Studies on the nutrient deficiencies of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in one-year old apple trees (varieties: Jonathan, Ralls and Indo) and in apple seedlings (seedlings of Jonathan and Indo) were carried out using sand culture method in 1954. Nutrient deficiency symptoms and the contents of nutrient elements in the leaves showing symptoms were summarized as follows. 1. Deficiency symptoms Nitrogen deficiency: Lack of nitrogen in the cultural solution resulted in the smaller leaves and the slower terminal growth of the apple trees very quickly. Leaves showed pale yellowish green color, but were neither scorched nor burned. Reddish coloring started on the older leaves and proceeded toward the younger ones, and finally terminal leaves turned to reddish brown. Phosphorus deficiency: Phosphorus deficiency expressed itself in abnormally smaller size of the eaves and slenderness of the new growth. Foliage color was dark green, and later in the season it turned to bronze with purple or brown spottings, or to dull dark purple. Potassium deficiency: Deficiency symptom of potassium appeared on the basal leaves of the current growth at first, and proceeded upwards as the time advanced. Terminal leaves, however, remain-ed normal. Slight marginal chlorosis of grayish yellow green color was followed by marginal scorching. The scorched area of grayish brown color extended into the body of the leaf in some cases. Calcium deficiency: Visible symptom of direct calcium deficiency was not so easily distinguishable as in the cases of other elements. Margin of basal leaves was discolored and burned, its color changing to medium or dark brown. Magnesium deficiency: Symptom appeared on the basal leaves of the current growth at first, and proceeded to younger ones. Prominent feature was yellowing of leaf margin and interveinal portions. Then those portions showed necrosis, and turned to brown. Many of the dead tissues were colapsed finally, as their size grew larger. Basal leaves were defoliated prematurely. 2. The nutrient contents in the leaves which showed the visible deficiency symptoms were as follows: Nitrogen 1.5_??_2.0%, Phosphorus 0.09_??_0.13%, Potassium 0.6_??_1.0%, Calcium 0.6%, Magnesium 0.20_??_0.29%, respectively.
This study was made to find out the “optimum value” as a base of diagnostic techniques, with 11 varieties of apple trees grown under uniform soil condition from 1951 to 1954. Three levels of ammonium sulfate were applied annually at spring; high, medium and none. This paper is concerned with some effects of N nutrition on mineral composition of leaves, growth, yield and fruit quality of apple trees. 1) After 3 years of differential nitrogen fertilization, N nutrition was reflected in leaf N content. 2) The difference of the mineral composition of leaves between varieties was recognized and three groups were found out by leaf N content. 3) With apple trees grown under uniform condition, after 3 years since the difference of leaf N content due to difference in N nutrition was distinguished, a positive relationship between leaf N content and growth, negative between leaf N con-tent and fruit quality has been recognized. 4) It seemed to be difficult to practice the diagnostic technique through the “optimum value” concept of leaf content thought usually up to present.
Recently the alternate bearing tendency has become so detrimental that the investigations for controlling these tendencies are of economical importance for Unshu orange growers in Japan. Flowers of Unshu orange develop from apical meristem, terminal or in the axiles of current shoot. Rare blossom-bud formation on the branches, that nourished the fruits during the previous season, is the cause of low yield, following the abundant fruit production of the so-called on year. These tendencies stimulate interest in the study of blossom-bud formation in the first place. In this report, the time of blossom-bud differentiation of Unshu orange is disputed in various references. The determination of the time of blossom-bud formation by microtechnique is fundamentally an anatomical study, undertaken as a necessary prerequisite to an understanding of the physiology of Unshu orange trees and their responses to the environmental factors. 1. Blossom-bud differentiation in Unshu trees appeared in materials collected March 22, 1956. The second node buds are collected successively for histological study and for the purpose of eliminating the vegetative buds in observation only those taken from the branches whose apical and the third node buds flowered in May are examined. 2. Examination of buds collected from the branches, defoliated on the successive dates beginning on September 20, 1956, failed to show any difference in the time of differentiation. Blossom-bud formation takes place just the same time with the control branches. 3. It is shown with Unshu, Natsudaidai and Navel orange that the formative sign of blossom-bud differentiation is observed only after the meristematic activity has become evident. Histological study of the bud of Unshu orange showed that the first evidence of growth, manifested with daughter cell formation, appeared in materials collected March 22, 1956 and in materials collected March 23, 1957. In Navel orange, the blossom-bud differentiation appeared in the materials collected January 21 and the meristematic activity appeared in the materials collected January 10. The earlier blossom-bud differentiation of Navel is preceded by the earlier begining of the meristematic activity as compared with Unshu orange. 4. It may be concluded that the blossom-bud differentiation of Unshu orange takes place with resumption of meristematic activity, provided with the elevated nutritional level after a long pause of growth during winter.
1. Experiments were carried out in order to investigate the effects of chilling, gibberellin, and ethylene chlorhydrin treatments on the dormant bud of Yozaemon variety of udo, Araria cordata THUNB. 2. Roots of udo, cultured in Ibaragi city, Osaka prefecture were grubbed up for four times at intervals of one month from the latter part of September 1954, and after the chilling treatment for 4 weeks at about 4°C., they were set in a hot bed which was held at 27°C. The untreated showed, that under the natural field condition the dormancy of bud was broken toward the end of December, and the chilling treatments were very effective to break the dormancy. 3. Treatments of lanoline paste containing 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0% of gibberellin on the dormant buds of udo grubbed up on November 10, 1957, were also very effective to break the dormancy, and especially, the 1.0% treatment showed the best result. 4. Soaking treatments of udo roots in the ethylene chlorhydrin solution (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0%) for 30 minutes were not so effective as the gibberellin treatments.
The mechanism of functional disorder caused by treatments with MH, KCN, acetaldehyde and/or by enclosing in desiccator was studied with onion bulbs (Yellow Danvers Flat) during the storage period. The experimental results are outlined as follows; (1) In the tissues received fungal infection and functional disorder, the accumulation of ethyl alcohol and acetaldehyde were found, and the acetaldehyde reaction with SCHIFF's agent was strongly positive in the bulbs injured severely. (2) The total sugar content was decreasing with the advance of disorder, and the decrease of sugar content was always lower in different degrees, when sudden disorder was induced by artificial treatments above mentioned. (3) The total content of ascorbic acid was little decreasing during the development of functional disorder, whereas l-ascorbic acid was oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid. (4) With increasing degree of disorder, the inceased O2 uptake and CO2 output were evident in the disk part, both reaching to the peak and then rapidly decreasing to an extent much lower than the normal material. (5) The variations of the activity of catalase and peroxidase in the disk part were showing the same tendency as that of the gas exchange pointed out in (4). (6) The acetaldehyde of certain concentration inhibited the dehydrogenase activity in disk part, in vitro as well as in vivo. (7) Judging from the results given above, it appears that the onions stored under such environ-mental condition in which the dehydrogenase activity in TCA cycle was inhibited, show an accumulation of acetaldehyde in their tissues and this must be an immediate cause of functional disorder of onions in storage.
The present paper deals with the quantitative analysis of tomato fruit pigments which may be influenced by environmental and cultural factors, especially with procedures of the measurement. Two varieties, such as Matsudo Ponderosa and Kurihara were used. (1) In analizing pigments the column chromato-graphic method was used, in which calcium carbonate and active alminum oxide were used as adsorbents and aceton, petroleum benzin and ethyl ether as solvents. (2) In determining the the concentrations of pigments in the extracts, the extinction coefficients were measured for chlorophyll, xanthophyll, carotene and lycopene with wave length 660, 440, 448 and 470mμ respectively, by using the 1cm cell of BECKMANN DU spectrophotometer. The concentrations of each pigment were estimated from extinction coefficients obtained by using standard calibrat ed curve. (3) Total pigments in Matsudo Ponderosa showed much higher contents than those in Kurihara.
It is well known that the Chinese yam grown on sandy soils has good appearence and excellent quality, matures early, and is easily dug up at harvest. Therefore, it is one of the important crops in the sandy soil area of Tottori Prefecture. This report deals with the results of some experiments on the productivity of the seed tubers in relation to their position in the mother tuber from which they were cut, or to their size, on the sandy soil. 1. Pieces of 56.3g each were taken from various parts (from top to base) of long mother tubers, and were planted as seeds. The pieces cut from the top portion of the mother tubers germinated earliest, made most vigorous early vine growth, and produced highest early yield. As the position of the seed piece was far apart from the top, its germination was delayed, its yield of new tubers became less, though there was little difference among several sections of the basal portions. 2. Whole tubers which had been cultivated for one year from the aerial tubers are prefered as seeds, since they are less likely to be rotted after planting than the cut pieces. Tubers of from 37.5 to 150g were compared on their productivity in early harvesting (middle of August). The result revealed that the larger the size of the seed tuber, the higher was the early yield of new tuber, within the range of the size tested. To obtain of good size (750g or more) in middle August, it was desirable to use the seed tubers of larger size (112.5 to 150g).
1. For the purpose of Easter lily breeding, tests of cross-combinations for hybridization have been carried out as a fundamental study of the breeding. 2. Seedlings of first generation hybrids from 36 cross-combinations among 10 principal Japanese and American varieties of Lilium longiflorum, which had been crossed in 1953 were grown. These three-year-old seedlings were examined as to the following characteristics in 1956: stem length, stem color, density of foliage, direction of leaf, leaf shape, leaf color, flower size, time of flowering, severity of virus diseases, frequency of secondary sprouting, and rate of superior seedlings. 3. Superior seedlings suited to pot culture for Easter use were derived from 13 cross-combinations, especially from intravarietal crossing of the variety Saga green-stemmed (probably a type of insiare), Croft×K2002 (one of insulare), Estate×Saga green-stemmed, Ace×K2002, Ace×Tôguro (near the variety Tôgô), and nobile (type B)×Saga green stemmed. On the other hand, giganteum and Croft which have been the leading varieties for Easter use scarcely produced the superior seedlings. 4. The reason for the superiority of Saga green-stemmed, K2002, and Ace as parents of the breed-ing for Easter use is that these varieties have superior characteristics as shown next. Saga-stemmed: Short stem, ascending direction of leaves, broad leaf, dark green foliage, and early flowering. K2002: Short stem, dark green foliage, large size of flower, early flowering, and virus disease resistance. Ace: Short stem, dense foliage, broad leaf, and virus disease resistance. 5. The characteristics of the first generation hybrids other than the stem color and frequency of secondary sprouting were remarkably segregated. In general, the F, hybrid between varieties having-similar characteristics tend to have those of their parents. But the combination between varieties of far different characteristics seems to show remark-able variation, and their peak seems to be in the intermediate position in their characteristics.
1. The normal differentiation and growth of scales, lateral bulblets and flower buds and transferring of new growth point on the bulbs of trumpet narcissus “King Alfred” were investigated. 2. Six to seven scales are formed in one life-cycle, composing a scale group of one generation. Outer two or three of them are not foliage leaves but sheaths (Table 2). 3. The scales usually surround growth point in globular form, but the one just outside of a flower bud is not globular but ligulate (Fig. 1, Fig, 2, and Fig. 5). A mature bulb consists of seventeen to eighteen scales (Table 1). 4. The scale group appears on the ground and forms a leaf group in the year next when its formation has been completed. The scales remain as storage organ and compose the outer part of bulb after upper leaves or sheaths have died away. The average life length of a scale is about two and a half years. 5. From middle April to May about 3 lateral bulblets are formed as axillary buds of the scales which are then actively working as leaf group (Table 3, Fig. 7). They are more frequenty differentiated in the axils of foliage scales than sheaths (Table 5). 6. The scale group of the first generation of new lateral bulblet consists of two foliage scales and 2 sheaths (Table 6). The formation of scale group of the second generation begins soon after the end of the first generation without interruption. 7. Difference in the growth of lateral bulblets is hardly found irrespective of their location. The outer ones sometimes come out of mother bulb after one and a half years of their initial differentiation (Fig. 5). 8. Flower bud is initiated both in a mature bulb and a vigorous two-years old bulblet(Fig. 12_??_Fig. 15). 9. New growth point is differentiated close at the base of the flower bud, opposite to the ligulate scale after 15_??_20 days of flower bud initiation (Fig. 11).
1) Previous works by the authors showed that many factors affected the dormancy of gladiolus corms. The present work reports three years experiments in 1955_??_1957 on the effects of auxin spary on breaking dormancy. The varieties used were as follows: For auxin spray, Bo Peep and Spot Light in 1955, Atom and Snow Princess in 1956 and Snow Princess and Spot Light in 1957. For tryptophane spary, Hector and Valeria in 1955, White Gold and Spot Light in 1956 and Snow Princess and Spot Light in 1957. As the rule, these corms were planted in early April and dug out in late September or October. 2) Auxin (10, 50 and 100 ppm of NAA) upon the leaf of gladiolus was applied once a week during its growth. After digging, the corms were treated at 35°C for 5 days and then at 0°C for 25 days. As the result, the high concentration of NAA inhibited the sprouting in general. However, NAA spray promoted the sprouting in some cases in the lots of temperature treatment. The higher concentrations of auxin were more effective in the earlier stage of dormancy, while the lower ones in the later stage. The corms which were sprayed with NAA showed abnormal root formation and decreased propagation power. Namely, the weight of corm and number of spawn decreased. 3) Tryptophane which is considered to be the precursor of auxin in plant tissue was sprayed as in the case of NAA. In this case, the temperature treatment and addition of ascorbic acid were under-taken. In most cases, a slight promotion of sprouting was seen by the application of tryptophane. The lower concentrations were more effective in the later stage of dormancy as the case of NAA application. 4) The soaking of corms in the aqueous solution of NAA (10, 50 and 100 ppm) for four hours inhibits the sprouting of corms.