Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 58 , Issue 3
Showing 1-37 articles out of 37 articles from the selected issue
  • Hiroto YOSHIOKA, Koji AOBA, Masashi FUKUMOTO, Kunio FUJIMOTO
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 475-481
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of nitrate and potassium fertilizers on the quality of apple fruit during storage was investigated.
    Seven year-old apple trees (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Jonagold) on Malus pruniforia rootstocks were grown in water culture solution of 0.3, 1.0 and 4.0mM nitrate. High nitrate concentration in the solution increased the yield, weight and sugar content of the fruit, but decreased firmness and acid content. It also enhanced ethylene evolution and NADP+-malic enzyme activity in the fruit during storage. Four year-old apple tree (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Fuji) on M9 rootstocks were grown in water culture solution of 1, 10 and 25mM potassium. The yield and weight of the fruit increased by growing the trees in culture solution of high potassium concentration, while firmness decreased. High potassium concentration in culture solution suppressed ethylene evolution and NADP+-malic enzyme activity and reduced acidity and decreased firmness in the fruit during storage. After storage at 0°C for 5 months, the quality of fruit grown with culture solution of high potassium concentration was superior to that with low potassium. Both high potassium and low nitrate concentrations in culture solution increased the potassium concentration in the fruit and storability of the fruit. This may indicate that the potassium concentration in the fruit is related to the storability of the fruit.
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  • Akira SAITO, Minoru NIIZEKI, Ken-ichi SAITO
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 483-490
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Regeneration from nucellus calli was investigated to obtain basic data for somatic cell hybridization in apple Malus pumila Mill. In addition, isolation, culture and fusion of protoplasts derived from nucellus calli and leaves of the cultured shoots in vitro were investigated. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Calli derived from nucellus 50 days after anthesis of a cultivar ‘Fuji’ and a rootstock ‘CG 80’ produced adventitious embryos. Some of the embryos germinated and formed shoots after they were placed at 0°C in the dark for 6 months and then transferred to 25°C in the light. 2. The enzyme solutions containing 2% Cellulase Onozuka R-10 and 0.1% Pectolyase Y-23 or 2% Cellulase Onozuka RS and 0.1% Pectolyase Y-23 were the most effective for protoplast isolation from the nucellus calli and the leaves of shoots. The yield of protoplasts was the highest from the calli and the leaves of shoots cultured for 16- 20 days after transfer onto the new medium, except for a rootstock ‘M. 26’ where the highest yield was with 21-30 days of culture. The effective period of enzyme treatment on protoplast yield was 3.0-4.0h. Colony formation from protoplasts derived from nucellus calli was observed in all media used, except for the medium without growth regulators. 3. Somatic hybrid cells were produced by fusion of protoplasts isolated from the nucellus calli and the leaves of cultured shoots. Most of the hybrid protoplasts were identified by larger green protoplasts than the single green leaf protoplasts. The hybrid protoplasts and transparent nucellus callus protoplasts divided within 7-10 days of culture, while the single leaf protoplasts and the fused homokaryotic leaf protoplasts could not divide. The hybrid cells divided several times, and still had green chloroplasts. Successive cell division gave rise to cell colonies, and the green chloroplasts disappeared gradually. The colonies grew into calli which are, however, not identified as to whether they are hybrids.
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  • Takuro KIKUCHI, Takenori ASADA, Yunosuke SHIOZAKI, Toshiaki SAITO, Sho ...
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 491-497
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two experiments were carried out with young apple trees (Fuji/Malus prunifolia Borkh. var. ringo) to examine the effect on the next season′s shoot growth of summer and dormant thinning-out pruning, leaving short stubs. In Experiment 1 with 1-year-old trees, 4 lateral shoots which had been allowed to grow were cut, leaving 1-2cm stubs on 8 occasions in the period between early July and late May in the next spring, while the terminal shoot was kept unpruned. The next season′s shoot growth was weaker on the trees pruned in late August or earlier as compared with those pruned between late September and late March. In Experiment 2 with 2-year-old trees, which consisted of the central leader and 2 side branches, pruning was applied on 6 occasions in the period between late June and late November. All the shoots longer than 20cm were cut, leaving 2-3cm stubs except the terminal ones of the central leader and of two side branches. The next season′s shoot growth was weaker on the trees pruned in late July or earlier than on the trees pruned between late August and late November. It was concluded that summer pruning does not invigorate the next season′s shoot growth if it is applied early enough in the season for a balanced root: shoot ratio to be restored by the resultant regrowth.
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  • Koji UCHINO, Hiroshi GEMMA, Masayuki FUKUSHIMA, Chiaki OOGAKI
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 499-506
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The fruit growth and physiological behavior of Japanese pear (Pyrus serotina Rehder) cv. Kosui under plastic were investigated. Treated trees were covered with ethlene vinylacetate film from 13th March to 20th May.
    The daily maximum temperature and soil temperature under plastic were 2-6°C and 1_??_2°C higher than those in the open field during the treatment period. Budbreak and flowering time were advanced by about 10 days due to a relatively high temperature.
    First harvest time was on 4th August under plastic and 17th August in the open field. Fruits grown under plastic with GA paste treatment were the largest in all treatments. Shape index (height/width) of the fruit grown under plastic was greater than that in the open field. Patterns of glucose and sorbitol accumulation in fruits grown under plastic were also different from those in the open field.
    Treated trees had 15% larger leaves and 22% longer shoots than those in the open field and leaf area indices (LAI) were 2.53 and 2.03, respectively. Carbohydrate content in current shoots grown under plastic was lower than that in the open field in autumn. The activities of root respiration under plastic were higher than those in the open field during summer season.
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  • Naohiro KUBOTA, Kazuo SHIMAMURA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 507-513
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Investigations were carried out to clarify the effects of root temperature on nitrogen contents in potted or benched ‘Muscat of Alexandria’ vines grafted on ‘Hybrid Franc’ rootstock. Root temperature was controlled to 13°C and 27°C from December and from February, under forcing conditions. Seasonal changes in nitrogen contents in unheated vines were also determined for comparison.
    1. In unheated vines, the seasonal change in insoluble nitrogen content of all oranges such as rootlets, lateral roots, trunk, and cane, was small, though the contents of soluble and amino nitrogens in roots increased gradually toward the bursting stage, and also increased at that stage in canes. In heated vines, the insoluble nitrogen content in roots decreased markedly after the start of the treatments in all plots, especially at 27°C, but only a slight difference in the soluble nitrogen content was observed. In forcing from both December and February, amino nitrogen content in rootlets was markedly lower at 13°C than at 27°C. At 13°C from December, amide content in rootlets was notably low. Little difference in the contents of insoluble and amino nitrogens in canes was found between the two temperatures for forcing from both December and February, whereas soluble nitrogen content in canes began to decrease before the bursting stage at both root temperatures from December, especially at 27°C, where budbreak was promoted.
    2. The concentration of total nitrogen in bleeding sap was high at leafing stage of the heated ones. At 13°C from December, nitrogen concentration and the ratio of amino nitrogen to total nitrogen in sap were very low.
    3. The contents of total, insoluble and amino nitrogen in shoots were greater in the forcing from February than from December, and at 27°C than at 13°C . There was little difference between the two temperatures in the soluble nitrogen content of shoots, regardless of the time of forcing. At 13°C from December, where growth of shoots and clusters was markedly inhibited, the amide content was notably low.
    4. In vines forced from December, 15N content in both soluble and insoluble fractions in rootlets, canes, and shoots was markedly greater at 27°C than at 13°C. That is, 15N content in the insoluble fraction in shoots treated at 27°C was about twice as much as that at 13°C.
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  • Goro OKAMOTO, Ikuo SHIBUYA, Miwa FURUICHI, Kazuo SHIMAMURA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 515-521
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1. Pollen germination was suppressed markedly on an agar medium (10×10×3mm) on which 5 and 10 styles or 2 and 5 ovaries of ‘Centennial’ and ‘Pione’ (tetraploid grape cultivars) had been placed, respectively. Most of these inhibitors diffused into an agar medium during the first 10 minutes after placing. The level of these inhibitors was almost the same before and after anthesis. Self-pollination did not have a great effect on the level of the inhibitors.
    2. A higher level of the inhibitors diffused from pistils of tetraploid cultivars than from those of diploid ones. The inhibitory activity was effective against either pollen of the same cultivar or that of ‘Muscat of Alexandria’.
    3. Severe inhibitory effects on both pollen germination and tube growth were also shown when agar media had been soaked with water extracts derived from the pistils of tetraploid cultivars such as ‘Centennial’, ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Pione’. Such inhibition was not observed in the agar medium soaked with extracts of diploid cultivars.
    4. The number of pollen tubes reaching the ovary and micropyle was greatest in ‘Muscat of Alexandria’ and least in ‘Delaware’, among diploid cultivars. Pollen tubes reaching the ovary were very few in tetraploid cultivars such as ‘Centennial’ and ‘Pione’ compared with diploid ones. The trend of the number of pollen tubes reaching the ovary or micropyle resembled the level of inhibitory activity detected by the diffusing or extracting method.
    5. These results show clearly that grape pistils have some substances that inhibit pollen germination and tube growth in either case of self- or cross-polination. This inhibition is so severe in the pistils of tetraploid cultivars such as ‘Centennial’ and ‘Pione’ that most of their pollen tubes cannot grow far enough to reach micropyles, thus resulting in poor sets of seeded berries.
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  • Goro OKAMOTO, Ikuo SHIBUYA, Kazuo SHIMAMURA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 523-528
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Grape pistils contain pollen tube growth inhibitors. Their activity is more remarkable in tetraploid cultivars such as ‘Centennial’ and ‘Pione’ than in diploid ones as ‘Muscat of Alexandria’. To examine the properties of these inhibitors, we extracted pistils or separated styles and ovaries with 20 times the volume of cold water, and tested the effects of heat and pH on the inhibitory activity. Dialysis against water and successive extraction with several kinds of organic solvents were also conducted.
    1. Heating the extracts of each cultivar at 100°C for 10 minutes in water bath did not lower the inhibitory activity. The activity was also not affected by pH in the range of 5.0-6.0 where pollen could germinate properly on a culture medium tested.
    2. Most of the inhibitors in the extracts either from ovaries of ‘Muscat of Alexandria’ or from styles and ovaries of ‘Pione’ moved into the outer dialysate. About half of the inhibitors extracted from styles or ovaries of ‘Centennial’, however, remained in the inner dialysate.
    3. Successive extraction of freeze-dried water extracts with hexan, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water revealed that most of the inhibitors from the styles or ovaries of ‘Muscat of Alexandria’ and ‘Pione’ were soluble in ethanol and water, though a few were soluble in hexane. Inhibitors extracted from the styles of ‘Centennial’, however, were mainly water soluble, and those from the ovaries were soluble in all the solvents used, though a large percentage of them were dissolved by ethanol and water.
    4. These results suggest that pollen tube growth inhibitors involved in grape pistils are mainly composed of low molecular compounds that are rather stable to heat and pH levels, and are mostly hydrophilic. High molecular compounds also play a role in inhibiting pollen tube growth in the pistils of ‘Centennial’.
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  • Mikio NAKANO
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 529-536
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The characteristics of berry growth during Stage II of ‘Muscat of Alexandria’ grape were investigated, since “Speck” symptom of the berry disorder is mainly developed in this period.
    1. The daily increment of berry diameter was smallest in the Stage II of all devel-oping stages, about 40 to 60 days after blooming. Percentages of dry matter of berries were also lowest in this period, while water content was highest. As for berry firmness measured by a tensile tester, when the rate of berry deformation was calculated by the narrowed diameter just before crushing, it was lowest at about 40 days after blooming. It increased gradually to veraison, and reached a plateau at ripening after a rapid increase. But the loading weight required for crushing the berries increased gradually from Stage I to veraison, and decreased thereafter.
    2. During Stage II, the berry diameter measured by eddy sensors began to increase rapidly at around 4 a.m. and reached its maximum at around 10 a.m., then decreased toward evening, and was restored to the original size by midnight. Berry firmness was lower during the time from midnight to early morning and lowest at around 6 a.m., accompanied by the changes in osmotic potential of the juice.
    3. Diurnal changes in the rate of appearance of “Speck” symptoms were also recognized. Although the changes occasionally fluctuated with conditions, the symptoms mainly appeared at 4 a.m., with a peak at around 6 a.m., when the water potential of the berries was highest.
    4. As microscopic observation of “Speck” has shown that the peripheral vascular bundles were partially necrosed and the adjacent parenchyma tissues were broken down, “Speck” is supposed to occur with the following causes: 1) the increased pressure of sap ascending from evening to early morning may destroy the pericarp tissues closed to the broken vascular bundles, 2) the destroyed tissues are aggregated by the diurnal changes in water potential, and 3) this sequence results in a cavity.
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  • Masahiro NAKAMURA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 537-543
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1. About 7 and 4 days after the beginning of coloration of fruit clusters in black grapes ‘Kyoho’ and red grapes ‘Beniizu’, respectively, small pigmented spherical bodies were recognized within the epidermal cells of colored berry skins, which I named anthocyanoplasts (abbreviated as ACPs hereinafter) according to Pecket and Small (1980) who described similar bodies in red cabbage.
    2. In ‘Kyoho’, the number of ACPs per cell was 12 at the beginning of coloration and reached a maximum of 27. After Oct. 10, when clusters changed from purplish red to purplish black, however, only one of them enlarged rapidly, and changed in color to black. At harvest it reached a diameter of about half of the largest diameter of the epidermal cell, although the number of ACPs per cell was reduced to 1-2. At the same time, anthocyanin content in berry skin increased rapidly.
    3. In ‘Beniizu’, the number of ACPs was 7 at first, then reached a maximum of 18 and was reduced to 6 at harvest. Diameter of the largest ACP in the cell was at first about 1/3 of that of ‘Kyoho’ and at harvest about 1/2. It was 1/5 of the largest diameter of the epidermal cell and it remained red. Anthocyanin content of berry skin was much lower than in ‘Kyoho’.
    4. There were no differences in berry weight, hardness and soluble solids between the two cultivars after the appearance of ACPs. There was no increase in soluble solids with the rapid enlargement of ACPs after Oct. 10 in ‘Kyoho’.
    5. Rupture of enlarged ACPs was sometimes observed under the microscope. In that case, the content flowed out into the vacuole (cell) and the cell stained red, although the ACP appeared black before rupture.
    6. Consequently, it appeared that the change with ripening to purplish black in ‘Kyoho’ skin color was due to the formation and enlargement of anthocyanin-condensed ACPs rather than a mere accumulation of anthocyanin in vacuole, and also in ‘Beniizu’ that the formation and degree of enlargement of ACPs resulted in the difference between light and deep red colors in the skin.
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  • Shin HIRATSUKA, Jiro MATSUSHIMA, Takeshi KASAI, Ryuji WADA, Noritaka S ...
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 545-550
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In vinylhouse-cultured ‘Olympia’ (Vitis vinifera L.×V. labrusca L.), berry growth, especially in diameter, was more rapid than in field-cultured ‘Kyoho’ or ‘Delaware’ during 2_??_4 weeks after veraison when berry splitting was most frequently observed. Almost all berries of ‘Olympia’ split when injuries were made to berry tips by needle, while splitting occurred only in 20_??_30% in ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Delaware’.
    Among the 3 groups of experiments in ‘Olympia’, field-cultured berries sprayed withgibberellic acid (GA), field-cultured berries and vinylhouse-cultured berries, the first case resulted in severe berry splitting, followed by the second one. The development of sub-epidermal layers and cells of the berry fairly paralleled the susceptibility to berry splitting but cuticle or epidermal layers did not. Thickness of the layer was increased and radial growth of sub-epidermal cells was excessively enhanced under the susceptible conditions. Pectic substances in the walls of sub-epidermal cells also increased under the susceptible conditions.
    Ultrastructural observations on skin surface around the stylar scars showed that long cracks, invisible with the naked eye, were observed most frequently in berries sprayed with GA during berry splitting, followed by field-cultured and vinylhouse-cultured berries. The development of these cracks seemed to determine the susceptibility to berry splitting of this cultivar.
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  • Jiro MATSUSHIMA, Shin HIRATSUKA, Norio TANIGUCHI, Ryuji WADA, Noritaka ...
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 551-555
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The changes in sugars in skin of ‘Olympia’ (Vitis vinifera L.×V. labrusca L.) berries were investigated to determine the mechanism of anthocyanin accumulation caused by abscisic acid (ABA) application to the fruit bunch.
    A clear increase in anthocyanin accumulation was observed by the ABA treatment during 2_??_3 weeks after veraison, when sugar content began to increase in the skin of berries. By ABA treatment, the content of glucose, fructose and rhamnose increased more rapidly than in the control in the skin.
    ABA also stimulated anthocyanin accumulation in the berries cultured in vitro although this stimulation required relatively high temperature and light. This may suggest that the promotion of anthocyanin accumulation following ABA treatment is caused by physiological changes occurring inside the berry, rather than by interactions between the berry and plant. The most probable changes are accumulation of sugars and/or ABA in the grape skin itself.
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  • Toru MAOTANI, Akira SUZUKI, Tatsuhiro NISHIMURA, Osamu KUMAMOTO, Kohei ...
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 557-562
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The study was conducted to clarify the effects of indolebutyric acid (IBA) tape and brassinolide (BR) on fruit abscission and fruit quality of Japanese persimmon ′Hiratanenashi′.
    1. Application of IBA tape containing 0.1% IBA to fruit apex at 10 days after flowering reduced fruit abscission.
    2. Spray of 0.1ppm BR on flower at 3 days prior to flowering reduced fruit abscission. Endogenous indoleacetic acid in flesh increased with the treatment of BR.
    3. Quality of fruits treated by IBA tape or BR was similar to that of control (no treatment).
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  • Hiroshi INOUE
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 563-567
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of day length and temperature on the vegetative growth and flower bud differentiation of one-year-old satsumas on trifoliate orange were observed in a growth chamber and under field conditions during the growing (Experiment 1) and dormant seasons (Experiment 2). Room temperatures were kept constant at 15, 20 and 25°C. Photoperiod treatments were 8 (short day: SD) and 16 hours (long day: LD) and natural day length (ND).
    1. Short day treatment from sprouting time depressed shoot growth in spring and summer. Shoot growth increased with 16-hour photoperiods. The trees at 15 and 20°C sprouted flower buds on the spring shoots in September to October regardless of day length. Many flower buds appeared following the 8-hour photoperiod in the field, after defoliating and transferring the trees into 25°C room in late October. The trees on long days produced more fresh weight than did those on short days.
    2. Sixteen-hour photoperiods during 2 or 3 months from late October decreased flower buds on spring shoots. Short days tended to increase flower bud differentiation. More flowers were produced in 15°C room than in the field.
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  • Toshihiko TAKAGI, Akiko TOMIYASU, Midori MATSUSHIMA, Tetsuo SUZUKI
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 569-573
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Changes of GA-like activity in 2 types of spring flush including vegetative and leafy-inflorescence shoots of satsuma mandarin trees were investigated seasonaly. Effects of fruit thinning on GA-like activity were also studied. Results are discussed in relation to flower-bud formation.
    GA-like activities in leaves and stems of the 2 types of shoots were high in April, followed by a decrease in July, and thereafter showed marked increase until November. In November the activity in leafy-inflorescence shoots was higher than in vegetative shoots.
    Fruit thinning had an influence on GA-like activity in stems of the spring flush in autumn; early thinning (in May and June) caused lower levels, similar to vegetative shoots, than did late thinning (in August) and non-thinning.
    These results suggested that endogenous GA levels before morphological flower-bud differentiation play a regulatory role in the modulation of flower-bud formation.
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  • Toshihiko TAKAGI, Yukinao MASUDA, Tomoko OHNISHI, Tetsuo SUZUKI
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 575-580
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Changes in constituents in peel during color development were investigated for different fruit parts, locations of production and cultivars of satsuma mandarin. Total sugar in peel accumulated rapidly as degreening was initiated, whereas nitrogen content decreased simultaneously. There was a significant positive correlation between sugar content in peel and color development, but a negative correlation existed between nitrogen content and color development. Color development was more closely related to sugar status in peel than to that in juice.
    Color development of peel was studied using peel segments which were kept on an agar medium containing various concentrations of sugar and nitrogen. Color development of peel was controlled by sugar and nitrogen supplies in the agar medium. A high concentration of sucrose in the medium promoted degreening, whereas nitrogenous compounds acted in opposition to sucrose by inhibiting degreening.
    It was suggested that color development of satsuma mandarin was caused by the elevated sugar content and reduced nitrogen content in the peel.
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  • Hiroshi INOUE
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 581-585
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of soil drought and temperature on flower bud differentiation of one-year-old satsuma trees (cv. Okitsu Wase) on trifoliate orange were investigated. Potted trees were grown in 15, 20 and 25°C growth chamber rooms and in the field for 6 months from mid June, when new spring leaves turned greenish and the stems were full. Water was supplied at 3 grades of water stress of the trees by monitoring the daily pot weight decrease. Flower bud differentiation was estimated by counting the number of flowers and non-flowering shoots on the trees after defoliating and transferring the trees into the 25°C room in mid December.
    Trees at lower temperatures produced more flowers and fewer shoots. Trees with optimum soil moisture and medium drought at 25°C did not produce any flowers, but produced some shoots. Only high drought pots produced many flowers. When the soil was dried, the trees tended to have many flowers, flowering nodes and flowers per node at 20°C and in the field. At 15°C, few shoots sprouted, but many leafless flowers occurred regardless of soil moisture. Low temperature treatments produced many flowers from compound buds in an axillary bud, and drought treatments enhanced these trends. Number of flowers in the field was about the same as in a 20°C room, but less than in a 15°C room.
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  • Yoshikazu T. YAMAKI
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 587-594
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Organic acids of the juice in citrus fruits were determined by silica gel column chromatography in 47 samples obtained from 42 citrus species. Citrate as he major organic acid in acid citrus species and table citrus species, mounting to 75.4 to 96.9% of the total recovered acids. Malate amounted to 55.8 o 60.1% of the recovered acids in acidless citrus species, but 2.6 to 22.9% in ther species. Citrate plus malate amounted to 78.3 to 99.7% of the total ecovered acids.
    Acetate, pyruvate, and oxalate were detected in more than half of the samples.Group I acids, a mixture of glutarate, fumarate, and formate and group I acids, a mixture of lactate, succinate, and α-ketoglutarate were etected in all the samples. However, the sum of these minor organic acids was ess than 2% of all the organic acids detected, except for three samples. There ere more kinds of organic acids in acidless citrus species, sweet oranges, and mandarins than in sour orange, tangors, pummelos and grapefruits, yuzus, and ummelohybrids. However, there was no correlation between the number of organic cidsdetected and either the sum of detected acids or the total acidity of juice.
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  • Tetsuo HARA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 595-599
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cabbage plants were grown for about 2 months in a culture solution containing 3 levels of nitrogen (5, 50, 500ppm), phosphorus (2, 20, 200ppm) and potassium (5, 50, 500ppm), and effects of the supply on head yield and free sugar composition of the plants were studied.
    Plant dry weight and head yield increased with the increase of N (5-50ppm), P (2-20ppm) and K (5-50ppm) in the culture solution, and decreased at the highest level of each element. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in plants increased greatly with the increase of levels of each element. Fructose, glucose and sucrose contents of plants decreased with the increase of nitrogen levels, and the decrease of sucrose was great. In the phosphorus and potassium treatment, fructose and glucose contents did not change remarkably but sucrose content was the highest at 20ppm of P and at 50ppm of K. Fructose content was higher in head leaves than in outer leaves. There was close correlation between head yield and sucrose content in the outer leaves in all treatments with the exception that 5ppm N. Nitrogen deficiency caused an increase of free sugar content, especially of sucrose.
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  • Susumu YAZAWA, Noboru SUETOM, Kana OKAMOTO, Takakazu NAMIKI
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 601-607
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Thin layer chromatography of extracts of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit gave two capsaicinoid-like substances (tentatively named CLS-A and -B), which differed from capsaicinoid in their Rf values. Intervarietal crosses were made using as a parent the sweet variety, ′CH-19 sweet′ which had been selected and fixed from the hot variety, ′CH-19 hot′, and the formation of capsaicinoid and CLS-A and -B was studied.
    Sweet varieties such as ′California Wonder′ and ′Murasaki′ contained no CLS-A nor-B. Capsaicinoid content was notably high, and CLS-A and -B contents low, in F1 populations between these sweet varieties and ′CH-19 sweet′. In F1 populations between hot varieties and ′CH-19 sweet′, capsaicinoid content was either comparable to, or lower than the parent hot varieties. CLS-A was detected in the fruit 20 days after anthesis, and CLS-B 10 days after anthesis, that is, prior to capsaicinoid formation. Varieties differed in their CLS-A and -B contents. Several hot varieties were high in these contents, ′CH-19 sweet′ being the highest.
    These results suggest the possible role of CLS-A and -B in capsaisinoid formation. Crossing with ′CH-19 sweet′, and determining the contents of capsaicinoids and cap-saicinoid-like substances in F1 populations will reveal the genetic aspect of capsaicinoid formation in the variety used for crossing.
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  • Susumu YAZAWA, Takanori SATO, Takakazu NAMIKI
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 609-618
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Some cultivars of Capsicum annuum show dwarfness in their interspecific hybrids with C. chinense ′No. 3341′. The dwarfness is represented by the termination of leaf differentiation after development of several leaves in both main and lateral shoots.
    The dwarf plants generally maintain their growth characteristics for two years. The top/root ratio of the dwarf plants was smaller than in normal plants. Root growth of dwarf plants increased nearly to normal by grafting of normal plants on them.
    Dwarfness was shown to be controlled by two complemantary dominant genes, one of which is homozygous in ′No. 3341′. Many of the old Japanese cultivars, and the local Korean and Chinese cultivars, had another gene and developed dwarfness in hybrids with ′No. 3341′. All cultivars collected from other Asian areas, the Subcontinent of India, and North and South America did not possess the dwarf gene complementary to the gene of ′No. 3341′, except for one cultivar from Guatemala.
    There are two theories for the route of pepper introduction to Japan; one by Portuguese and another via Korea. The present genetical studies strongly suggest that some cultivars had been introduced from Korea to Japan.
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  • Masaharu MASUDA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 619-625
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Investigation was carried out to gain a better understanding of the mineral transport from root to shoot during the day and the night. Tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, and cucumber plants, Cucumis sativus L., were grown in a nutrient solution containing NO3-N, P, K, Ca and Mg at concentrations of 16, 4, 8, 8 and 4 meq/l, respectively. Xylem exudates were collected from 2-month-old tomato plants or 1.5-month-old cucumber plants for 1h just after decapitation at 10 cm above the ground, at midday (12: 00) and midnight (0: 00) with solution temperatures of 26°C and 20°C, respectively.
    Exudation rates in day-time were 8 to 14 times those in night-time in tomato and 7 to 8 times in cucumber plants, respectively. In day-time, the concentrations of NO3-N and K in the xylem exudate were higher than those of night-time. On the other hand, P, Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in night-time. In particular, P concentration in night-time was markedly higher than in day-time; that is, 6 times as much in tomato and 5 times in cucumber.
    Xylem sap concentration factor (XSCF) calculated as a ratio of mineral concentration in xylem exudate to that in nutrient solution was over 1.0 in both day-time and night-time for NO3-N, P and K. These minerals seem to be concentrated at all times in xylem stream of the intact plants.
    Xylem stream flow showed down rapidly after decapitation. We found that when the xylem stream flow before decapitation (an intact plant) was high, the reduction rate of flow was also high. The greatest reduction rate of xylem stream flow was 73.2% in the afternoon (14:30).
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  • Yuji UDAGAWA, Tadashi ITO, Kiyoshi GOMI
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 627-633
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This experiment was undertaken in order to find the effects of root temperature on physiological and ecological characteristics of ′Reiko′ strawberry plants grown in hydroponics. Temperatures were 8, 13 and 18°C in cool season and 13, 18 and 23°C in hot season, respectively.
    1. Higher root temperatures resulted in more elongation of newly developed roots, leaf blades and petioles in short time, while causing brown colouring of roots, growth depression of newly developed roots, and decreased root dry weight over a long time.
    2. Higher root temperatures resulted in higher sugar content and rate of respiration in newly developed roots.
    3. Higher root temperatures resulted in more water absorption by plants and a higher transpiration rate of newly developed leaves, whereas, root temperature showed little effect on water saturation deficit of newly developed leaves.
    4. Higher root temperatures resulted in less water-vapour diffusion resistance, although chlorophyll content decreased considerably. Net photosynthesis per leaf area of newly developed leaves decreased as root temperature increased; conversely, net photosynthesis per plant was increased.
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  • Tomohiro YANAGI, Yasaburo ODA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 635-640
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1. Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects and interaction of pre-chilling history and daylength on successive floral formation in everbearing and non-everbearing strawberry cultivars.
    2. The previously non-chilled plant material of five strawberry cultivars; everbearer of ′Rabunda′, and non-everbearers of ′Fukuba′, ′Hokowase′, ′Aiko′ and ′Kletter Erdbeere Hummi′, were grown in the growth chamber at a constant 20°C under 16 hour (16-LD) or 8 hour (8-SD) daylength for 30 days. The floral formation of ′Rabunda′, ′Aiko′ and ′Kletter′ was induced under 16-LD and 8-SD, whereas that of ′Fukuba′ and ′Hokowase′ was inhibited by 16-LD, and prmoted by 8-SD.
    3. Plants of ′Rabunda′, ′Kletter′ and ′Hokowase′ were stored at 1°C for 4.5 months till 5 April 1987, then transferred to growth chamber and grown at 20°C under 16-LD from 5 April to 18 June. Among these cultivars, only the ′Rabunda′ of everbearer continually formed flower buds during this experiment.
    4. ′Rabunda′ plants that had been stored at 1°C for 2 months till 29 January 1988 were grow at 20°C under 16-LD or 8-SD from 29 January to 29 March. At the end of photoperiodic treatment, the floral initiation of 16-LD plant had occured at an average of 2.2-node intervals in the terminal bud; 8-SD induced flower bud at an average of 3.6-node intervals in the terminal bud.
    5. The above mentioned results indicated that the non-chilled plant of ′Aiko′ and ′Kletter′ showed the similar photoperiodic response to the non-chilled plant of ′Rabunda′. On the contrary, pre-chilled plant of ′Kletter′ showed a different photoperiodic response from pre-chilled plant of ′Rabunda′. Therefore, it is apparent that everbearing strawberry exhibited successive floral formation due to its insensitivity to pre-chilling history and daylength.
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  • Masaharu MASUDA, Takeshi TAKIGUCHI, Sachiko MATSUBARA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 641-648
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv. ‘TVR-2’ were grown in a deepwater culture system. After pinching above the 5th truss, plants were treated with different strengths of the standard nutrient solution, and yield and quality of fruits as well as changes of mineral concentration in the nutrient solution were determined during the culturing period from the middle of April to the end of July. The standard nutrient solution contained NO3-N, P, K, Ca and Mg at the concentrations of 16, 4, 8, 8 and 4 meq/l, respectively.
    1. Both electric conductivity (EC) and concentrations of NO3-N, P, K in a half-strength solution decreased from planting to pinching, while concentrations of Ca and Mg remained as in the initial concentration. After the nutrient solution was replaced at the time of pinching, the EC value and concentrations of NO3-N, Ca and Mg tended to increase, but K concentration showed little change. Phosphorus was occasionally consumed before adding fresh water and minarals. In the standard strength solution, all the mineral concentrations were increased except P. This tendency was pronounced in a three-halves strength solution which showed a higher fluctuation range of mineral concentrations.
    2. Relationships between plant age and changes of mineral concentrations in a half-strength solution were examined. Concentrations of NO3-N and Ca in the solution cultures for 70-, 105- and 125-day-old plants were decreased, unchanged and increased, respectively, after 9 days culture. Concentrations of P and K were decreased irrespective of ages. Magnesium concentration was not changed in the solution culture for 70-day-old plants and increased in the solution for 105- and 125-day-old plants.
    The values of minerals absorbed (n') of NO3N, Ca and Mg per unit volume of water absorbed (w') were decreased as plants aged. The n'/w' values of P and K were nearly constant irrespective of ages, and were higher than those in the initial nutrient solution.
    3. The three-halves strength solution resulted in significantly higher soluble solids content and higher titratable acidity in tomato fruits juice. On the other hand, fruit yield was slightly decreased, and the percentage of cracked fruits and blossom-end rot fruits was also decreased.
    Therefore, increasing the strength of nutrient solution after pinching would improve fruit quality with only slight decrease in fruit yield.
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  • Shinichi ADANIYA, Moriyuki SHODA, Kunimitsu FUJIEDA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 649-656
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
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    Photoperiodic treatments were carried out with three Japanese cultivars (‘Kintoki’, ‘Sanshu’ and ‘Oshoga’) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). As day length was increased from 10h to 16h, the vegetative growth of the plants was enhanced, whereas it was inhibited and rhizome swelling was promoted as the day length was decreased from 16h to 10h. Further increase in day length from 16h to 19h did not give any rhizome swelling, and resulted in the lowering of the growth increment. The cultivar ‘Sanshu’ was most sensitive to photoperiod for rhizome swelling, but ‘Oshoga’ was relatively insensitive. In ‘Sanshu’ and ‘Oshoga’, many flower stalks bolted under the day length of 13h and 16h, but they emerged slightly or not at all under the day length of 10h, ND (decreasing natural daylength) and 19h. The photoperiodic response to flowering of ‘Kintoki’ was not very clear.
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  • Kaoru ISHIDA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 657-664
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Eggplant under different day lengths and light intensities was investigated as to the relationship between respiration rate, endogenous substances of cotyledons and the nodal position of the first flower bud to detect a substance that appears to be related to the promotion of flowering of plants.
    1. The nodal position of the first flower bud was highest at 8 hour day length, followed by 12 hour and natural day lenghts (about 11 hours). The time of maximum respiration rate at natural day length was earlier than that at 12 hour and 8 hour day lengths.
    At a maximum respiration rate, the nodal position at 8 hour day length was lower than at other day lengths. Among three day lengths, change of phosphate content showed a similar pattern to respiration rate. The content of nitrogen and total sugars decreased with age of the cotyledons.
    2. In non-shaded plants, the nodal position of the first flower bud was low and at respiration rate, contents of pyruvic acid and α-ketoglutanic acid were high. In shaded plants, the nodal position of the first flower bud was high and at respiration rate, contents of pyruvic acid and α-ketoglutanic acid were low. The content of steroids in shaded plants decreased gradually with age of the cotyledons, whereas in the non-shaded plants it increased rapidly until 11 days after germination and then decreased.
    3. The content of steroid ester in the cotyledons at high light intensity increased with age of the cotyledons, whereas the content of steroid increased 7 days after germination and then decreased.
    From these results, it suggested that the nodal position of the first flower bud is related to change in respiration rate and endogenous substances of the cotyledons.
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  • A. R. CHOWDHURY, M. ALI, M. A. QUADIR
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 665-671
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Different aspects of pollination and related floral biology of Lablab beans were studied at the Institute of Postradguate Studies in Agriculture, Salna, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Anthers and stigma of flower buds remained at close proximity to each other at their optimum maturity. The pollens reached complete maturity and stigma became fully receptive when the flower buds had their standard-base splitted. Healthy pollens could be obtained from the flower buds with their standard-base splitted but before anthesis. Successful emasculation and pollination could be done any time of the day with forenoon emasculation showing a slightly better result than afternoon emasculation. Equal success in crosses were obtained when pollination was done on the same day or on the following day of emasculation with one exception. Bagging after emasulation and pollination gave better results than without bagging.
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  • Takaya OSAWA, Hideo IKEDA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 673-678
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Bean, spinach, lettuce, and radish were grown in solution culture to investigate the effect of Fe concentration in the nutrient solution on Cu toxicities. Hoagland′s No. 1 solution was used as the basic nutrient solution. Copper was supplied at levels of 0.02, 0.3, 1, and 3ppm. At each Cu level Fe was supplied as Fe-EDTA at rates of 1, 3, 10, and 30ppm. The pH of the nutrient solution was adjusted to 5.
    1. At Fe 1ppm increasing Cu supply resulted in severe growth inhibition, and Cu 1 and 3ppm induced interveinal chlorosis on upper leaves except for lettuce. At the normal Cu level (0.02ppm), Fe 1ppm was sufficient for normal growth and a high level of Fe exceeding 10ppm was unnecessary or injurious. At Cu 0.3 and 1ppm, however, increasing Fe supply up to 3 or 10ppm was effective in alleviating the growth reduction and preventing the occurrence of chlorosis, especially in bean and spinach. At Cu 3ppm, where each of the crops showed severe dying off of older leaves and brownish discoloration of roots, increasing Fe supply prevented the occurrence of chlorosis but showed little effect in alleviating the growth reduction.
    2. The effect of increasing Fe supply at a suitable rate to reduce the Cu toxicity was considered to be due to the suppression of Cu accumulation especially in roots. The occurrence of chlorosis was associated with lowered concentration of 1N HCl soluble Fe in leaves, which suggested the precipitation of Fe in leaves.
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  • Toyoki KOZAI, Aki MASUKO, Koki KANAHAMA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 679-684
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A micro-computer software system was developed for representing a three-dimensional vascular model of melon plants. The vascular system model was composed of 10 parts, namely: placenta, fruit core, endocarp, exocarp, receptacle, peduncle, main stem, petiole and leaf blade. By using the software, these 10 parts can be drawn individually or in combination with each other, on the color display screen or the color graphic printer.
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  • Aki MASUKO, Toyoki KOZAI, Koki KANAHAMA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 685-690
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The three-dimensional vascular system of melon plants was drawn on the video color display screen or the color graphic printer by using the software which we developed (Kozai et al., 1989).
    The vascular system can be drawn in various ways perspectively by rotation around the x-, y-, z- and arbitrary axes., by scaling, deformation, clipping and hidden-line elimination etc. For examples, the vascular systems of bottle gourd and cucumber plants were drawn using the software.
    Each part of the vascular system can be drawn alone and in combination with each other plant.
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  • C. S. HEW, F. Y. LEE
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 691-695
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The growth and flower production of×Aranda Christine cv. “130” grown under tropical field conditions were studied. On the average, an Aranda orchid produced 2-5 leaves and an increase of 7cm in height per month for the first 18 months after transplanting. Cut flower production was evident only 5 months later. Aranda has 3 major flower peaks-April, June and December. Cut flower production of×Aranda Christine could be successfully staggered by floral bud removal. Through bud removal, it is possible to shift the flower production peak for 2 weeks. No apparent effect of bud removal on flowering and flower quality was observed as the subsequent flowering behaviour was normal.
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  • Morihiko HAMADA, Takashi HOSOKI, Kunio INABA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 697-704
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To obtain basic data necessary for various breeding targets of tree peony, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied using morphological characters of floral organs and foliage.
    1. In the results of principal component analysis, the first component (Z1) had a high correlation with items showing foliage size. The second component (Z2) had a high correlation with the number of leaves and the number of axillary buds. The third component (Z3) had a high correlation with items showing size of floral organs. The tested cultivars were separated on the plane showing component scores. ‘Kinkaku’ and ‘Kinshi’, which are hybrid cultivars between Paeonia lutea and Paeonia suffruticosa, were clearly marked off from the other cultivars (P. suffruticosa). The main morphological characters, which distinguished hybrid cultivars from the others, were flower stem length, flower neck length, leaf size and petal numbers.
    2. The tested cultivars were roughly divided into 6 groups by the cluster analysis. ‘Gunpohden’, which is hybrid cultivar between ‘Hanadaijin’ and ‘Kamatafuji’, belonged to the same group as the parents. ‘Yatsukajishi’, which is a seedling cultivar of ‘Hanakisoi’ belonged to another group. ‘Meijinohomare’ (Chinese cultivar) was separated clearly from the other Japanese cultivars. ‘Kinkaku’ and ‘Kinshi’ (hybrid cultivars) belonged to a completely different group.
    3. Thus, this analysis will facilitate to select breeding materials with various targets such as pot or cut flowers, otherwise it is difficult in the previous classification based on only flower morphology.
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  • Masayoshi SAWAMURA, Xiaolin YU, Tomoko MIYAZAKI, Yutaka OSAJIMA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 705-711
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The fruits of Yamamomo, ‘Kamezo’ and ‘Kanton’ (cultivars of Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) packaged in polyethylene bags (30μm thick) were stored at 20 or 2°C, using an ethylene removing agent (E.A.), nitrogen or a water-absorbing mat.
    1. Fruits produced about 3μl/kg/h of ethylene at the peak. The fruits at the breaker stage became full-ripe within two days after harvest, but neither endogenous nor exogenous ethylene stimulated pigmetation in immature yellow-green fruits.
    2. The firmness of ‘Kamezo’ decreased to less than 60% of initial firmness (220g/cm2) after 3 days at 20°C, but the use of E. A. resulted in retention of 80% of the initial firmness for 7 days. Nitrogen had no effect on keeping quality. The carbon dioxide level reached 10 to 13% at 20°C, but only 2 to 3% at 2°C. There were no physiological disorders such as chilling or carbon dioxide injury during cold storage.
    3. The initial firmness of ‘Kanton’ was 265g/cm2, but was reduced to 60% of this after 4 days. It seems that the shelf life of ‘Kanton’ would be one or two days longer than that of ‘Kamezo’. The rating of firmness remained at more than 80% of the initial value after 10 days at 2°C, and more than 90% after 6 days when E. A. was applied, or after 8 days when the water-absorbing mat was used together with E. A.
    4. The level of water-soluble pectins increased remarkably in the two cultivars at 20°C. Although it increased 2-fold in 7 days in ‘Kamezo’ at 2°C, there was no increase in ‘Kanton’ throughout 8 days.
    5. There were great differences between the ratios of reducing sugar (glucose+fructose) to sucrose in the two cultivars: 6.7 in ‘Kamezo’ and 0.21 in ‘Kanton’, measured in fresh materials. It was presumed that these differences related to the storage quality of the fruits.
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  • Akitsugu INABA, Yasutaka KUBO, Reinosuke NAKAMURA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 713-718
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The stimulative effects of exogenous ethylene on respiration and its relation to temperature were examined with various kinds of fruit and vegetables, excluding climacteric fruits. Fruits and vegetables could be divided into two groups from the observations of respiratory response to the applied ethylene: ethylene-sensitive and ethylene-insensitive groups. The first group showed an enhancement in the rate of respiration by ethylene in a range of temperature from 20°C to 35°C. But the ethylene effect on respiration in this group was much reduced at a temperature of 10°C or below. Fruits and vegetables belonging to this group were onion, sweet potato, potato, carrot, cucumber, eggplant, bell pepper, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, snap bean, and satsuma mandarin. The second group showed almost no response in respiration to ethylene at every temperature tested. This group included lettuce, spinach, podded pea, radish seedlings, parsley, shii-take, enoki-take, strawberry, grape, and Japanese pear.
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  • Etsuko KOZUKUE, Susumu MIZUNO
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 719-722
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is known that bamboo shoots possess a disagreeable pungent taste which are coiled ‘egumi’ in Japan. One of the egumi substances in the shoots was identified as homogentisic acid (HGA).
    This study is to determine HGA contents in the shoots obtained from different harvest times, size and cultivation places. Moreover, the changes in HGA contents in the shoots during the storage at 1°C and 20°C were determined.
    1. HGA content in the shoots harvested at an early time was 111-248μg/100gFW and it remarkably decreased with the approach to its best productive season.
    2. As for the size, HGA content was higher with the increase in the shoot weight.
    3. HGA content decreased continuously during storage at 1°C, but at 20°C no significant changes were found during 2 days of storage, and after that it decreased.
    4. The considerable changes in HGA content were found in the shoots produced in the various places.
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  • Takao MURATA, Kazuki YAMAWAKI
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 723-729
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Respiratory changes of several varieties of citrus fruits including Ponkan cv. Ota (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Iyo cv. Miyauchi (C. iyo Hort. ex Tanaka), navel orange cv. Morita (C, sinensis Osbeck var. brasiliensis), Hassaku (C. hassaku Hort. ex Tanaka), Natsudaidai cv. Kawano (C. natsudaidai Hayata), Sanbokan (C. sulcata Hort. ex Tanaka), Murcott (C. reticulata Blanco×C, sinensis Osbeck), Seminole (C. grandis Macfadyen×C. tangerina Tanaka), Minneola (C. paradisi Macfadyen×C tangerine Tanaka), and sweet orange cv. Liu Cheng (C. sinensis Osbeck forma Liu Cheng) during conditioning (curing of rind) at 20°C with two differnt humidities (64 and 92% RH) for 7 days and subsequent storage at 5°C were investigated to elucidate the role of conditioning for long-term storage of citrus fruits.
    1. The rate of weight loss of the fruits during conditioning and storage varied among different varieties. Among these varieties, Hassaku and Natsudaidai fruits showed less weight loss than other varieties during conditioning, while Ponkan, Iyo and Murcott tended to show much weight loss.
    2. The respiratory rates of the fruits including Hassaku, Natsudaidai, Sanbokan, Seminole, navel orange, Iyo and Ponkan were inhibited significantly by conditioning at low humidity. However, this significant inhibition of respiration was not observed in varieties of Murcott, Minneola and Liu Cheng.
    3. There was a significantly positive correlationship between changes in fruit weight and respiratory rate of the fruits in some varieties at the end of conditioning-period. Coefficient correlation (r) was found to be 0.902 for seminole, 0.819 for Natsudaidai, 0.748 for Iyo, 0.555 for Hassaku, 0.471 for navel orange, 0.430 for Ponkan, 0.420 for Sanbokan and 0.362 for Murcott, respectively. No significant correlation was found in varieties of Liu Cheng and Minneola.
    4. The inhibition of respiratory rate of the fruits including Ponkan, navel orange, Hassaku, Natsudaidai, Sanbokan, Minneola and Liu Cheng from conditioning was found to continue for considerable period of storage at 5°C. This tendency in the respiration was not observed in varieties of Iyo, Murcott and Seminole.
    From the above results, the role of conditioning for long-term storage of citrus fruits was discussed.
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  • Yasutaka KUBO, Akitsugu INABA, Reinosuke NAKAMURA
    1989 Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 731-736
    Published: 1989
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Under 60% CO2+20% O2+20% N2, the respiration rates of various fruits and vegetables, based on O2 uptake, were measured using an automated system aided by a micro-computer. With high CO2 treatment, O2 uptake rates of apples and melons declined to approximately one-half of the initial level. Ripening tomatoes and bananas also showed a respiratory reduction by high CO2 but these fruits, at pre-climacteric stage, showed little change in respiration. Exposure to high CO2 caused slight or no change in respiration with Natsudaidai (C. natsudaidai Hayata), lemons, potatoes, sweet potatoes and cabbage. Like the ripening climacteric fruits tested in this study, the respiration rate of broccoli was reduced by high CO2 exposure. In contrast, a stimulation in respiration by high CO2 was observed in lettuce, eggplants and cucumbers.
    These results demonstrate that respiratory responses to high CO2 were quite different with the kind of horticultural crops and their developmental stage, and raise a doubt as to the inhibitory effects of high CO2 on respiration, which has been accepted by most researchers.
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