Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 60 , Issue 3
Showing 1-27 articles out of 27 articles from the selected issue
  • Hiroyuki Fukuda, Fumitaka Takishita, Kazunori Kudo, Yoshiki Kashimura
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 495-503
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Dry matter production by 'Tsugaru' and 'Fuji' apple trees grafted on M.9 rootstock and planted at distances of 4 m × 2 m was evaluated over 4 growing seasons. The trees were 6 year old at the onset of the experiment.
    1. The average dry weight of the scion top portion of 'Tsugaru' trees attained about 70% of that of the vigorous 'Fuji' tops. However, the difference in the weight of the rootstock portion was rather small; the weight of the M.9 stock with 'Tsugaru' top was about 90% of the M.9 stock under 'Fuji' top. Consequently, the scion/rootstock dry weight ratio was smaller in the less-vigorous 'Tsugaru' trees.
    2. The average leaf area indices (LAIa) were 1.20 in 'Tsugaru' trees and 2.39 in 'Fuji' trees. The smaller value in the former cultivar may be attributed by fewer current shoots per tree as compared to those of the latter cultivar.
    3. The amount of dry matter produced annually during a growing season (DM) ranged from 4, 280 g to 10, 011 g per tree for 'Tsugaru', whereas it ranged from 9, 091 g to 13, 494 g for'Fuji'. There was a higher correlation between the DM and fruit dry weight (F).
    4. A higher correlation (r=0.96) existed between the amount of dry matter produced per unit leaf dry weight (DM/L) and fruit-leaf dry weight ratio (F/L) or fruit load, independent of the cultivar. Within the range of the fruit load, DM/L increased from 4.39 g to 7.83 g in 'Tsugaru', and from 4.17 g to 10.27 g in 'Fuji'. There was, however, no difference in DM/L between two cultivars, provided the F/L was comparable.
    5. The heavier the fruit load, the greater the proportion of photosynthates which was partitioned to the crop as compared to that partitioned to older wood and shoot. The growth of the older wood and shoot, however, was greater in 'Fuji' than in 'Tsugaru', when the F/L was comparable.
    6. An exponentional correlation existed between the DM/L value and leaf area per fruit. Its regression equation is:
    Y=35.54X-0.243 (r=0.83)
    A similar relation existed between the DM/L and the number of leaves per fruit. Its equation is:
    Y=14.69X-0.230 (r=0.84)
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  • Satoru Kondo, Jamnong Uthaibutra, Hiroshi Gemma
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 505-511
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The changes in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), internal ethylene concentration (IEC), anthocyanin and sugar content of the apple cultivars, Tsugaru, Senshu and Fuji, which have different harvest times, were investigated. The relation between these changes and maturation are discussed.
    1. The sucrose content became greater than that of glucose at 95 days after full bloom (DAFB) in 'Tsugaru', 107 DAFB in 'Senshu' and 124 DAFB in 'Fuji'. The increase in IEC also initiated at about the same times.
    2. The increase in ACC content in the pulp and peel coincided with that of IEC in 'Tsugaru'. However, this relationship was not evident in the late-harvest cultivar.
    3. The ABA content differed among the cultivars. In the early-harvest cultivar, the changes in ABA content in the pulp showed a similar pattern to the increases in ACC and IEC. A concomitant rise in ABA and anthocyanin content was also noted in the peel. Thus, this suggested that ABA, as well as ethylene, might be related to maturation and/or senescence, and might play a role in the coloring of apple in the early-harvest cultivar.
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  • Joon Taek Jang, Kenji Tanabe, Fumio Tamura, Kiyoshi Banno
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 513-519
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Forty-one Pyrus species and cultivars were analyzed for peroxidase isozyme phenotypes by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Five peroxidase isozyme phenotypes were specified for flower buds in Pyrus plants, and were consistent and repeatable. Intercultivar and interspecific polymorphism was not sufficient to permit reliable identification of every Pyrus plants examined. Bud sport could not be distinguished from the original cultivar. The genetic basis of polymorphism was unknown, being unable to compare the peroxidase isozyme genotype observed in a hybrid with that predicted on the basis of parental peroxidase isozyme genotype. Some of the local (Kanto Province) cultivars were specified by their peroxidase isozyme phenotypes.
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  • Goro Okamoto, Naoki Omori
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 521-529
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The poor set of normal seeded berries in 'Pione' grapes is attributed to the small number of fertilized eggs in the ovules. To examine the effect of nutrients and phytohormones on ovule development and pollen tube growth, young florets, about one week before bloom, were cultured in vitro on several media. Florets of 'Muscat of Alexandria', which is known to be a good setting cultivar, were cultured for comparison.
    The ovary size became larger in both cultivars as the concentration of inorganic components of Nitsch and MS media or only KNO3 of the Nitsch medium was increased. Ovule development and pollen tube growth, however, were inhibited in these enlarged ovaries, especially in 'Pione' pistils. The addition of 110 ppm NAA, GA or BA to the Nitsch medium inhibited ovule development and pollen tube growth in pistils of 'Pione', but we observed no significant change in ovary size. Pollen tube growth was inhibited in pistils of 'Muscat of Alexandria' cultured on medium containing water extracts of 'Pione' pistils; however, ovary growth and ovule development were not affected.
    From these results, we concluded that in florets of 'Pione', an excess of nitrogenous nutrients leads to severe inhibition of ovule development and pollen tube growth. Pollen tube growth inhibitors, detected abundantly in 'Pione' pistil extracts, do not appear to be inorganic or hormonal substances.
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  • Takaya Moriguchi, Yuri Ishizawa, Tetsuro Sanada, Sayuri Teramoto, Shoh ...
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 531-538
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Four peach cultivars differing in their maturation time and sugar composition were analyzed for the detection of seasonal changes in the content of sugars in the flesh and peduncle, and in the activity of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes. Besides the accumulation of sucrose as a major sugar at the mature stage in all the cultivars, the fructose content was similar to glucose content in 'Akatsuki' and 'Yuzora'. While in 'Naganoyaseito-early' and 'Hokimomo' the fructose content was low. Of the enzymes assayed, there were no clear differences in the activity among the peach cultivars. In all the cultivars, the sucrose synthase (SS) activity increased with sucrose accumulation, suggesting the importance of its role in sucrose accumulation in peach fruit. On the contrary, the sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) activity did not increase with sucrose accumulation. The acid invertase activity decreased with fruit development. The decrease in the acid invertase activity appeared to reflect fruit maturation, during which sucrose accumulated. The UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase activity was also assayed in these peaches throughout the development of fruit. However, typical seasonal fluctuations of the activity were not observed among the four cultivars. Kinetic parameters of SS from immature and mature peach fruit suggested that SS tended to be involved in sucrose synthesis in the mature peach fruit compared with the immature one. The differences in sucrose synthesis between peach and other fruits were also discussed, based on the activities and properties of these enzymes.
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  • Masami Morishita, Osamu Yamakawa
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 539-546
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The relationship between the earliness to flower and the sensitivity to flower bud induction was studied by exposing six Japanese strawberry cultivars to daylength 8-hr (SD) and night temperature 12°C (low °C) for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-day cycles. After a given treatment, 5 plants were dissected and observed microscopically for evidence of floral differentiation; 10 plants were simultaneously transplanted to the field to record the emergence data of the first and second flower clusters.
    1. All plants of 'Nyoho', 'Toyonoka', and 'Harunoka' formed flower buds after a 15-day treatment. 'Haruyoi' required a 20-day cycle, whereas some plants of 'Chiyoda' and 'Yachiyo' failed to form flower buds even after a 20-day treament. The first flower cluster on plants received sufficient cycles emerged between 20 Sept. and 4 Oct., whereas those on plants lacking sufficient cycles and transplanted to the field and exposed to natural daylength and temperatures emerged after 15 Oct. Our data indicate that the critical period of sensitivity to the SD/low °C treatment was 10 to 15-day cycles in 'Nyoho', 'Toyonoka' and 'Harunoka', 15 to 20-day cycles for 'Haruyoi', and more than a 20-day cycle for 'Chiyoda' and 'Yachiyo'.
    2. The first flower cluster on plants which did not receive a sufficient number of cycles emerged about the same time as did those on the control plants. This indicates that buds on the treated plants which were transplanted remained vegetative, but they subsequently accumulated the flowering stimulus at nearly the same rate as did the control plants growing under natural conditions.
    3. The second flower cluster on the plants which the emergence of the first flower cluster was hastened emerged about the same time or a little later than the first flower cluster on the control plants. This indicates that the SD/low °C treatment in this study acted only for the first flower cluster.
    4. By exposing strawberry cultivars to SD/low °C treatment, it is possible to select early flowering, June-bearing types by their sensitivity to the treatment.
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  • Satoshi Terabayashi, Ken Takii, Takakazu Namiki
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 547-553
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Water and nutrient uptake by tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL cv. Ohgata-Fukuju) plants during the day (7:00 to 19:00) and night (19:00 to 7:00) was estimated for 4 consecutive days during 4 seasons of the year. Percentage of uptake rate during the night to that of the 24-hr day is expressed as URN. URNs of phosphate ions ranging from 40 to 50% were always the highest among the nutrients examined. URN of water tended to be high during the cool seasons. Changes in URN of nutrients, except for Ca, did not always correspond to the URN of water.
    The balance between the cations and anions absorbed was calculated. More cations than anions were absorbed during the day but the situation was reversed at night. Electrical imbalance of either cations or anions was negligible when calculated for the entire day.
    These observations indicate that phosphate ions and other nutrients are taken up actively against the concentration gradient (culture solution) at night and that URNs of nutrients are influenced little by the rate of water uptake. Diurnal variations in phosphate ions uptake are small.
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  • Shozo Kubo, Nagao Shimada, Nobuyuki Okamoto
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 555-566
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The effects of nursery soils containing different levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg on the growth of cucumber, tomato, eggplant and melon seedlings and on their shape and nutrient content were assessed. Seedlings were grown in vinyl pots (10.5 cm diam.).
    1. The number of leaves per plant within a species varied little from plot to plot; the least variation was found among cucumber seedlings.
    2. Different mineral composition of nursery soils resulted in large variations in stem, leaf and shoot weights. These characteristics were highly correlated to each other, so that shoot weight alone might serve as a sole index of plant quality.
    3. Significant positive correlation existed between shoot and root weights only for tomato seedlings.
    4. In all cultivars tested, the variations in the ratios of leaf : stem weights and shoot weight : plant height attributable to nutrient levels in soils were small; whereas, the variation was large in stem : root and shoot: root ratios.
    5. No significant correlation was observed among each nutrient in their concentration and content in the seedlings except for N concentration and shoot weights of tomato and eggplant seedlings.
    We conclude that shoot and root weights and shoot: root ratio are dependable criteria for evaluating the quality of cucumber, tomato, eggplant and melon seedlings grown on soils having different nutrient levels.
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  • Shigeki Hasegawa, Takeaki Funakoshi, Naoki Katsura, Hiroshi Yoshioka
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 567-574
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Dormancy of Allium wakegi Araki is induced in late April or early May under the natural conditions of Japan. The dormancy of bulblets was dramatically broken by forced water infiltration and by removal of foliage scales.
    1. Water infiltration under pressures of 25 kPa and 200 kPa for one hour increased fresh weights of bulblets. This treatment shortened the number of days to sprouting 26 and 30 days, respectively, compared to the control bulblets which were dipped in water under normal atmospheric pressure of 100 kPa. A significant negative correlation was found between the amount of water absorbed by the foliage scales and storage leaves and the number of days to sprouting after treatment.
    2. Water infiltration by bulblets was accompanied by increased respiratory activities within 3 days of treatment.
    3. Breaking of dormancy by leaf removal depended on the number of scales removed. We conclude that dormancy of bulblets of Allium wakegi Araki is regulated by the foliage scales surrounding the apex. We postulate that water infiltration makes the amount of abscisic acid decreased in the foliage scale cells and results in the breaking of dormancy. Scale removal may have sharply decreased abscisic acid content in the same manner as water infiltration.
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  • Yuichi Yoshida, Yukihiro Fujime, Toshiaki Chujo
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 575-581
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The effects of temperature on growth and development of floral organs and fruit in large fruited strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Ai-Berry) were investigated. Plants were grown in 1) growth cabinets held at constant temperatures of 15°, 20° and 25°C; 2) cabinet in which the day temperature was 25°C from 6:00 to 18:00 and 15°C from 18:00 to 6:00 and 3) an unheated greenhouse.
    1. Before stamens differentiated, there was little difference in the rates at which flower development occurred in the treatments. However, after the onset of pistil differentiation, development of flower bud and pistil was hastened with higher temperatures.
    2. Compared to plants grown in an unheated greenhouse, those grown at 15°C had more rows of pistils on the receptacle, differences in their developmental stages between the distal and proximal region of receptacle were larger, and they bloomed earlier. However, the difference in developmental stages of the proximal and distal pistils on a receptacle was small in greenhouse-grown flowers; they produced fewer malformed fruits than those grown at 15°C.
    3. Fewer malformed fruits developed on plants kept at 20° or 25°/15°C than on those kept at the lower temperatures. However, the mean fruit weight on plants grown in the warmer cabinets was lighter than those from plants kept cooler.
    We conclude from these results that if the average air temperature is kept higher than 15°C during the floral differentiation period, it may be more conductive to reducing malformed fruits.
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  • Yoshihiro Kageyama
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 583-592
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    In Experiment I, the influence of nitrogen (NO3 -N) level in the hydroponic nutrient solution on the growth of young tomato plants of two cultivars was compared. Simultaneously, nitrogen uptake by the same plants was investigated during a 13-day period while the first cluster was flowering.
    Plants in Group 1 were supplied with 100 ppm of nitrate-N (100 ppm plot). The concentration was kept nearly constant by adding more N every other day to the culture solution for the duration of the experiment. Plants of Group 2 were set in a culture solution lacking nitrogen for the initial two days. On the third day and every other day thereafter, the amount of N equivalent to that utilized by Group 1 plants was added to the culture solution (0+α ppm plot). After the initial application of N, the N concentration in the 0+α ppm plot was kept at less 38 ppm until the experiment was terminated.
    1. The increases in fresh weight of plants in the two groups closely approximated each other except that plants of Group 2 maturated two days later.
    2. The growth rate of plants in the two treatments were proportional to the rate of N uptake.
    In Experiment II, 'Kyouryoku-beiju' tomato plants grown hydroponically in a two-truss culture system were administered N at a) constant concentration of 100 ppm; b) 4 g at the beginning of the experiment; or c) 2 g at the beginning of the experiment and 2 g again when the N in the culture solution was exhausted.
    1. The growth curves of tomato plants in the three plots were nearly identical until their fruits reached maximum size.
    2. The total amount of N absorbed per plant in the 100 ppm plot was about 1.7 times more than those plants which received a total of 4 g N/plant.
    3. The yield and nitrogen content of fruits from the 100 ppm plot were almost the same as those from the other two plots. The fresh weight of leaves and stem from the 100 ppm plot was 1.6 times more than those given 4 g N/plant. Thus, the nitrogen efficiency of fruit production (fruit yield per g N) of the 100 ppm plot was lower than those of the other two plots.
    4. The effect of N level on the accumulation of P, K, Ca, and Mg was also examined.
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  • Shoji Tachibana, Nobuyuki Konishi, Hiroomi Kanda
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 593-599
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Diurnal fluctuation patterns of in vivo and in vitro nitrate reductase activities in leaves and roots of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were studied. Nitrate reductase activity in roots, both in vivo and in vitro, was nearly constant throughout the entire day/night cycle, whereas, the activity in leaves exhibited a distinct diurnal fluctuation in both assay methods. In vitro nitrate reductase activity changed diurnally in a parallel manner with light intensity during the daytime, and it remained constant at a much lower level during the night. In vivo activity, however, did not follow the same pattern with in vitro activity. It was lowest at noon, and highest at dusk or 3 hr after sunset, depending on the date of measurements. When nitrate was omitted in the assay medium, in vivo activity was negligible in the early afternoon. Leaf nitrate content in the metabolic pool decreased after day light; it became negligible in the early afternoon but was restored after dark to the pre-dawn level. When plants were grown under artificial light, leaf in vivo activity increased steadily during the day, and peaked at 2.5 hr after dark. The reasons for the inconsistency of in vivo and in vitro nitrate reductase activities with respect to their diurnal fluctuation patterns are discussed.
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  • Mohammad Ali, Hiroshi Okubo, Kunimitsu Fujieda
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 601-612
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Hypocotyl explants from the seedlings of Solanum melongena, S. melongena var. insanum and their F1 hybrids showed embryogenic potential when cultured on murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 to 2.0 mg•liter-1 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D). Solanum gilo, S. integrifolium and their F1 hybrids with S. melongena did not produce embryogenic callus even on the MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D, indole-3-acetic acid, 3-indolebutyric acid, or 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, combined with or without 6-benzylaminopurine. Therefore, embryogenic response in Solanum through 2, 4-D appeared to be controlled by recessive gene(s), or this response was suppressed in interspecific F1 by intergenomic epistasis. Adventitious shoots were regenerated in all the Solanum species on hormone-free medium. However, only a few were produced in genotypes which showed embryogenic potential. In the histological study on somatic embryogenesis, secondary growth on embryogenic calli was observed to occur before pro-embryos developed. Sequential stages of somatic embryo development identical to those of zygotic embryo development was observed.
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  • Tatsumi Tokimoto
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 613-618
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    For the purpose of classification in Vitis spp. including wild species, according to external characters of the official standard, multivariate analysis was examined.
    Grading was done for 20 spp. with 167 characters through 6 years. These data were examined with their means of years, standard error, and inner corelation, and 56 characters were reserved for the analysis.
    Then, cultivars were classified into 25 clusters by with 23 connected characters.
    At last, characters were devided 4 parts (total, leaf and shoot, fruit, ripe twig), and cultivars were analysed by "quantification analysis No. 4 and No. 3", applying each cluster to a category, and distance of each cultivar was supposed by 2-dimension plate.
    By this method, Vitis species (V. amurensis; V coignetiae; V vinifera) can be classified clearly. 'Shiraga-budou' was appreciated the different species from V. amurensis. Classification of varieties can be done by use of "quantification analysis No. 3", but sometimes it was indistinct by much dispersion of their spots on the plate.
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  • Yuichi Yoshida, Michihiro Tokizane, Yukihiro Fujime, Toshiaki Chujo
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 619-625
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The duration of pistil differentiation and enlargement on the receptacle of primary flower buds of five strawberry cultivars were investigated to clarify the cause of malformation in 'Ai-Berry'. This clone produces fruits with immature achenes on the distal region of receptacle.
    1. 'Ai-Berry' had the largest number of rows of pistils between the base and apex of receptacles. The time interval between the onset of differentiation of the basal to the apical pistils was the longest compared to the other four cultivars. Except for the 'Hokowase', the rate of individual pistil differentiation was more rapid than it was in the other three cultivars. Hence, the duration for the complete differentiation of all pistils was the consequence of the large number of rows.
    2. Basal pistils of 'Ai-Berry' grew more rapidly than did those on the apex so that there was a large difference in ovary diameter and stage of development between them at anthesis. Moreover, the number of days from the end of pistil differentiaiton to anthesis was fewer than were those of the four other cultivars. Accordingly, fruit malformaiton in 'Ai-Berry' is a consequence of the pistils on the distal region of receptacle not being mature at anthesis so that they were probably not pollinated and did not set seeds.
    3. In 'Hokowase', the duration of pistil differentiation was shortest and the basal pistils compared to the distal ones grew most rapidly among the cultivars examined. Except for the 'Ai-Berry', the difference in ovary diameters between basal and distal pistils was greater in 'Hokowase' than in the other three cultivars.
    4. In contrast to 'Ai-Berry' and 'Hokowase', the apical pistils of 'Reiko', 'Toyonoka' and 'Nyoho' grew faster than did those on the base of receptacle. Hence, the difference in ovary diameters between them was not large at anthesis.
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  • Hui-min Xue, Hajime Araki, Ling Shi, Toshiro Yakuwa
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 627-634
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Induction of embryogenic callus was achieved from the basal plate with a shoot apex of the bulb and the aerial bulblet, and from a receptacle tissue in garlic (Allium sativum L.). Embryogenic callus was obtained from the basal plate on AZ medium supplemented with 1 to 10μM 2, 4-D, 10μM p-CPA and 1μM kinetin. The transformation was promoted more so by 2, 4-D than by p-CPA as the supplementary auxin. Embryogenic callus was induced from a garlic receptacle on BDS medium supplemented with 1 to 10μM NAA. BA was found to be inhibitory to induction of embryogenic callus. Somatic embryogenesis by calli obtained on the above media was confirmed by histological examinations. Large number of pro- and globular-stage embryos, some having irregular shapes, were observed. Some regenerated plants obtained from embryogenic calli on a medium supplemented with 1μM NAA and 5 to 10μM BA were successfully transferred to soil and grown to maturity.
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  • Toshinari Kanazawa, Susumu Seto, Yukari Mizukoshi, Toshiro Yakuwa
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 635-642
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    This study describes the seasonal development and corresponding changes in nutrient content in Allium victorialis L. ssp. platyphyllum Hult.
    1. Plants elongated rapidly from the sprouting stage to the end of the leafing stage in July; the leaves then gradually shrivelled during the defoliating stage between August and October. After attaining maximum diameter, bulb size remained nearly constant until the defoliating stage. During this stage, small undeveloped sprout leaf continued to elongate. Fresh and dry weights of plants increased proportionately with leaf elongation. After elongation ceased, both fresh and dry weights diminished slightly until September, then they both increased until November.
    2. The amounts of N and P per plant increased from April to August and remained at this level thereafter. K and Ca contents increased from April through June. With the loss of leaves, the amounts of K and Ca gradually decreased. These results indicate that the plants absorb nutrients actively during the period of rapid growth.
    3. Each element was most abundant in leaves during the stages of sprouting, flower stalk development, and flowering. The elements were translocated from leaves to the bulbs and roots as the leaves senesced and the bulbs matured. The amount in the undeveloped sprout leaf increased from June to November. Allium victorialis L. ssp. platyphyllum Hult. possess the highest P content among species of Allium.
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  • Seiichi Suzuki, Yutaka Hori
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 643-650
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Vegetative growth and flowering of Clematis terniflora DC. were favored by day/night temperatures of 24°/19°C and 30°/25°C under natural photoperiods of above 14-hr daylight from May through July. However, at 17°/12°C, the shoot growth was significantly delayed and no flower buds were differentiated.
    Even though plants were grown under favorable temperatures, shoot tips became necrotic when grown under an 8-hr day for one month during May or July. Flower buds were differentiated under natural photoperiods and 16-hr photoperiod, but not under 8-hr or 12-hr photoperiods. Buds require about one month under long days for flower induction to take place provided the shoot reached a minimum critical size which also requires about a month after budbreak. After differentiation occurred, continued exposure of plants to 16-hr days delayed flower bud development, bud break, and bloom dates compared to plants transferred to 8-hr days.
    Under natural photoperiods, sprays of 100 and 1, 000 ppm GA hastened both vegetative growth and flowering but decreased the number of flowers as compared to the non-sprayed control plants. Eight applications of GA at 15-day intervals compared to one spray treatment decreased the number of flowers markedly and more than half of the flowers produced were abnormal ones with degenerated anthers and undeveloped pistils. Moreover, among normal and abnormal flowers, there were found some flowers with more than 4 sepals and/or sepaloid stamens.
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  • Kazuo Yoneda, Hirofumi Momose, Satoshi Kubota
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 651-657
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The timing of flower stalk emergence and the onset and duration of flowering of hybrid juvenile (3-yr-old) and adult (6-yr-old) white-flowered Phalaenopsis plants as affected by an 8-hr day, natural daylength, and two temperatures and growing under varying light intensities were evaluated. The experiments were conducted in a growth chamber, greenhouse, and outdoors from July to late October. The short day trials lasted for 55 days.
    1. The 8-hr day advanced the emergence of flower stalks by 5 to 7 days in juvenile and adult plants held at 23°C as compared to those held under natural daylength (1986). Some plants held at 28°C produced stalks but they did not bear flowers.
    2. Short days advanced the date of flowering of both juvenile and adult plants at 23° and 22°C in 1986 and 1987, respectively. At 28°C, no flowers were initiated.
    3. Plants grown under 8-hr day had longer stalks and tended to have more flowers than those grown under natural daylength.
    4. Most flower stalks were borne at the fourth and fifth nodes below the uppermost leaf node.
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  • Kazuo Ichimura, Yukio Yamamoto
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 659-668
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Pollen tubes of Lilium longiflorum cv. Hinomoto grow in stylar canal exudates. The effects of the quantity of canal exudate and its promoting components on pollen tube growth were studied.
    1. When assayed in vitro, there was little difference in growth responses between self-incompatible 'Hinomoto' and cross-compatible 'Georgia' pollen placed on agar medium containing canal exudates.
    2. In in vivo assays in which canal exudates were injected into the stylar canal, the growth of 'Hinomoto' pollen tubes was promoted compared to those on water-injected pistils. The promotion was accelerated proportionally to the amount of canal exudate injected (expressed as carbohydrate concentration). There was no difference in the growth rates of pollen exposed to exudates from un-, self- or cross-pollinated pistils 24 hr after pollination.
    3. Boiled canal exudate or the high molecular weight fraction of the exudates promoted pollen tube growth equally well as did the untreated canal exudates.
    4. The bulk of the canal exudate consisted of carbohydrate and protein. The carbohydrate was mainly polysaccharides with an average molecular weight of 50, 000. Galactose and arabinose were the main sugar components of the polysaccharides, indicating that they were essentially arabinogalactans. The growth of 'Hinomoto' pollen tubes on its own pistil was promoted when commercial arabinogalactan was injected into the stylar canal.
    These results suggest that the inability of incompatible 'Hinomoto' pollen to grow in Lilium may be attributed to insufficient secretion of exudates. What directory regulates pollen tube growth is probably the quantity of the thermostable arabinogalactan present in the stylar canal.
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  • Yusuke Sakata, Ken-ichi Arisumi, Ikuo Miyajima
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 669-675
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The variations in some morphological characteristics along with the pigmental ones of Rhododendron kaempferi Planch., R. kiusianum Makino and R. eriocarpum Nakai distributing in southern Kyushu, were investigated.
    The populations of R. kaempferi in southern Kyushu showed much wider variations in flower-colour, flower-size and the occurrence of petal-blotch than those in northern Kyushu. Furthermore, in the former populations, anthocyanins of the delphinidin-series co-existed with the commonly occurring cyanidin-series, as compared with the latter whose anthocyanins were confined to the cyanidin-series. Hence, the southern populations of R. kaempferi seemed to have been resulted from the introgressions of other azaleas with anthocyanins of the delphinidin-series to the true forms.
    Extremely narrow variations in the morphological and pigmental characteristics were shown in R. kiusianum, suggesting that populations distributing at and around the summit of volcanic mountain, Mt. Karakunidake, represent true species. On the other hand, population of R. eriocarpum at the summit of Mt. Kaimondake showed wider variations in flower-colour and the occurrence of flavonoid pigments than that of Mt. Ontake in Tokara-Archipelago. These variations seen in the former might be the result of the introgression of R. kaempferi occurring near the habitat of R. eriocarpum at the summit of Mt. Kaimondake.
    In any case, the populations of R. kaempferi and R. eriocarpum in southern Kyushu exhibited wider variations and contained many peculiar individuals with respect to their floral characteristics. Therefore, we can easily adopt the more promising germplasms as the materials of future breeding among their natural variations.
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  • Shigeharu Motooka, Takahiro Hayashi, Yoshitaka Mima, Koh Konishi, Kuni ...
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 677-683
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    This research was done to develop a non-destructive and easy method for the measurement of in vitro plant growth by image processing. Video images recorded with a CCD (charge coupled device) video camera at a fixed distance were digitized with a digitizing board housed in a personal computer. The shadows arising from the culture vessel and medium were eliminated from the digitized images with commercially available graphic software. The picture element number of the processed plantlet images was counted with an original program (N88-BASIC compiler). The optimum number of measurements per sample and the optimum depression angle of the video camera to the vessel were identified.
    Regardless of the kind of culture vessel, plant species, and number of plantlets per vessel, the picture element numbers were correlated with actual data obtained manually for the growth parameters of plant height, leaf number, leaf area, fresh weight, and dry weight. When the plantlets were measured from the direction in which the plantlet image area was largest and at the depression angles of 0° to 20°, the correlation coefficients were highest. Only one measurement at that position was enough for calculation of the plant growth parameters.
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  • Takaaki Fukushima, Toshio Kitamura, Hideki Murayama, Toshiyuki Yoshida
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 685-694
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    To study the mechanism by which astringency is removed by ethanol, 'Hiratanenashi' kaki fruits held in a closed container were exposed to 35% ethanol or 5% acetaldehyde solutions. The container was equipped so that the interior atmosphere could be sampled through a special port on the lid to avoid carbon dioxide buildup.
    Initially, the flesh acetaldehyde content was almost equal in fruits in both treatments. The rate of disappearance of astringency was faster in fruits treated with ethanol than was that in those treated with acetaldehyde. To ascertain the amount of astringency removed via the non-enzymatic loss of acetaldehyde, the relationship between the acetaldehyde content (Y) and loss of astringency (X) was determined by using boiled or heated fruits. These fruits were previously exposed to various concentrations of acetaldehyde solution for 2 days.
    The resulting equation was: Log Y =1.5X -0.27; r =0.851.
    Ethanol treatments caused a slight decrease in astringency during the first 2 days, followed by a rapid loss during the subsequent 2 days. However, the flesh acetaldehyde content on the 4th day after ethanol treatment ranged from 15 to 35% of that calculated by the empirical equation when the loss values from the 2nd to 4th day were substituted.
    Ethanol treatment increased osmotic pressure and the bound water content of the hydrated flesh tissues. These increases were also pronounced between the 2nd to 4th day of exposure. Moreover, when boiled fruits were dried at 90°C in an air-circulating oven, astringency in the flesh disappeared rapidly, concomitant with dehydration and gain in osmotic pressure.
    Removal of astringency in kaki fruits was also accomplished by vacuum infiltrating 100 ppm solution of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) or indoleacetic acid (IAA). When only the calyxes were submerged in IAA solutions for 2 nights, the fruit lost all astringency within 12 days.
    These results indicate that ethanol causes the disappearance of astringency, firstly, by a non-enzymatic mode of acetaldehyde breakdown, and secondly, by free water being bound to hydrophilic surfaces of break-down products of cell wall polysaccharides, thus increasing the osmotic pressure. The latter mechanism, termed osmotic dehydration, may induce polymerization of tannin molecules that lead to the formation of large complex polymers having hydrogen and hydrophobic bondings.
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  • Hiroyuki Itamural, Toshio Kitamura, Satoshi Taira, Hisashi Harada, Nor ...
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 695-701
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The relationship between fruit softening, ethylene production and respiratory activity in the Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) was studied to investigate the role of ethylene. The effects of ethanol treatment on ethylene production and flesh softening were studied concurrently.
    1. At every stage of fruit development, increases in ethylene and carbon dioxide evolution by the harvested fruits were observed even though fruits were still firm. Ethylene evolution either preceded or coincided with a rise in the repiration rate, independent of fruit maturity.
    2. Ethylene production increased rapidly 24 hr after ethanol treatment, whereas the flesh began to soften after 48 hr. The higher the concentration of ethanol, the faster were the rates of ethylene evolution and fruit softening. The alcohol treatment, which removes astringency, also hastened the abscission of the calyxes as compared with the untreated control fruits.
    3. Carbon dioxide, which is also used to remove astringency, depressed the rates of ethylene evolution and respiration and delayed the rate of fruit softening, as compared with the untreated control fruits.
    These results suggest that ethylene is probably an activator of the mechanism which leads to fruit softening in the Japanese persimmon 'Hiratanenashi'.
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  • Bo Ning, Yasutaka Kubo, Akitsugu Inaba, Reinosuke Nakamura
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 703-710
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Ripening characteristics of the Chinese pear 'Yali', Japanese pear 'Nijisseiki', and European pear 'La France' on and off the tree were compared.
    Respiration rates of all three kinds of pear fruit on the tree increased slightly during the late stage of maturation. A typical climacteric pattern was observed in stored fruit of 'Yali' and 'La France', but not in those of 'Nijisseiki', independent of their maturity.
    Ethylene production by intact fruit was detected just before the 'Yali' fruit abscised and during the late mature stage of 'La France', but none was detected in 'Nijisseiki' fruit even at the overripe state. Ethylene production in the stored fruit of 'Yali' and 'La France' showed a marked climacteric pattern which was accompanied by corresponding changes in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) activity. Stored 'Yali' fruit evolved a large volume of ethylene, reaching a maximum of 380 nl/g•hr. The rate of ethylene production at the climacteric peak was progressively lower as the harvest date was delayed. Contrarily, stored 'Nijisseiki' fruit disclosed an unusually high ACC content but a low level of EFE activity while evolving no ethylene.
    A drastic decline in starch and a slight increase of sugar were commonly observed in the three pear cultivars during their maturation process. However, their composition of sugars differed. In 'Yali' and 'La France', fructose was the predominant sugar throughout the maturation and ripening stages, whereas, in a ripe 'Nijisseiki' fruit, sucrose was the dominant sugar.
    Malic acid was the predominant acid in the three pear cultivars. No sharp changes in acid content occurred in 'Yali' and 'Nijisseiki' fruits while they were maturing, but malic acid content increased briefly in 'Yali' fruit as it ripened. Malic acid level in 'La France' increased steadily while the fruit matured but the level declined rapidly as the fruit ripened.
    During maturation on the tree fruit firmness decreased gradually in 'Yali' and 'Nijisseiki' but rapidly in 'La France' during maturation. 'Yali' fruit remained relatively firm during storage but those of 'La France' softened rapidly, whereas those of 'Nijisseiki' softened gradually. We found that 'Yali' fruit retained their firmness even though they produced voluminous amounts of ethylene.
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  • Jun Ping Gao, Yasutaka Kubo, Reinosuke Nakamura, Akitsugu Inaba
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 711-717
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The mechanism which induces the ethylene evolution in the fig 'Masui-Dauphin' and Japanese persimmon 'Hiratanenashi' was investigated by treating the fruits with rape seed oil and ethanol.
    The rape seed oil, which was injected through ostiolum of the fig fruit harvested at preclimacteric stage, induced a rapid ethylene evolution, similar to that obtained by treatment with exogenous ethylene. In oil-treated fruits, the activity of ethylene forming enzyme (EFE) increased markedly, attaining a level about 12 times that of control after 24 hr, but 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) level increased gradually. The application of 2, 5-norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action, inhibited both EFE activity and ACC accumulation, which led to a significant suppression of ethylene production within 48 hr of the oil treatment. Ethylene production induced by oil was almost competitively inhibited by aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), an inhibitor of ACC synthase. The ethylene production by persimmon fruit slices was also induced by infiltrating oil into the tissue, but this treatment was less effective as compared to responses observed in the fig.
    Ethanol vapors induced rapid ethylene evolution in the fig and persimmon fruits which were harvested at a preclimacteric stage. In the fig, EFE activity increased to a maximum level with vapor concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 ml ethanol per 100 g fresh fruit weight, but the. activity decreased with continuous increases in ethanol concentration. The flesh ACC content, however, tended to increase with much higher ethanol concentration. Ethylene production induced with ethanol was almost competitively prevented by AOA.
    These data suggest that the inducing effect of oil and ethanol on ethylene production in the fig and persimmon fruits is likely the result of a biochemical stress which activates the ACC-ethylene biosynthesis system.
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  • Haruyuki Kuroda, Shonosuke Sagisaka, Kazuhiko Chiba
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 719-728
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    To clarify the biochemical mechanism of differences in cold hardiness among woody species, the degree of cold hardiness and the activities of enzymes related to peroxide-producing systems and peroxide-scavenging systems were compared among 9 species containing 3 cultivars of the genus Malus in midwinter.
    1. The twigs of the genus Malus could be divided into four classes with respect to cold hardiness as follows:
    Tender; M. pumila Mill. var. domestica Schneid. cv. Jonathan, M halliana Koehne
    Moderately tender; M. pumila Mill. var. domestica Schneid. cv. Delicious, M. asiatica Nakai
    Moderately hardy; M. pumila Mill. var. domestica Schneid. cv. McIntosh,
    M. prunifolia Borkh. var. ringo Asami, M. sieboldii Rehd.,
    M. sieboldii Rehd. var. arborescens, M. platycarpa Rehd.
    Hardy; M baccata Borkh., M. astracanica Dum.
    2. In the living bark and xylem of twig of the genus Malus in midwinter, the activities of enzymes related to the peroxide-scavenging systems were higher in M. pumila var. domestica (3 cultivars), M astracanica, M asiatica and M. baccata than in other species tested. A similar result was also observed in the activities of NADH-Cyt c reductase (NADH-CcR) and Cyt c oxidase (CcO), enzymes that are related to the peroxide-producing systems. With some exceptions, the activities of enzymes in the peroxide-scavenging systems showed a significant degree of correlation with the activities of NADH-CcR or CcO. High correlation coefficients were obtained between the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and the activities of NADH-CcR (living bark, r= +0.944**; xylem, r= +0.877**) and CcO (living bark, r= +0.973**; xylem, r= +0.937**).
    3. The ratio of the activity of NADH-CcR to that of G6PDH or of CcO activity to that of G6PDH was defined as the index of cellular status that represented susceptibility to oxidation stress (oxidizability index, OI) and the relationship between the values of OI and the cold hardiness of twigs was investigated. No relationship was found between the cold hardiness of twigs and the values of OI in the living bark. However, the cold hardiness of twigs showed a significant negative correlation with the ratio of the activity of NADH-CcR to that of G6PDH (r= -0.793**) and with that of the activity of CcO to the activity of G6PDH (r= -0.662*) in the xylem. Thus, the cold hardiness of twigs in the species and cultivars examined decreases with an increase in the values of OI in the xylem.
    From these results, it appears that the cold hardiness of twigs of the genus Malus in midwinter is closely related to the peroxide metabolism in the xylem.
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