分離の刀狩りで剣術はおろか武器を根こそぎ取り上げられた筈の多胡郡馬庭村に、百姓身分でありながら 道場を構えて根を下ろし、周辺農村から上州一円、北関東、江戸にまで門人を獲得し、最盛期には門人が 数千と豪語された一大流派を築いた。更に明治維新以降の近代化のなかで前代の剣術諸流派が剣道に収 斂・統一される趨勢のなか、脈々と今日まで継承されてきた。そこには江戸時代の上州という風土と社会 が深くかかわっているように思われる。本講は、北関東上州の一農村の田舎剣法から門人数千の一大剣術 流派に発展した馬庭念流を手がかりに二世紀半にも及ぶ未曾有の平和な江戸時代に、身分制度の厚い壁を 破って展開していった武芸について考えてみたい。
     上州、関東においては、兵農分離は身分制度として断行されたが、刀狩りは実施されず、武器の所持、 剣術の継承は禁止されることはなく許容された。樋口家は中世以来の在地土豪の権益を失い、公的には百 姓身分になったが、私的な領域においては姓を名乗り、帯刀し、念流を伝授することは黙認された。要は 在地土豪の念流を継承する郷士と馬庭村百姓の二つの顔を持つことになった。
     馬庭念流は、江戸時代初頭から四代に長命にして剣技・指導力に優れた当主に恵まれ、北関東を中心に 多くの門弟を集め、江戸にまで進出して道場を経営し、一大流派の結社に発展する。門人は百姓町人のみ ならず、高家新田岩松氏、七日市藩前田氏、小幡藩織田氏、支配領主旗本長崎氏の主従にまで門下の列に 加えている。
     なかでも流派念流の結社としての勢力を誇示したのが有名神社の社前において秘剣を披露し、師匠以下 門人名を列記した大額を奉納する儀礼であった。上野四社から江戸神田明神・浅草寺、鎌倉八幡、伊勢外 宮・内宮、遠く讃岐金刀比羅宮にまで足を運び、大枚を投じ奉額している。
     このような現象は念流だけではなかった。千葉・斎藤・桃井の江戸三大道場と謳われた民間剣術流派の 盛業に顕著のように、幕藩領主に囲い込まれ、正統とされた剣術が衰退し、民間の剣術がこれに代わって 勃興していったことと軌を一にしたものであった。いわば幕藩秩序そのままの武士が独占する伝統守旧の 剣術から民間の活性化された在村剣術が掘り起こされて、身分制度の枠を打破して、武芸として百姓町人 までが入門、習練する時代が到来したのである。まさに戦国乱世の殺人剣から幕藩領主の子飼いの指南の 剣術を経て、新たに自衛のため、修行のための武芸に生まれ変わろうとしていた。もちろん武芸の大流行 は、念流が江戸から勢力拡大を図る北辰一刀流千葉周作と伊香保神社掲額をめぐって一髪触発のところま でいったように、諸流派の競合・対立を引き起こすことも多々あった。しかし、大勢は総じて流派間の共 存と連携を深めていったことの方が事実である。幕府法令からは民間の帯刀、剣術は厳禁されているが、 時代の武芸熱は冷めるどころか高揚し、諸流派を渡り歩く武者修行の旅が一般化していく。これを可能に したのが諸流派間を結び、連携する一種のネットワークの形成であったように思う。そこには支配秩序に 直結する武士のみならず姓名、諱まで名乗る武士風体の百姓・町人が多く含まれ、身分制度の壁を越えた 一大武芸の文化ネットワークが広がっていた。
     剣術、武芸の歴史といえば、権力争奪に絡む殺伐とした合戦、暗殺、仇討ち、テロといった殺人剣を類 推する向きが多いが、平和の時代を背景に自己鍛錬の武芸として定着していったことを見落としてはなら ない。近代剣道に転換する素地はつくられていたのである。
  • 福地 豊樹
    2017 年 30 巻 p. 53-55
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • 大久保 英哲
    2017 年 30 巻 p. 57-65
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • 竹谷 和之
    2017 年 30 巻 p. 67-77
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • 板橋 春夫
    2017 年 30 巻 p. 79-86
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • 2017 年 30 巻 p. 99-
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • 2017 年 30 巻 p. 100-
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
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