1. This experiment was conducted in 1964 to observe the effects of shading on the berry coloration and pigmentation of Muscat Bailey A grapes (black variety). Each cluster was enclosed with either kind of bags made of alminium foil or cheese cloth, receiving only 0 or 25% of natural light intensity respectively. Shading was done at the different stages of berry development of (I) June 4 to July 7 (stage of rapid growth), (II) July 7 to August 5 (stage of depressed growth), (III) August 5 to September 7 (stage of final swell), (IV) June 4 to August 5(I+II), (V) July 7 to September 7 (II+III) and (VI) June 4 to September 7 (I+II+III). 2. Complete shading of clusters at the stage of rapid growth reduced greatly the yield of berries, so that it improved somewhat the coloring of the remained berries, increasing both the contents of the anthocyanins in the skin and the reducing sugars in the juice. Shading at the stage of depressed growth gave only a slight bad effect on the berry color. However, shading at the stage of final swell depressed markedly the berry color, lowering both the contents of the anthocyanins and the reducing sugars remarkably. 3. As berries formed the anthocyanins in their skin even when shaded throughout their growing seasons, the 25% treatment was not so effective as the 0% treatment. The content of anthocyanins correlated highly with the color degree of berries and the content of reducing sugars. In the result of the photodensitometric measurement, seven kinds of anthocyanins were isolated, but their qualitative differences seemed to be not so important as their total amount for the color development of berries.
1. With 3-year-old Muscat of Alexandria grapes grown in pots under vinyl film shelter, the effect of night temperature on the berry growth, yield and quality was observed. Vines were kept at night (6 p.m. to 8 a.m.) in the controlled temperature chambers of 15°, 22°, 28° and 35°C respectively, only for one growth period of shoot elongation (27 days), berry enlargement (20 days) and berry maturity (20 days). 2. In the treatment at the shoot elongation stage, all flower buds shed down at 35°C before blooming. In the treatment at the early stage of berry enlargement, both the berry growth and yield at harvest were the worst at 35°C. Berry shape was almost round at 35°C, and oblong at the lower temperatures than 28°C. 3. From the various standspoints, 28°C was the best temperature at any stage of the growing season. The higher or the lower the treating temperature than 28°C, the more inferior the berry growth, yield and quality. The similar relation existed also between the temperature and pollen germination, showing the highest germination per cent at 28°C.
In the district of Seto Inland Sea, most of virgin soils derived from granite are deficient in phosphorus. This experiment was conducted with grape vines to observe the effects of phosphorus application on these soils. 1. Rooted cuttings of Campbell Early, Muscat Bailey A, Neo-Muscat and Delaware planted in pots with these soils, did not grow well without phosphorus application. The similar trend was also found with rooted cuttings of rootstocks such as Teleki 8B, 3306, 3309, 420-A and Hybrid Franc, though it was not so marked in Hybrid Franc as in other rootstocks. 2. When one-year-old potted Delaware grapes grafted on various kinds of rootstocks were not applied with phosphorus fertilizer, their growth decreased greatly with decreased phosphorus content of a vine based on unit dry matter. However, the former was not necessarily coincided with the latter in the order. A decrease in growth was most remarkable on Teleki 8B and the least on Hybrid Franc.
1. The effects of manganese deficiency on Unshiu orange trees were studied, in relation to: (a)growth of non-fruiting spring shoots ; (b)number of flowers and new spring shoots sprouted from one-year-old non-fruiting spring shoots ; and (c)quality of fruits. 2. Both fifty non-fruiting spring shoots bearing healthy leaves (25ppm Mn in oven dried leaves) and manganese deficient leaves (15ppm Mn in oven dried leaves) were selected on Oct. 25, 1956, from eight 16-year-old Tsujimura Unshiu on trifoliate orange rootstock in the orchard of Kanagawa Citrus Experiment Station. On April 3, 1957, the growth was measured both with one-year-old shoots of normal leaves and those of manganese deficient chlorotic leaves. The number of new shoots sprouted from the above one-year-old shoots and the number of flowers born on the new shoots were also counted with them on May 12, 1957. There were no significant differences in the growth (diameter, length and weight) between the shoots of normal leaves and those of manganese deficient chlorotic leaves. When the old spring shoots bearing manganese deficient chlorotic leaves were compared with those bearing healthy leaves, the former tended to be superior to the latter in the total number of flowers and number of flowers without shoot, and inferior in the total number of new shoots and number of new shoots without flower. 3. In September of 1957, sixteen 17-year-old Owari Unshiu on trifoliate orange rootstock showing moderate chlorosis in the orchard of Tokyo University, Kanagawa Pref., were selected for additional observations. The next year, 1958, they were divided into 4 groups, which were applied with manganese fertilizer in the soil or by foliar spray of manganese solution. Manganese soil application alone gave no correction of chlorosis on new leaves, but foliar applications of manganese solution corrected completely the chlorosis on new leaves. Each forty non-fruiting spring shoots were labeled in the above 4 groups on Oct. 30. In April of 1959, the numbers of new shoots and flowers sprouted from one-year-old shoots were counted. Manganese applications did not affect the total number of new shoots and number of flowers with shoot, but reduced the total number of flowers and number of flowers without shoot. It may be suggested that the low manganese content in the leaves on non-fruiting spring shoot caused an increase of total number of flowers in the next spring, and that the change of total number of flowers was influenced mainly by the number of flowers without shoot, some of which might be dormant on the old shoot bearing normal leaves. 4. The level of manganese nutrition in Unshiu orange trees did not cause generally any changes in the fruit quality, though moderate deficiency of manganese tended to be associated with hard fruit and high refractive index of fruit juice in some cases.
In 1961 and 1962, Satsuma orange trees grown in Shimotsu district of Wakayama prefecture suffered greatly from smoke pollution. This paper refers to its actual conditions and the result of leaf analysis of the affected trees. 1. Most of suffered leaves presented the symptom of SO2 injury showing the smoky spots, and some of them expressed the symptom of sulfuric acid mist injury having the small poxlike spots. Besides, some of leaves shed down rapidly without showing any of diseased spots. 2. Soil acidity in the affected orchard was much greater at the 10cm-deep than at 30cm-deep layer. However, no significant correlation was found between the soil pH and the SO2 concentration in atmosphere, its coefficient (r) being -0.2. 3. S content of leaves in the affected orchard was generally high, and it was highly correlated with SO2 concentration in atmosphere. The correlation coefficients between them in July and September of 1963, and January of 1964 were +0.85, +0.78 and +0.79, respectively. S content of leaves increased with their age from July of 1963 to January of 1964. Its increasing rate was greatest when the SO2 gas flowed in the orchard. 4. High negative correlation existed between S and Ca contents of leaves, having the coefficient(r) of -0.67. K and Mn contents of leaves increased as S content of leaves increased, though no significant correlation was found. N, P and Mg contents of leaves had no connection with S content of leaves. Thus, the composition of nutritional elements in suffered Satsuma orange trees seems to be much affected directly or indirectly by the SO2 concentration in atmosphere.
1) The suitable soil pH for the growth of Citrus unshiu was observed with one-year-old trees of Sugiyama strain, by growing them on soils of various pH values and by giving them nitrogen fertilizer in the form of NH4-N or NO3-N. For the adjustment of soil pH, two different combinations of agents such as calcium hydroxide and dusting sulfur (Ca-S), and barium hydroxide and sulfuric acid (Ba-SO4) were used. 2) The growth of citrus plants grown on any soil adjusted by Ca-S were better than that of by Ba-SO4. Those received NH4-N generally made a better growth than those received NO3-N in both combinations of pH adjusting agents. The suitable pH for the growth of the former is a little higher than that of the latter. 3) Exchangeable Ca and Mg in the soil decreased as the soil pH values decreased, but there were no marked differences with respect to other elements as a result of the treatments. 4) The pH values for the highest accumulations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg were higher in the plants received NH4-N than those received NO3-N. Mn in the plants was mostly found in leaves and roots, especially, in fine roots. The accumulation of this element in both NH4-N and NO3-N became greater as the soil pH values decreased.
In this study, metabolism and effects of external supplies of carbohydrates, nitrogen compounds and auxin were examined to clarify the physiological mechanism of buling in onion plant. 1. Changes in carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds were followed in relation to bulbing process. It was shown that nitrogen content in leaf blades was high during rapid increase in plant height, then decreased as the bulb developed, and that carbohydrates, on the contrary, accumulated in leaf sheathes and their concentration reached a maximum in the early stage of bulb development, then decreased gradually towards the end of bulb thickening, though total amount of carbohydrates per plant was increasing. Top-dressing of nitrogen fertilizer increased nitrogen content in leaf blades, enhanced photosynthesis, and promoted bulb thickening. Shading reduced photosynthesis, inhibited bulb thickening, and resulted in low content of nitrogen in leaf blades. 2. Increase in carbohydrate content and decrease in nitrogen content were induced by long day condition, and vice versa by short day condition. 3. External supply of sucrose by injection into leaf blades promoted bulb development under long photoperiod, while it induced vigorous vegetative growth under short photoperiod. 4. Changes in auxin of terminal part of buds and leaf blades of onion plant under long photoperiod correlated with the rate of increase in plant height. Following transfer to long day, rate of increase in both plant height and auxin content increased and reached maximum on tenth day after transfer, then falled to the values below the contents of plant grown under short photoperiod. 5. Auxin content in leaf blades of Aichi-shiro, an early variety, increased earlier than that of Senshu-Ki, a medium variety, but general trend in auxin content was the same in both varieties. 6. External supply of auxin by injection in leaf blades retarded plant growth and did not stimulate bulb formation under short photoperiod. Under long photoperiod, bulb developed irrespective of the auxin treatments, though bulb fulb formation was retarded a little as auxin concentration increased. These results seemed to show that auxin does not have direct relation to bulb formation.
The experiments were carried out to clarify the effect of coloured light on the growth and the bulb formation of the onion plants, using the variety“Kaizuka-wase”of which the minimum photoperiod for bulb formation was as long as 12 to 12.5 hours(1).
In the previous works standard formulas of the composts for raising seedlings of forced vegetables have been proposed. Composts were made of soils (volcanic ash soil, clay soil and fine sand), and organic material (leaf-mold) with optimal fertility. Suitable components differed from sorts of vegetable crops. For cucumbers, the 1 volcanic ash soil-3 leaf-mold mixture (in volume), for tomatoes 2-2 mixture, and for egg-plants 3-1 mixture were most favourable, respectively. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical properties of these composts, and to find the relation between these properties and plant growth. In the first experiment, moisture constants of the mixtures, varying in their proportion of soil and organic material, were determined. From pF-curves of soil water, it was evident that, with increasing proportions of leaf-mold to the soil, macropore spaces were increased markedly. On the other hand, amount of available water were decreased in both volcanic ash soil and clay soil except in fine sand. In the next steps, physical changes in the mixtures which received daily watering at the field for four weeks were observed. The actual volume of solid and liquid phases in each mixture was increased, accompanied with decreasing air capacities, because the sedimentation of the soil particles into macropores occured, and the mixtures became compact considerably during experimental periods. Addition of leaf-mold to the soil was effective for reducing soil compression, though the 3-1 mixture showed more compact than 4-0 component (no leaf-mold added) at the end of experiment. Last of all, the permeabilities of the mixtures to water and to air were measured in the laboratory, after daily watering for four weeks. Both properties indicated similar tendencies, though there were great differences concerning to the soil types. There were noticeable improvements in the water-and air-permeability when leaf-mold was added to the soil. However, just as in the case of the former experiment, 3-1 mixture showed lower rate than other mixtures. It appears from these results that the application. of bulky organic matter to the soil altered remarkably physical characteristics of the composts. And also, it was suggested that their properties may affect on the growth of vegetable seedlings, particularly, on the development of their root. And it was considered that suitable components were determined by mutual relationship between nature of plant root and physical properties of mixtures, and consequently they differed with sorts of vegetable crops.
Both transplanted and non-transplanted strawberry plants (var. Kogyoku) were sampled on October 16 and were examined for their flower bud differentiation under the following experimental design: (a) runner plants developed in July through October were grouped for each month according to the number of leaves formed; (b) another group of plants were defoliated to 2-6 leaves per plant on September 20; (c) in the third group, half of the plants retained three young leaves, while the other half three old leaves; (d) in the last group, half of the plants were connected with mother plants by stolon, while the other half were disconnected. 1. An apparent relationship was recognized between the number of leaves of young plant and the onset of flower bud formation under field cultivation. The plants with five leaves produced flower primordia of the most advanced stage in the middle of October, while those with leaves more, or less, than five were found to have primoria in less advanced stages. 2. Under non-transplanted condition, runner plants developed in September showed the most advanced stage in flower bud differentiation among runner plants formed in July through October. However, floral differentiation most progressed in the runner plants formed in August when transplanted. 3. Flower bud differentiation of transplanted plants was retarded more than that of non-transplanted ones of the same size. 4. Under non-transplanted condition, runner plants with leaves reduced to five in number by defoliation most progressed in flower bud differentiation. Under transplanted condition, however, it was most advanced in runner plants with four leaves. 5. Total carbohydrate in non-transplanted plants was higher than that in transplanted ones, while water content of the top was higher in transplanted plants. 6. Effects of young or old leaves remaining on the plant on the flower bud differentiation was not so clear, though the differentiation was more advanced in plants with three young leaves than in those with three old leaves. 7. Neither promotive nor inhibitory effect of mother plants to flower bud differentiation of runner plants was observed.
In Cruciferous vegetables such as Brassica and Raphanus, matromorphic plants (matroclinous hybrids, or false hybrids) as well as true hybrid ones are sometimes produced when interspecific or intergeneric hybridizations are made. Matromorphic plants have the same diploid chromosome number as the species used as female parents. It has been believed by many research workers in Japan that matromorphic plants are derived from normal haploid eggs which begin to develop parthenogenetically owing to the stimulation of pollen from foreign species and which are followed by the doubling of chromosomes at the time of their first cleavage. The matromorphic plants are, therefore, believed to be homozygous for all genes and to breed true.
The writers studied on the color tones and anthocyanins contained in red chrysanthemum petals. Results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. It is easy and yet exact to measure the color tones of chrysanthemum petals by the color difference meter. Besides, it is possible to distinguish even the slight color intervals among each varieties of red chrysanthemums. 2. A distinct correlation was observed between the amount of anthocyanin contained in the petals and the L, a and b values which were measured by the color difference meter. Especially, L was found to be closely correlated with the amount of anthocyanin pigments.. 3. In accordance with the decreasing amounts of anthocyanin, the color tones of petals changed from orange to red, red to purple, and the values of color saturation lowered. 4. At least three kinds of anthocyanins were found in each variety and it was presumed that the kinds of anthocyanins contained in 18 varieties under the present experiment might be the same.