This paper reports on an evaluation of a diffusive resistance meter for estimating leaf diffusion resistance of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu MARC.) trees. 1. For a tree, there was very little difference in leaf diffusion resistance (RL) among leaf position, and between leaves on branches with fruits and those on branches without fruits. In regard to leaf age, RL of 2-year-old leaves was statistically higher than that of leaves on current shoots, but no significant difference in RL occurred between spring and summer leaves. Diffusion resistances of sunlit and naturally shaded leaves were different according to plant water status. Namely, when leaf water potential (ψ) before sunrise (ψmax) was about -3 bars, RL values of sunlit leaves were lower than those of naturally shaded leaves, but this relationship was reverse when plant water stress became more pronounced. 2. The relationship of RL to ψ changed according to light intensity. RL, however, was closely related to ψ, in case of approximately the same solar radiation. 3. Strictly speaking, oscillations in RL were not synchronized among leaves, but RL and Δe (difference in water vapor pressure between the leaf surface and the ambient air) changed in a similar manner, when soil moisture was deficient. When soil moisture was adequate, no clear relationship between RL and Δe was observed. The amplitude of oscillation in RL became larger for nonirrigated trees than for irrigated. In conclusion, it is quite clear that for satsuma mandarin trees, this type of diffusive resistance meter is a useful tool for measuring RL rapidly and precisely in the laboratory as well as in the field.
Cyanogenesis involved in the relationships between root sensitivity to waterlogging and soil sickness in peach trees was investigated. 1. The cyanogenic glucoside in peach roots was predominantly prunasin and its level was highest in April and May, while lowest in August and September. 2. Waterlogging caused the rapid decrease in the level of prunasin and cytokinin activity in the roots and chlorophyll content in the leaves. 3. The anaerobic condition caused cyanogenesis in the roots, but the aerobic condition reversed it. The respiratory inhibitor, NaN3 also caused cyanogenesis in the roots. There seemed to be some relationships between respiratory inhibition and cyanogenesis in peach roots. 4. More growth inhibiting substances were found to be excreted from the roots under the anaerobic condition than under the aerobic condition by the Avena coleoptile section elongation test. Benzoic acid and other UV absorbing substances were detected in the inhibiting fraction by TLC and GLC. 5. Benzoic acid also caused respiratory inhibition as well as cyanogenesis in peach roots. Therefore this suggests that for a poorly drained soil such respiratory inhibiting substances from the roots may be accumulated and become one of the causes of the peach replant problem.
Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of diluted sea water on the germination, growth and yield of green soybeans. The germination rate was not significantly different at 0 to 3, 000ppm Cl 2 days after starting the germination test. Seedlings were grown in sand culture for 20 days after seeding. The top dry weight was greatest at 250 and 500ppm Cl. Green soybeans were grown in sand and soil cultures. Salt injury in sand culture was not found at 0 and 100ppm Cl. However, it was slight at 250ppm Cl, and became much more severe with increasing sea water concentrations. The seed fresh weight was greatest at 0 to 250ppm Cl in sand culture and at 0 to 500ppm Cl in soil culture. There was an increase in Na and Cl content in the leaves in sand and soil cultures when sea water concentrations were at high Cl levels. The content of Cl and exchangeable Na, and EC value of the soil increased with increasing sea water concentrations.
A Nagaoka cabbage variety, Soshu, was water-cultured under a combination of 4 levels of both calcium (4, 20, 100, 500ppm) and magnesium (0, 5, 25, 125ppm) for 66 days, and the effects of the elements supplied on the intracellular distribution of each element in the mature cabbage-leaves were studied. The dry materials fractionated in the cell wall fraction (F-1) and in the cell sap fraction (F-4) consisted of about 45 and 35% of the total amount, while those in the nuclei (F-2) and the plastid+mitochondria fraction (F-3) weighed very little. Increasing levels of Ca in culture solution increased the distribution percentage of dry materials in F-1 and decreased that in F-4. The contents of Ca and Mg in each fraction increased with increasing levels of each element, and the contents of Ca or Mg in each fraction, especially in F-4, were low when the concentration of Mg or Ca in culture solution was high. About 90% of Ca was fractionated in F-1 plus F-4, and the distribution percentage of Ca decreased in F-4 with increasing levels of Ca. The distribution percentage of Mg was the highest in F-4, followed by F-1, F-3, and F-2, in order, and it increased markedly in F-4 with increasing levels of Mg as well as Ca. These results indicate that, when the supply of Ca in culture solution is low, the Mg absorbed by plants seems to be partly incorporated into cell walls, while, when the supply of Ca is high, the Mg does not seem to be incorporated but remains in the cell sap.
The problem of whether cultivars of Brassica spp., Raphanus sativus or Cucurbita spp, could be determined by using the electrophoretic patterns of seed protein or seed enzymes as taxonomic criteria was studied. For the preparation of protein samples, five grams of seeds were ground in a pestle and then mixed into 20ml of a phosphate-buffered saline solution. Extraction proceeded overnight in a refrigerator; then the gruel was centrifuged, the supernatant filtered clear and adjusted to pH 8.0 with 0.1M KOH. The solution was placed in a refrigerator for one hour and then centrifuged. The supernatant was freeze-dried, and the prepared protein was stored dry at -20°C. For the preparation of enzyme samples, one gram of seeds was ground in a pestle and then mixed into four to six ml of a phosphatebuffered saline solution. Extraction proceeded two hours in a refrigerator; then the gruel was centrifuged and the supernatant was freeze-stored at -20°C. Electrophoresis was carried out with acrylamide gel disc. The results are summerized in Table 1. 1. Brassica species: Protein, peroxydase, LDH, esterase., acid phosphatase, ADH, GDH and CA were available for the determination of species of Brassica crop seeds. However, none of these electrophoretic patterns could support a conclusive determination for each species, and it was necessary to use at least two to three kinds of electrophoresis for the full determination. Electrophoretic zymograms of peroxydase of B. nigra, Ba juncea and B. carinata were similar to one another, suggesting that these reactions were controlled by a genom b which these species possessed in common. No difference of electrophoretic patterns of protein and enzymes was observed among cultivars in each species. It was considered from this experiment that Chinese cabbage, turnip, Pak-choi, etc, had better be included in one species, that is, B. campestris, rather than be separated respectively into B. pekinensis, B. raga, B. chinensis, etc. 2. Radish: No difference of electrophoretic patterns of seed protein and enzymes was observed among cultivars or groups of cultivars of radish. 3. Cucurbita species: For the separation of species only two kinds of electrophoresis were available, and they each detected only one species among the four species. Protein patterns separated C. pepo from the other four species and esterase patterns separated C. ficifolia from the other four species. It was impossible forC. moschata, C. maxima and Fl of these species to be separated from one another with their electrophoretic patterns.
Self-pollinations were carried out under three different temperature regimes, constant 30°, 25°C and room temperature (18°-15°C, control). The duration of temperature treatment, prior to and after pollination, was forty hours. Pollen behavior on stigmas was tested in order to determine fertility. The results obtained are summarized as follows (See Table 1, Fig. 1 and 2): At room temparature (control), a few pollen grains germinated on the stigmas, but pollen tubes were short, and did not penetrate the stigmatic papillae. In comparison, at a temperature of 30°C, the percentage of pollen germination was much higher than the control. Many pollen tubes penetrated the stigmatic papillae. A few emptied grains which had transferred their contents into their tubes were found. The effect of 30°C on self-incompatibility was superior to that of 25°C. It seems that the high temperature treatments reduced to some extent the self-incompatibility of Japanese radish. The pseudo-self-compatibility caused by high temperature is probably due to the senescence of the pistil.
Experiments were carried out to estimate optimum firing temperatures of clay flowerpots with special reference to the permeability to air and water. Test pieces of about 4cm in dia. and 0.5cm thick were made from seven clay materials in different districts. These pieces were air dried for several days before oven-drying overnight at 50°C. Then, they were fired at different temperatures ranging from 250°C to 1, 050°C for one hour. The rising rate was 100°C per hour until respective temperature was obtained. 1. Permeability to air of all samples increased at above 460°C of firing temperature. At above 875°C, these samples could be classified in three groups. At first, clay materials of Hekinan (E) and Takahama (F) cities in Mikawa district, and of Makabe (C) remarkably increased permeability to air up to 1, 045°C. However, permeability to air of Makabe′s clay (C) decreased extremely at 1, 125°C. Next, permeability of both materials of Tokyo (A and B), which are native in Yashio city, Saitama pref., decreased considerably at 1, 045°C. The third group including clay of Kitaibaraki (D) and Tokoname (G) had a little lower permeability than the others at every firing temperature and there were less remarkable changes up to 1, 045°C. 2. Changes of the permeability to water in relation to the firing temperatures or kinds of clay were almost the same as those of the permeability to air. However, values of the permeability to water were generally about 1/300-1/500 of those of the permeability to air. 3. Curves of the relation between the water absorption or the apparent porosity and firing temperatures were very much alike. Both of them did not change appreciably up to 875°C, but had a sudden decrease at 1, 045°C, especially for two samples of Tokyo (A and B). 4. There was no remarkable difference in the apparent specific gravity among the samples to 875°C except Makabe (C), but the values of all samples decreased at 1, 045°C. While, the bulk specific gravity of all samples increased very much at 1, 045°C, especially for the two samples of Tokyo (A and B). 5. The results obtained in these experiments suggest that non-refractory clay of Yashio city (A and B) should be fired at lower temperatures than the others, Mikawa (E and F) and Makabe (C) clay at relatively high temperatures, and the Kitaibaraki (D) at the highest. These results also suggest that the characteristics of clay materials are related essentially to the determination of the firing temperature of clay flowerpots, and that clay pots have been produced successfully at ample firing temperatures.
1) For the purpose of overcoming cross-incompatibilities between distantly related species or hybrids of lilies, intrastylar pollinations were attempted. This technique was also used to overcome self-incompatibilities in some species or hybrids. 2) Fertilized embryos were obtained in some cases through intrastylar pollinations even when crosses were unsuccessful by stigmatic pollinations. But, in the majority of cases, these embryos were immature and very small, of less than 1mm of length and the endosperms were very unusual and were present as liquids in small quantities or sometimes almost absent. 3) In some species or hybrids, intrastylar pollinations were effective for overcoming self-incompatibilities too and a number of normal seeds were obtained. 4) In crosses between distantly related species or hybrids by intrastylar pollinations, fertilized embryos were generally obtained when a number of pollen-tubes which had passed through the basal part of the styles, remained. But fertilized embryos were not necessarily obtained even after the above passage process, so another mechanism of incompatibilities was suspected to exist aside from that which was caused by pollen-tubes stopping their growths in the style.
As mentioned in the previous paper of the authors, the flower color of Primulamalacoides cv. ‘Hiotome’ iscolored when it was grown under a plastic film absorbingultraviolet rays below 360nm. The present experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of ultraviolet rays on coloration and anthocyanin content of the flowers, using several cultivars of P. malacoides. The extract of petals with methanol containing 1.0% HCl had a maximum optical density of 540nm. The optical density at 540nm of the extracts of all the cultivars grown under light lacking wave-lengths below 300nm were higher than those grown under light lacking wave-lengths below 360nm. The group with red-scarlet flowers, which includes cultivars ‘Momokomachi’, ‘Hiotome’ and ‘Frilled Queen’, showed great discoloration, while the other group with blue-violet flowers, which includes cultivars ‘New Emtral Pearl’, ‘Brilliancy Improved’ and ‘Uguisu’, showed little response. Three kinds of anthocyanidins, delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin were detected in petals of the cultivars ‘Hiotome’ and ‘kurenai’. Only petunidin and Malvidin were found in the other cultivars.
Two anthocyanins have been isolated from various species and hybrids of Cymbidium by the authors. To characterize these anthocyanins, an attempt has been made in which the properties of acid hydrolysates and absorption spectra of pigments in brown red flowers of Cymbidium Sazanami var. Haruno-umi were examined. Two pigments (U and L) were chromatographically and paperelectrophoretically separated and isolated from the 1% MeOH-HCl extracts of petals and sepals. L, one of them, was identified as cyanidin 3-glucoside (chrysanthemin) and the other as a derivative of it. No cinnamic acid was identified which could correspond with the properties of their coincident absorption maximum of acyl peak, (λmax=300-340nm). Due to the ratio of E440/Emax it was demonstrated that the two pigments were chrysanthemin derivatives, and by the enzymic analysis, that their sugar residues were composed of glucose only. In conclusion, L is cyanidin 3-glucoside (chrysanthemin), and U must be cyanidin 3-diglucoside. A new calculation method for anthocyanin content has been compared with the usual method. In the former the extracts with NaCl saturated water were used to draw a calculation curve, while in the latter ones extracts with 1% MeOH-HCl were used. The new method was suitable for calculation of anthocyanin content, because extraction was easier and of higher quality than for the usual one. Further, by using the new method flower colors may be corresponded with the spectra of their extracts.
The relationships between the occurrence of boron deficiency of tulips, characters of cultivated soils and boron contents in tulip plants were investigated at tulip bulb growing areas in Niigata and Toyama prefectures, at the time of flowering. It became clear through our investigation in the tulip fields that characteristic symptoms of boron deficiency of tulips such as disappearance of flower pigment (“Ironuke”) and transverse break of stem (“Kubiore”) occurred widely and strikingly in the field tulips of Niigata and Toyama. At the same time, the basis of diagnosis on boron deficiency in field tulips was established by using soil testing and plant analysis. The main results are summarized as follows. 1) Tulips raised on sand and sandy loam soils and on highly water-permeable loam soil were inclined to develop boron deficiency. 2) On sand dunes tulips were inclined to develop boron deficiency on their tops and slopes. 3) Tulip fields in which hot-water-soluble born in soils was lower than about 0.2ppm engendered tulip boron deficiency. 4) Boron deficiency of tulips occured easily on strongly acid soils, though hot-water-soluble boron in soils was more than 0.2ppm. 5) The critical concentrations of total boron in tulip plant tissues were considered as follows; flower: 14-15ppm, upper stem : 12-13ppm, new main bulb: about 5ppm. But it was difficult to accurately diagnose the boron deficiency of the tulip plant only on the basis of levels of total boron concentration in plant tissues. 6) Calcium-boron molar ratio in boron deficient tulip flowers was more than 25, but the ratio in healthy ones was less than 20. Therefore boron deficiency in tulips may be effectively diagnosed by the level of calcium-boron molar ratio in flowers at the blooming time.
The study presented here was carried out in order to get the fundamental informations to force dwarf cherry, Prunus lannesiana Wils. f. asahiyama Hort. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. Under natural conditions, the aspects of flower formation differed, to some extent, from year to year. In 1973, flower initiation occurred in late August, being followed by sepal formation in early October and pistil formation in late October. Thereafter, however, the flower buds did not develop to further floral stages till mid March in 1974, although some continuous increases in floret and pistil size were observed. Ovules and pollens were formed in mid to late March, and the anthesis occurred in early April. 2. Daylength did not influence the process of flower formation of dwarf cherry under natural temperature conditions. 3. The optimum temperature was 20°C for flower initiation and 10°C for flower development to pistil completion. A certain period of low temperature followed by warm conditions, however, was required for the flower buds to develop to the ovule and the pollen forming stage and to the anthesis finally. 4. When the plants, at the pistil forming stage, were forced in early December or later, they flowered normally without cold treatment. 5. In order to force the plants successfully without natural chilling, it was necessary that they were previously treated with artificial chilling. In that case, no effects of chilling on flower formation and anthesis could be observed unless the flower buds had differentiated at the beginning of chilling. In the early stages of flower formation, the flower buds developed gradually during chilling, and those whose petals and stamens had been differentiated during the four to six week period of chilling, flowered easily. On the other hand, at the pistil forming stage, they did not develop any more during chilling, but flowered more quickly and steadily under the following warm conditions than in the case mentioned above. Thus, the period of low temperature (0°C) required for flower buds differed with their floral stages: six weeks at the sepal forming stage, four weeks at the petal or stamen forming stage and two to four weeks at the pistil forming stage. The flower buds, whose cold requirement was satisfied, flowered earlier under the warmer conditions. The percentage of flowering and quality of flowers, however, decreased at above 20°C. On consideration of these results, it seemed that the optimum temperature was about 15°C for forcing.
(1) As a part of breeding research on the chrysanthemum species, self-pollination was made with 57 cultivars and 2 wild species for the purpose of investigating self-fertility. (2) Plants (cultivars and wild species) used as parent in this experiment were self-incompatible. The self-incompatibility, however, varied with cultivating year or the flower head even for the same cultivar. Some parental plants exhibited a high degree of self-fertility which might result from physiological factors. (3) In self-pollinated progenies (S1, S2) the self-incompatibilities were almost the same as for parental plants. Some S1 plants such as the KB line obtained from cv.‘Katanozakura’, however, displayed an exceptionally high degree of self-fertility (KB 2; 52.32%, KB 6; 37.59%). This may have resulted from not only physiological but also genetic factors. (4) Based on a critical survey for the existence of apomixis, it is concluded that such modes of reproduction are not observed in the S1 (KB line). (5) A self-pollination was made with cultivars under three different conditions; that is, in the field, in pots or with cut-flowers. Field and pot plants displayed more or less higher fertility than was generally observed for cut-flowers. For some cultivars, however, the fertility for cut-flowers was as high as or higher than for the other conditions. (6) From the results of self-pollination made in tubulous flowers or ray flowers of nine progenies of the KB line, it was evident that self-fertility was higher for tubulous flowers than for ray flowers. (7) A comparison was made between the stainability of pollen with aceto-carmine and the seed setting rate by self-pollination for the purpose of making clear the effect of pollen activity on self-fer tility. In cv.‘Aztec’, Kogiku(G), KB 2 and KB 6 both self-fertility and pollen stainability were high. In the other cultivars and inbred lines, however, no relation was observed between them. (8) The pollen germination rate on a medium containing 25% sucrose, 10ppm boric acid and 100ppm testosterone, and pollen stainability with nitro blue tetrazolium were examined in order to make clear the relation between pollen activity and high self-fertility for the KB line. It was not possible to find any correlation between them.
Scale bulblets (dark-scaled at 25 or 15°C for approximately 7.5 months) of Liliumlongiflorum Thunb. cv.′Hinomoto′ were chilled at 5°C for 0-5 months in darkness prior to being grown at 20°C in darkness. The foliage scale development increased prominently, as the chilling duration increased. This increase of the foliage scale development was greater for 15°C bulblets (developed at 15°C) than for 25°C ones. The 25°C bulblets chilled for 5 months bolted to a lesser degree than those chilled for 1, 2, 3 or 4 months.
Various C20-gibberellins, A18, A38, A23, A28 and A27, and various C19-gibberellins, A1 A2, A3, A4, A5, A7, A8, A9, A20, A21 and A22 were applied to the cotyledonary plumule of Pharbitis nil Chois., cv. Kidachi which was subjected subsequently to an inductive dark period of relatively short duration. Their promotive activities were examined in shoot elongation as well as flower formation. The order in the promoting activity of these C20-gibberellins except GA27 and GA3 at 0.05μg dosage on both the shoot elongation and the flower formation was observed as follows: A3_??_A3836_??_A23_??_A18_??_A28=water control. At 0.5μg dosage the same order in the shoot elongation was observed, but the order in the activity on the flower formation was observed as follows: A38>A3=A23=A18_??_A28=water control. The order in the promotive activity of various C19-gibberellins and GA27 at 0.5μg dosage on both of the responses was observed as follows: A3>A1=A7>A5>A2=A4_??_A20>A22>A9_??_A8=A21=A27= water control. At 0.5μg dosage the same order in growth activity on the shoot elongation was also observed, but the order in the activity on the flower formation was observed as follows: A2=A4=A5>A1=A7_??_A3=A20>A21>A9=A8=A27=water control. The gibberellins which have growth promotive activity were always active in flowering, and the opposite was also true. The discrepancy in the order of highly active gibberellins at high dosage between the growth promotive activity and the flower promotive activity may be due to the fact that flower promotive activity at high dosage somewhat decreases, irrespective of highly promotive activity in shoot elongation.
This study was conducted for two seasons in 1974 and 1975 during Satuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu MARC.) development to determine changes in the viscosity of the fruit juice, the relation between such changes and the morphological and the histological changes and the correlation between those variables for the fruit sampling dates. (1) A certain pattern in the changes in viscosity of fruit juice was recognized during fruit development. This pattern was divided into three stages. Stage-1 was period of rapid increase in viscosity from early July to early August. This period corresponded with the first half of enlargment of fruit cells. Stage-2 was characterized by a period of considerable decrease in the viscosity of the fruit juice. This period agreed closely with the latter part of enlargment of cell in the fruit from early in August to the second part of September with Wase unshiu or to the second part of October with Futsu unshiu. The viscosity of the fruit juice was increased again slowly in stage-3 by the accumlation of sugar and the other materials. This period was regarded as the maturation period. (2) The viscosity of fruit juice of Futsu unshiu was higher than Wase unshiu through the whole period. The viscosity of fruit juice with Wase unshiu and Futsu unshiu in the 1974 season was higher value than for the 1975 season. The difference in viscosity of fruit juice seemed to correspond with changes in meterological and the other enviromental conditions. (3) In this experiment, the higher the viscosity of juice in the sampled fruit at the first date, the more its value was on the second date. Therefore, the correlation between the viscosity of juice in the sampled fruit on each date was analyzed. There was a high positive correlation between the viscosity of juice in the sampled fruit at the preceeding time and the latter time, for example the first time and the second time, the second time and the third time. The correlation coefficient of Wase unshiu and Futsu unshiu was above 0.8 through the whole period. The juice viscosity for sampled fruit at the end date of stages 1, 2 and 3 was positively correlated with the viscosity of juice in the sampled fruit on the respective preceeding date for a time internal in each stage and the greater the sampling period from the preceeding date to the end date was a shorter period of days, the higher their correlation coefficient was. Their correlation coefficent was significant at the 1% level. From the experimental results described above, the changes in viscosity of fruit juice during fruit development was considered to be a useful index for determing fruit taste taste and producing sweet fruit.