Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 62 , Issue 4
Showing 1-29 articles out of 29 articles from the selected issue
  • Testuro Sanada, Kenji Sagisaka, Junichi Soejima, Takaya Moriguchi, Say ...
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 689-693
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The intermediate resistance to black spot disease in the induced mutant, 'Gold Nijisseiki (γ-1-1)' was characterized by the appearance of necrotic symptoms only on young leaves treated with the host-specific toxin solution. To examine whether the intermediate resistance is genetically transmissible to the F1 seedlings from crosses between 'Gold Nijisseiki' and resistant or susceptible cultivars, the degree of resistance to the disease in the F1 seedlings was evaluated. For the identification of the seedlings with intermediate resistance in the F1 generation, the application of toxin solutions at 0.1 and 5 ppm to the disks from the 1st and 5th leaves was a reliable method. By using this method, many seedlings with intermediate resistance were identified in the F1 generation only when 'Gold Nijisseiki' was used as the parent. The segregation ratios in the F1 generation suggested that an incomplete recessive mutation was induced in the L-II cell layer of the mutant, 'Gold Nijisseiki'.
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  • Takayuki Ohtsubo, Fukio Ikeda
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 695-700
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seasonal Changes in the content of cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin, in seeds of mume (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) 'Gessekai', 'Bungo' and 'Baigo' were investigated.
    1. Total cyanogenic glycosides increased throughout the seed development. In the early stages, the ovule contained relatively high amounts of prunasin which disappeared at the onset of Stage II of fruits development. Concurrently, amygdalin appeared and continued to increase until fruit harvest. Amygdalin attained a maximum of 47g•kg-1 of embryo on a fresh weight basis at maturity, whereas prunasin in the endosperm tissue attained a maximum of 10g•kg-1.
    2. Mume fruits exhibited a double-sigmoidal growth pattern. The first slow growth period coincided with the period of decrease in prunasin content in endosperm along with rapid amygdalin increase in the embryo.
    3. Cyanogenic glycoside content varied among the cultivars evaluated, 'Bungo' and 'Gessekai' had the highest and lowest cyanogenic glycoside content, respectively. The reverse can be observed with flowering period. 'Gessekai' is an early flowering type than 'Bungo'.
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  • Kenji Murata, Kenichi Kitagawa, Testuo Masuda, Kosuke Inoue, Kazuo Kot ...
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 701-706
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Black spot disease, caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, is one of the most serious diseases of the Japanese pears, 'Nijisseiki', 'Shinsui' and 'Osanijisseiki' a self-compatible spontaneous mutant of 'Nijisseiki'. The susceptibility is controlled by a single dominant gene; the above susceptible cultivars are heterozygous, whereas the resistant ones are recessive homozygous. By chronic irradiation of gammarays at the Gamma Field of Institute of Radiation Breeding, NIAR, a mutant (γ-1-1) was produced resistant to the black spot disease from 'Nijisseiki'. The mutant was discovered in 1981, and was registered in 1991 as a new Japanese pear 'Gold Nijisseiki'.
    Between 1987 and 1990, dormant scions of 'Shinsui' and 'Osanijisseiki' were irradiated by acute irradiation, total exposure of 60 and 80 Gy at the dosage of 2.5 Gy per hour, to obtain more mutants resistant to the black spot disease. Irradiated dormant scions were top-grafted on mature tree of Japanese pear 'Yakumo' and 'Hakko' in the orchard of the Tottori Horticultural Experiment Station. Rate of graft-take and growth of grafted scion are varied between 'Shinsui' and 'Osanijisseiki'. A difference in the rate of graft-take between scions exposed to 60 and 80 Gy was observed, but no difference in the rate of subsequent growth of grafted scions between dosages in each cultivar was noted.
    After treatment with the crude host-specific toxin on the 4th leaf on each developed shoot, resistant mutants to black spot disease of 'Shinsui' (IRB 502-11T) and 'Osanijisseiki' (IRB 502-12T) were selected in 1989 and 1990, respectively. These induced mutants exhibited the same type of intermediate resistance to the black spot disease as 'Gold Nijisseiki'. We are examining the two mutants for additional horticultural characteristics, such as tree growth potential, fruit quality, and self-compatibilitiy.
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  • Yoshiki Kashimura, Kazunori Kudo, Yoshitake Kato, Tadayuki Gomi, Takao ...
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 707-715
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To elucidate the influence of orchard site parameters on fruit quality of 'Fuji' apple grafted on M. 26 rootstock, the crops from 41 orchards located about Shiwa Town, Iwate Prefecture, Japan were analyzed by the quantification theory (1)
    1. High positive correlations were found among total sugar content, titratable acid content, and flesh firmness. Principal component analysis applied to the three characteristics revealed that the first component represented fruit quality, whereas the second, apparent fruit maturity. The orchard site parameters seemed to affect the two components in different ways. The more solar radiation to which the apple trees were exposed, the higher was their fruit quality. On apparent fruit maturity, however, soil texture had greater influence than the quantity of solar radiation.
    2. Contents of each sugar were also analyzed by principal component analysis, based on their significant correlations. The first principal component represented total sugars, whereas the second component was the difference between reducing sugar and nonreducing sugar contents. The first component made a major contribution to the difference in total fruit sugar contents among the orchards. Because orchard site parameters affected the first component somewhat differently from that on the second component, they may have influenced fruit sugar composition.
    3. Oxidation (browning) of the juice was closely related to the soil type of the orchard. The juice of fruits harvested from trees grown on volcanic ash and alluvial soils did not brown as fast as juice of fruits collected from trees grown on red-yellow soils. The browning tendency was seemingly related to the soil nitrogen content.
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  • Masahiro Nakamura
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 717-723
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1. Anthocyanoplasts (ACPs) in epidermal and subepidermal (third layer) cells in the skin of 'Kyoho' grape berries were first observed on 5 September, a week after the beginning of skin coloring (veraison). Subsequently, the percentages of cells with ACPs increased steadily and reached 100% in both cells on 22 September. Meanwhile, the number of ACPs per cell increased faster in the subepidermal cells than that in the epidermal cells; their respective counts were 135 and 10 on 5 September and 74 and 8 on 22 September.
    2. Only one ACP per cell enlarged rapidly in the epidermal and subepidermal cells. The remainder in the former also enlarged but gradually, whereas those of the latter remained unchanged in size. Diameters of the largest ACP per cell in the epidermal and subepidermal cells on 22 September were 0.013 and 0.014 mm, respectively.
    3. When berries were cultured in vitro just before coloring, few ACPs were observed in the epidermal cells and their maximum size was 0.006mm, whereas ACPs were lacking in the subepidermal cells.
    4. Anthocyanin content in the in vitro cultured berries increased rapidly from the onset. Six days later, it was higher than that of intact berries harvested on 5 September. Ten days later, the cultured berries had anthocyanin content twice that of intact berries harvested on 22 September.
    5. When a piece of skin from berries with poor color was permeated with an alkali solution, the vacuoles of the epidermal cells without ACPs became deformed and caused the tonoplasts to rupture. However, just before the rupturing, a large number of ACPs appeared in the vacuoles.
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  • Toshihiko Takagi, Hiroo Mukai, Tamayo Ichikawa, Tetsuo Suzuki
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 725-731
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Color development of satsuma mandarin fruit grown under different temperature conditions in autumn was investigated in relation to the changes in sugar content and composition in the peel and juice.
    1. The sugars in the juice and peel were primarily sucrose, glucose and fructose. Sugar content of the peel increased rapidly from late-September, following that of the juice; the increase was mainly due to a rapid increase in reducing sugars.
    2. A lower temperature during coloring stage resulted in greater accumulation of total sugar in both the juice and peel. It also resulted in an accumulation of sucrose in the juice, and reducing sugars in the peel. High temperature tended to delay the degreening process which was accompanied by a small sugar accumulation in the peel.
    3. Color development of the peel was pursued in an in vitro culture where the peel discs were placed on an agar medium containing various ratios of sugars. A high proportion of reducing sugars to sucrose in the medium promoted degreening.
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  • Toshihiko Takagi, Hiroo Mukai, Ryuji Ikeda, Tetsuo Suzuki
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 733-738
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The experiment was undertaken to promote an enlargement of frost-induced seedless loquat fruit through applications of gibberellic acid (GA) and GA combined with N- (2-chloropyridyl) -N'-phenylurea (KT).
    Spraying with an aqueous solution of 500 ppm GA or 500 ppm GA+20 ppm KT greatly stimulated frost-induced seedless fruit to attain the same size as seeded control ones. The GA-treated seedless fruits were more slender but had a thicker pulp, compared to seeded untreated fruits. Application of GA + KT was more effective for enlargement than a single application of GA. If sprayed immediately after a frost, the enlargement response of the seedless fruits was significant. Although treated seedless fruits turned yellow earlier, the total soluble solids contents in the juice at harvest were slightly lower than that of seeded fruits. No difference in titratable acidity was found between the treated and control fruits.
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  • Naosuke Nii, Katsunori Hase, Hideaki Uchida
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 739-747
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The development of the nacreous cell wall in the sieve tube of the petiole, fruit stalk, and root in four Rosaceae fruit trees: loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) ; peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.) ; apple (Mains domestica L. Borkh.) and Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) was observed. In addition, the soluble carbohydrate contents in these organs and in the leaves and fruits were determined.
    The organelles in the cytoplasm of the sieve tube elements in petioles of young, unexpanded peach leaves were observed. As the nacreous cell wall enlarged into the cytoplasm, the organelles began to degenerate and virtually disappeared when the cell wall of the sieve tube ceased to elongate. At the beginning of the nacreous cell wall formation in peach petioles, the p-protein body appeared in the cytoplasm of the sieve tube, then the p-protein body dispersed into cytoplasm during the cell wall thickening.
    Ingrowth of the cell wall occurred in the sieve tubes of the petioles in all species examined. Its degree of development in the fruit stalk was species dependent; the ingrowth was thickest in the loquat, it was moderately thick in the peach and least thick in the apple and Japanese pear. The nacreous cell wall in sieve tubes of the loquat root was moderately thick; it was less thick in apple roots. Only a narrow nacreous cell wall in roots of the peach and Japanese pear was observed.
    By examining the morphology of the phloem tissue, we hope to establish a relationship between the ingrowth degree of the nacreous cell wall in the sieve tubes of the petiole, fruit stalk, and root of Rosaceae fruit trees, which differed among species and organs, and the soluble carbohydrate transported therein.
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  • Mohammad Mizanur Rahman, Nobumasa Nito
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 749-754
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The inheritance and linkage of leaf glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.1; GOT) isozymes variants were studied in Microcitrus species hybrids, using vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). GOT isozyme activities, detected in three zones on the gels, are controlled by three loci, Got-1, Got-2, and Got-3. These loci are inherited in a simple Mendelian manner. Independent assortments were observed for isozyme loci Got-1/Got-3 and Got-2/Got-3, whereas that of Got-1/Got-2 was not confirmed. The presence of three alleles, 'R' and 'n' (null) at Got-2 and 'n' (null) at Got-3, are proposed.
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  • Mohammad Mizanur Rahman, Nobumasa Nito
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 755-760
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Leaf isozymes of glutamate oxaloaceate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.1; GOT) in the "true citrus fruit trees" group of Citrinae were analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among them. Segregation at each of three loci, Got-1, Got-2 and Got-3 of GOT isozymes in the progenies obtained from intergeneric crosses between Citrus and Microcitrus species followed a simple Mendelian inheritance, suggesting that Microcitrus and Citrus species have similar genetic systems and the species of these two genera are closely related to each other. Some common alleles at the three loci controlling GOT isozymes were recognized between the genera of "true citrus fruit trees". These findings suggest that a genetic identity is conserved among the "true citrus fruit trees" group; even some of them climatically, geographically and reproductively isolated.
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  • Takuro Kikuchi, Yunosuke Shiozaki, Takenori Asada, Osamu Arakawa
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 761-768
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Light and fruit distributions within foliar canopies were measured on three 27-year-old 'Fuji'/Marubakaido (Malus prunifolia Borkh. var. ringo Asami) apple trees trained to a traditional flat open-center system developed in Japan. The canopies extended more horizontally than in depth and were interspersed with many open spaces. The percent instantaneous incident photosynthetic photon flux density (%INPPFD) was measured with quantum sensors on overcast days in mid-September and early November. Measurements were taken on four vertical plane grids placed through the center of each tree with an angle of 45 degrees made by two neighboring grids. Because of the canopy conformation, the imaginary lines connecting points of equal %INPPFD (contour lines) extended along the horizontal plane, suggesting a prevailing influence of the light from above on the within-tree environment. The canopy area receiving less than 20% INPPFD was fairly limited in depth. The depth of the main cropping zone was estimated from the contour maps at a mean height of 1.7m. More than 50% of the fruits were distributed in the canopy area receiving 40% or less INPPFD. Relatively large fruits were found in the zones receiving 20% or less INPPFD. Light measurements in early November revealed that the leaf removal practice to obtain better fruit coloration significantly improved light environment within the canopy, almost eliminating the areas receiving 20% or less INPPFD.
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  • Hiroyuki Miura, Mio Yoshida, Atushi Yamasaki
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 769-774
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Toyonoka, plants were grown from October onward in two glasshouses where the air temperature was controlled at either 15°or 19 °C night and day. Several days after pollination, the diameter of all the fruits in the first inflorescence (truss) was measured at approximately two-day intervals, and fully red ripe fruits were sampled. The growth of the fruits showed a double sigmoidal curve in all ranks of the inflorescence at both temperatures. The growth was faster in the higher rank fruits that developed earlier and at 19 °C than in the lower rank fruits and at 15 °C. Fresh and dry weight per fruit was larger in the higher rank fruits and at 15 °C (mean of all fruits; 0.879 g DW) than in the lower rank fruits and at 19 °C (mean of all fruits; 0.774 g DW). The total numbers of ripe fruits per inflorescence (plant) were slightly smaller at 19 °C. The values of the total fruit fresh and dry weight per inflorescence (plant) were much lower at 19 °C. The bearing fruit period from the flowering of the first flower to the ripening of the last fruit in the inflorescence was 88 days at 15 °C and 69 days at 19 °C, respectively. The daily dry weight increments of total fruit in the inflorescence (per plant) were 0.170 g at 15 °C and 0.151 g at 19 °C. It was considered that the small size of the fruits at a high temperature like 19 °C was not caused by the increase in the number of fruits. but by the low rate of dry matter accumulation in fruit.
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  • George Oduro Nkansah, Tadashi Ito
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 775-780
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Comparative studies on growth and development of young heat-tolerant tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Shuki) and non heat-tolerant one (cv. Sataan) grown under four root-zone temperatures (RZT) were carried out. Growth rates were measured at RZT of 15°, 20°, 25°, and 30°C. Plants in study 1, were grown for 10 days (21 to 31 days after sowing) and in study 2, 21 days (21 to 42 days after sowing). Optimum growth in both cultivars occurred at 30°C in plants grown for 10 days and at 25°30°C in plants grown for 21 days. Cultivar 'Shuki' had greater shoot fresh and dry weight, greater root dry weight and greater leaf area than 'Sataan' at all RZT. Cultivar 'Shuki. had greater NAR compared to 'Sataan' at all RZT. Significant and possitive correlations existed among growth parameters at all RZT in both cultivars. Biomass or carbohydrate production between the two cultivars at the end of 21 days was significantly different at RZT of 20°C and 25°C. The results indicate that the heat-tolerant cultivar, 'Shuki', is a better biomass or carbohydrate producer than the non heat-tolerant cultivar, 'Sataan'.
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  • George Oduro Nkansah, Tadashi Ito
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 781-788
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relationships between physiological characters; photosynthesis (Pr), transpiration (E), stomatal conductance (Gs), and yield of three heat-tolerant tomato (Lycopersicon esculentuin Mill.) cvs. Shikiaka, Shuki and Ohio 7663, non heat-tolerant cv. Sataan; and two tropical cvs. Owusu-Bioh and Wosowoso, grown at 40°/23°C day/night temperatures were examined.
    Physiological characters were measured at air temperatures of 20°, 30°, and 40°C. Pr for heat-tolerant cultivars pooled at the seedling stage (57 leaves) was significantly greater than non heat-tolerant cultivars at 20° and 40°C. Pr, E, and Gs, at the flowering and early fruit development stage (1315 leaves) were significantly higher in the heat-tolerant cultivars compared to the other cultivars at all temperatures. Pr at the seedling stage did not significantly correlate with yield but Pr, E and Gs were significantly correlated with fruit yield at the flowering and early fruit development stage. A linear relationship between Pr and Gs and between E and Gs revealed a close and significant consequential relationship between E and Pr. Regressions among physiological variables were not homogenous among/between cultivars. Regressions between Pr, E, Gs, and yield were heterogenous among/between cultivars. Heat-tolerant cultivars had greater yields than the other cultivars. The results indicate that yield significantly and positively correlated with Pr, E. and Gs.
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  • Nobukatsu Fujii, Masami Watanabe, Yukio Watanabe, Noritsugu Shimada
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 789-794
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The relationship between oxalate synthesis and glycolate pathway in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Sunlight) was studied by exposing seedling to 1, 000 ppm CO2-enriched atmosphere. It was observed that CO2-enrichment increased the content of ascorbic acid but decreased that of oxalate. It was presumed that reducing the rate of glycolate synthesis would reduce the content of oxalate.
    Mature leaves of spinach grown under normal conditions, were fed with [2-14C] glycolate and [1-14C] ascorbic acid to compare their contribution as a precursor of oxalate. Using the values of the 14C distribution to oxalate, photorespiratory glycolate metabolic rate and the turnover rate of ascorbic acid, the rate of oxalate synthesis was calculated. It was observed that glycolate was more efficient as a precursor of oxalate synthesis than it was for ascorbic acid.
    From these results, we postulate that the oxalate synthesis is closely related to the glycolate cycle.
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  • Takashi Nishizawa
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 795-800
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    June-bearing strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa), 'Yachiyo' were divided into 2 groups. Plants of one group were allowed to bear fruits, whereas in those of the second group, the inflorescences were removed as they appeared. Plants were forced in a greenhouse kept at 25°/20°C (day/night). Plant samples were collected and analyzed at 0, 62 (end of harvest), and 124 days (end of experiment).
    The number of leaves which unfolded during the first 62 days did not differ significantly between treatments; during the second 62 days, the nonbearing plants had 2 more unfolded leaves than the bearing ones. Petioles of both groups became equally long during the first period, but those of 5 successive leaves on fruiting plants which unfolded during the second period were shorter than those on nonbearing plants. Dry weight of white or light brown roots on bearing plants decreased during the first 62 days, but the root weights on nonbearing plants did not change. However, dry weights of black roots in both groups gradually increased; but the increase during the first growth period was larger in bearing than in the deflorated plants.
    Although only 14 flowers were allowed to set and develop into fruit, they became the largest sink for assimilates, accumulating 31 % of the total dry plant weight by the end of harvest. Compared to nonbearing plants, bearing plants made less vegetative growth during the first 62 days, but their total dry weights were not significantly different. However, by the end of the experiment, the total dry weights of bearing plants were smaller than those of nonbearing ones.
    Carbohydrate levels decreased rapidly during the first 62 days, irrespective of the treatments and plant parts, except for reducing sugar level in crown. At the end of harvest, soluble sugar level in vegetative organs did not differ between the treatments. But bearing plants accumulated less starch compared to nonbearing plants. This difference persisted to the end of the experiment.
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  • Yasutaka Kano, Nobuyuki Fukuoka
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 801-809
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To clarify the anatomical, physiological and varietal differences in the hollowing (internal cavity formation) in roots of the Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.), several cultivars were grown under different soil temperatures. Vessel arrangement in the roots, and lignin formation on the wall of parenchymatous cells facing the intercellular spaces in the central region with respect to hollowing were investigated.
    1. When grown under high soil temperatures, roots of 'Gensuke', 'Kiributo', and'Genko' which have dense vessel arrangement in the central region developed caveties. Roots of 'Kenseiaokubi' (syn. 'Kensei'), 'Kaishinsobuto' (syn. 'Kaishin'), and 'Seieiaokubi' (syn. 'Seiei') have sparsely arranged vessels and do not possess the propensity to develop a central cavity.
    2. When grown under moderate to low soil temperatures, those cultivars, i. e. 'Gensuke' and 'Wakayama' which tend to form cavities under high soil temperatures produced fewer vessels and did not form cavities. Contrarily, roots of 'Tokinashi' and 'Suikomininengo' (syn. 'Ninengo') produced sparsely arranged vessels and did not exhibit this disorder at any soil temperature.
    3. Under high temperatures, lignin was deposited in the walls of parenchymatous cells, and vessels were differentiated in the central region of roots of 'Gensuke' and 'Yamada'. Subsequently, the intercellular spaces in these cultivars enlarged and coalesced, forming a hollow cavity. In roots of 'Seiei' and 'Ninengo', vessels were sparsely distributed and no lignin deposits were observed on cells of the central region.
    From these results we assume varietal difference exist with respect to susceptibility to this disorder by roots when they are exposed to high soil temperatures. In susceptible cultivars with a dense vessel arrangement, the deposition of lignin is brought about by a reduction in meristematic activity of parenchymatous cells attributed to high soil temperature. This prevents the large thin-walled parenchymatous cells from protruding into the intercellular spaces, causing the spaces to coalesce into a large hollow cavity. Contrarily, in cultivars in which vessels are dispersed on account of active proliferation of parenchymatous cells, even under high soil temperatures, lignin is seldomly deposited in cells facing small intercellular spaces. Because the intercellular spaces are continually filled by newly formed parenchymatous cells, they do not coalesce to form a hollow gap.
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  • Katsumi Ohta, Norihiro Ito, Takashi Hosoki, Kunio Inaba, Takanori Bess ...
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 811-816
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relationships between the concentration of nutrient culture solutions and cracking in cherry tomato cv. Sun Cherry were studied.
    1. From 10 days after planting to the end of harvest, plants were grown in a half, one and double concentrations of the standard nutrient solution. The frequency of fruit cracking increased as the solution became more concentrated. With increasing concentration, fruit weight and fruit and leaf water potentials (Ψw) decreased, whereas the soluble solids content of fruit increased.
    2. Diurnal differences in Ψw of fully ripe fruit and of the leaf became larger as the solution concentrations increased; conversely, the fruit osmotic potential (Ψs) decreased. Therefore, fruit pressure potential (Ψp) approached a maximam at 2 AM and a minimum at 2 PM.
    3. Compared to a bright, sunny day, fruit and leaf Ψw were greater on a rainy day. Fruit Ψw increased as the culture solution became more concentrated.
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  • Atsushi Yamasaki, Masataka Yamashita, Shigeki Furuya
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 817-826
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Mineral concentrations and cytokinin activity in the xylem exudate of watermelon grafted to squash (Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata 'Shintosa') were compared with those of watermelon grafted to bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl. 'Sakigake') and non-grafted watermelon in relation to fruit quality. In addition, the effect of fruit number on mineral concentrations and cytokinin activity in the xylem exudate was also investigated.
    1. Watermelon plants grafted to squash (W/squash) showed more vigorous growth than watermelon plants grafted to bottle gourd (W/bottle gourd) and non-grafted watermelon. The node order of first pistillate flower was lowered by grafting to bottle gourd. The flesh of the mature fruit was firmer and the textural quality was lower in W/squash than they were in W/bottle gourd and non-grafted watermelon plants. Hence, grafting to squash plants lowered melon quality in comparison to melons from the W/bottle gourd graft combination or to those from the non-grafted watermelon plants.
    2. Concentrations of NO3-N, P, K, Ca and Mg in the xylem exudate collected at 3 different growth stages: at anthesis, 14 days after pollination and fruit mature, were determined. The mineral absorption rate of W/squash was faster throughout the growth period in comparison with the rate of W/bottle gourd; whereas, the mineral absorption rate of W/bottle gourd was slower as the fruit matured.
    3. The effect of crop load on mineral concentrations in exudates of both W/bottle gourd and W/squash at 14 days after pollination was undetectable. But as the fruit matured, the mineral concentrations in the exudate of W/bottle gourd seemed to decrease more so in the 2-fruited treatment than those in the 1-fruited one; there was no significant difference in mineral contents between the 1- and 2-fruited treatments of W/squash.
    4. The cytokinin activity, mainly ribosylzeatin, in xylem exudate collected at 14 days after pollination was significantly higher in W/squash than in W/bottle gourd scion/stock combination and in the non-grafted watermelon. Two-fruited treatment decreased the cytokinin activity in both rootstocks. These results suggest that the root cytokinin is rapidly affected by the assimilate supply translocated from the shoot.
    5. It was concluded that the functions of W/squash roots, for example, mineral uptake and cytokinin synthesis, were considered more active and tolerable to heavier crop load than those of W/bottle gourd and non-grafted watermelon roots.
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  • Hiroshi Kumakura, Yoshihiro Shishido
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 827-832
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Strawberry plants of 'Morioka 16' were grown in growth environments in which the daytime and nighttime temperatures were such that the mean temperatures were : 15° (A), 20° (B) and 25 °C (C). The diurnal subset temperatures for sets (A), (B), and (C) were : 15°/15 °C, 20°/10 °C, and 25°/5 °C ; 20°/20 °C, 25°/15 °C, and 30 °C/10 °C ; 25°/25 °C, 30°/20 °C, and 35°/15 °C, respectively. The photoperiod for all chambers were : day (12 hr) and night (12 hr).
    1. Fruits from (A) required the most days from anthesis of the primary flower to harvest; but they were largest, had the highest Brix values, and Brix/acidity ratio, compared to fruits from sets (B) and (C). Within a set in which the mean diurnal temperature was constant, fruits on plants exposed to warmest daytime temperatures were the first to ripe even though the night temperatures were the lowest. In sets (B) and (C), the time required from anthesis to harvest became shorter, but the daytime temperatures had less influence on fruit size.
    2. Comparisons among plants in sets (A) 15°/15 °C, (B) 20°/20 °C, and (C) 25°/25 °C revealed that the whole plant, terminal inflorescence, and roots in (A) accumulated the most dry matter; those from (B) were intermediate; whereas the plant and its parts from set (C) accumulated the least assimilates.
    3. Within any set, the position of the flowers on the terminal inflorescence had a significant effect on the final size of the fruit and the number of days from anthesis to harvest. Among the subset, the day- and nighttime temperatures had the greatest effect. Fruits, resulting from the primary flowers, especially those exposed to the coolest daytime temperature, were always the largest and required the most days from anthesis to harvest.
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  • Hiroshi Kumakura, Yoshihiro Shishido
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 833-838
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Strawberry plants cv. Morioka-16 were grown under 9 day/night temperature regimes from anthesis. 14CO2 was administered to the uppermost leaf on the main crown of the plants and kept under each temperature regimes for 18 hr after which the distribution of 14C was determined. Regardless of the diurnal temperatures, the percentage of 14C translocated in the terminal inflorescence increased as the fruit grew and matured. Of the labelled carbon recovered, 25% was partitioned to the inflorescence at anthesis, whereas 6080% was imported by the ripening fruit. The result suggests that temperature has a large effect on the growth process of the inflorescence, but it does not influence the distribution pattern of photosynthates while the inflorescence growing.
    The distribution pattern of 14C depended upon the position of the leaf which was administered the label. When the uppermost leaf on an axillary branch was fed, the percentages of 14C distributed in the branch inflorescence and secondary branch subtended by the fed leaf were greater compared to the case the uppermost leaf on the main crown was fed. These data suggest that the rosetted strawberry plant has a similar source-sink relationship with respect to photosynthate as do other herbaceous species.
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  • Hideo Tanimoto, Takashi Kagi
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 839-844
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Shoots and petiole segments of Begonia × hiemalis were cultured in vitro in liquid MS medium containing various supporting materials. The plantlets cultured on vermiculite, polyester fiber, sand, and phenol resin grew well. Vigorous adventitious shoots formed on petiole segments, cultured on vermiculite and polyester fiber. The pH of media containing peat moss and rock wool changed from 4.0 to 3.6 and 7.3 to 8.5, respectively, after autoclaving. The liquid media supplemented with peat moss, sawdust, pulp, and phenol resin which contained high concentrations of phenolic substances turned brown after autoclaving. The phenolic substances suppressed the growth of plantlets and regeneration rates of adventitious shoots from petiole segments. Several supporting materials released or adsorbed PO43-, Ca2+, and Fe2+ to or from the media, but the process did not affect the growth of plantlets. Vermiculite was considered to be the most suitable supporting material, and an alternative to agar.
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  • Yasuhiro Fukuda, Kiyoshi Ohkawa, Kohichi Kanematsu, Masaru Korenaga
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 845-856
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seedlings of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. form rosettes and do not bolt (elongation of internodes) when they are grown at a high temperature. The rosetted plants will bolt after being subjected to a certain period of cool temperature. To explain the rosette characteristics of cultivars, we examined weekly the bolting ratios of every cultivar after high temperature treatments at four experiments, and classified 125 cultivars from the data.
    When exposed to a cool temperature after a high temperature treatment, the rapidity of bolting was very different among seedlings or cultivars. We considered that the seedlings which bolted early were insensitive to high temperature, conversely, the seedlings bolted late were sensitive and needed longer period of cool temperature for bolting.
    The species is propagated by seeds and occasionally maintains hybrid vigor by out-breeding. So, individuals in a cultivar are not uniform in their response to a high temperature treatment, and the degree of uniformity differs among cultivars. Therefore, it was necessary to consider not only the rapidity but also the uniformity for classification.
    Using the data (weekly cumulative bolting ratios), the rapidity and uniformity of bolting were arrived at by ascertaining when the bolting ratio of a cultivar reached 20%, 50%, and 80% (a-value, b-value, and c-value), respectively. The b-value is considered to represent the average rapidity; whereas, the difference between a- and c-value represents the degree of variation within the cultivar. Using this method, the cultivars were classified into 5 grades, "A" to "E" based on their b-values, and into 5 categories, "1" to "5" based on theire c- minus a-values. Hence, cultivars classified as being in group "A" would have seedlings most insensitive to high temperature and which would bolt readily upon exposure to cool temperature; whereas, cultivars in group "E" would have seedlings most sensitive to high temperature and which tend to remain in the rosette stage for an extended period after being transferred to a cool environment. Cultivars classified as being in category "1" respond uniformly to the temperature treatment, whereas those in category "5" do not. The data obtained in this study with 125 cultivars will be useful for selecting or breeding cultivars which will raise seedling in summer and flower in winter.
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  • Yuki Mikanagi, Masato Yokoi, Norio Saito, Yoshihiro Ueda, Hiroshi Hira ...
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 857-866
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Flower flavonoids of interspecific hybrids between Rosa rugosa Thunb. ex Murray (section Rosa) and Rosa species under sect. Synstylae and sect. Pimpinellifoliae were analyzed to study the mode of flavonoid transmission from parental species to progenies.
    1. The major flavonoids in R. rugosa petals were kaempferol (K) and/or quercetin (Q) 3-sophorosides. These flavonols were present in the petals of all intersectional hybrids with sect. Synstylae and sect. Pimpinellifoliae.
    2. Large amounts of K and Q 3-glucosides were present in the Rosa species under sect. Synstylae as well as in all intersectional hybrids with sect. Rosa.
    3. Unique flavonols, K and Q 4'-glucosides were distributed in the Rosa species under sect. Pimpinellifoliae and were the major flavonols in the intersectional hybrids with sect. Rosa.
    The mode of transmission of characteristic flavonoids from parental species to progenies in the three Rosa sections was established by this study. Although the parentage may be unknown, seedlings possessing K and Q 3-sophorosides in their petals can be considered to be hybrids of R. rugosa. Using flavonoid analysis to identify the parentage of R. rugosa hybrids is herein proposed.
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  • Hiroyuki Itamura, Tadaaki Fukushima, Toshio Kitamura, Hisashi Harada, ...
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 867-875
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of defoliation and foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA) on the softening of Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. 'Hiratanenashi'), exposed to ethanol fumes for 3 to 4 days after harvest, were investigated.
    1. Fruit harvested from a tree that had shed leaves early due to declining vigour, softened 5 to 10 days before those from a healthy tree ; whereas, fruit from a tree growing in a plastic greenhouse which shed leaves even later in the season, were the slowest to soften.
    2. Mature fruit on shoots which were defoliated on July 21 produced ethylene and sof- tened rapidly upon harvest.
    3. Spraying bearing shoots on Sept. 7 with 50 ppm GA had no effect on ethylene production, but the treatment did inhibit fruit softening. Comparison between mature fruits harvested from unsprayed and GA-treated shoots, which were both defoliated 4 days after treatment, revealed that fruits from the unsprayed shoots softened, whereas those from the GA-treated ones did not. Thus, the GA-treatment reversed the effect of defoliation.
    4. The dwarf rice bioassays by paper chromatography of extracts of mature fruit collected from shoots defoliated on July 21 revealed no activity, whereas, extracts of fruits from the control shoots promoted 2nd leaf sheath elongation of the rice seedling.
    These results suggest that leaves on bearing shoots are important in the regulation of flesh softening of harvested mature fruit of Japanese persimmon Iliratanenashi treated with ethanol, and we propose that the GA, originating in the leaves and transported to the fruit, inhibits fruit-softening by blocking ethylene action.
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  • Takatoshi Koyakumaru, Kenji Adachi, Kazuhiro Sakoda, Naokazu Sakota, Y ...
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 877-887
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Early- and late-hervested mume fruits (Japanese apricot, Prunus mume Sieb, et Zucc. cv. Gojiro) were stored for 3 days at 25 °C under several controlled atmosphere (CA) conditions, and the effects on oxygen uptake and gas evolution during CA storage and quality changes of fruits in or after CA storage were investigated.
    1. Ripening characteristics of mume fruits in or after CA storage were much affected by the harvesting time. Volumes of oxygen uptake and ethylene production during 3 days storage were two and five times, respectively, more with late-harvested fruits exposed to ambient air than there were with early-harvested fruits. Percentages of injured and rotting fruits in or after CA storage were higher in late-harvested fruits than in early-har-vested fruits.
    2. Compared to fruits in ambient air supply, the volumes of oxygen uptake and ethylene production of mume fruits decreased when exposed to a gas mixture of 19.8% CO2 and 21%O2 ; they decreased even more when the CA gas contained 5%O2 or 2%O2. However, at 2%O2 and no CO2, the percentage of physiologically injured fruits increased considerably in or after the storage.
    3. When fruits were exposed to a mixture of high CO2 and low O2, the rates of O2 uptake and productions of CO2, acetaldehyde, ethyl alcohol, and the percentages of injured brown fruits increased as the supplying volume of the gas mixture was increased. Our data indicate that anaerobic respiration and browning injury are functions of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations.
    4. In the injured brown fruits, activities of phenol oxidase (PhOD) and peroxidase (POD) and chlorophyll content were lower than those of sound fruits. Therefore, the browning injury was considered to be in consequence of necrosis of tissue by accumulation of anaerobic metabolite, such as acetaldehyde, in low concentration of oxygen.
    5. These results suggest that removing ethylene from the storage atmosphere and maintaining the CA storage at approximately 8%CO2 and low O2 of minimum concentration of 2% are important to retain the quality of mume fruits.
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  • Yoko Watanabe, Fusako Uchiyama, Kiyoko Yoshida
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 889-895
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Changes in carotenoid, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, chlorophyll, nitrate, and soluble and insoluble oxalic acid contents in the leaf blade, petiole, and the edible portion of developing spinach plants were determined. The summer and fall cultivars studied were 'Magic' and 'Lead', respecitvely. In this summary, the chlorophyll content is expressed as mg/100 cm2 of leaf area. The data for the remaining constituents are for the edible portion based on 100 g fresh wt.
    1. Beta-carotene, the only carotene detectable, for 'Magic' and 'Lead' were 4, 450 and 7, 340 μg, respectively.
    2. The total ascorbic acid contents which gradually decreased with time in 'Magic' and 'Lead' were 42 and 71 mg, respectively.
    3. The reducing sugar content in 'Magic' decreased with leaf age, whereas that of 'Lead' increased. At harvest, the reducing sugar content in 'Lead' was 1.12 g ; that of 'Magic' was 0.07 g.
    4. Chlorophyll content in 'Magic' remained nearly constant at 3.2 mg, whereas that of 'Lead' increased slightly from 3.8 to 4.1 mg by harvest. A positive correlation exists between chlorophyll and β-carotene contents.
    5. Nitrate contents of 'Magic' and 'Lead' were 2, 500 and 2, 400 ppm, respectively.
    6. Soluble oxalic acid contents at harvest for 'Magic' and 'Lead' were 740 and 560 mg, respectively. The ratio of the soluble to total oxalic acid was 0.871 in 'Magic' and 0.800 in 'Lead'.
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  • Satoshi Taira, Kaori Onodera, Hiroyuki Itamura, Shunzo Watanabe
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 897-902
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Comparison in acetaldehyde production by flesh discs was made to elucidate cultivar diffrences between 'Denkuro' and 'Hiratanenashi' persiommons with respect to the ease of removing their astringency. Soaking of flesh discs of immature astringent fruits in buffer containing ethanol caused more acetaldehyde production in 'Hiratanenashi' than in 'Denkuro'. When 4-methylpyrazole, an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, was added to the same buffer, acetaldehyde production was partly inhibited in 'Hiratanenashi' discs, but not in those of 'Denkuro'. The addition of pyruvate or malate to the buffer increased acetaldehyde production in both cultivars, but at the same substrate level, discs of 'Denkuro' produced more acetaldehyde than did those of 'Hiratanenashi'; higher concentrations of pyruvate or malate tended to inhibit the reaction. The results indicate that 'Hiratanenashi' converts ethanol to acetaldehyde more efficiently than does 'Denkuro', whereas 'Denkuro' metabolizes pyruvate more readily to acetaldehyde than does 'Hiratanenashi'.
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  • Kazuhiro Abe, Michio Sakimoto, Akio Miyazaki
    1994 Volume 62 Issue 4 Pages 903-908
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of cultivation methods (soil vs solution culture) and cultivar variations on the characteristic aroma of Japanese hornwort (Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk., JH) were examined by flame ionization chromatography (FID) and organoleptic evaluation.
    Culture solution containing [Ca (NO3)2•4H2O] : 1000mg, [KNO3] : 800mg, [MgSO4•7H2O] : 500mg, (NH4H2PO4) : 150mg, and Fe?EDTA : trace in 1000ml water was defined as 1 unit solution.
    Injection of the head space gas yielded twelve peaks on the chromatographic tracing; the largest one was at 4 min. 30 sec. retention time (RT). Using the TCD detector and organoleptic evaluation, this peak, which corresponded to the aroma of JH, is attributed to a monoterpene (M. W. 136) based on a GC-MS analysis.
    Organoleptically, the aroma from 6 cultivars did not show obvious differences in quality. However, the aromas of 'Yanagawa 1 goh', 'Kanto-masumori', and 'Kantomasumori (B) ' were slightly stronger than those of 'Yanagawa 2 goh', 'Osaka-shiroguki', and 'Kansai-shiroguki'.
    Organoleptic evaluations showed that the aroma emanating from JH grown in soil culture was stronger than those plants grown hydroponically. The aroma of JH grown in 3 unit culture solution was stronger than that collected from plants grown in the standard (1 unit) culture solution. The main peak on gas chromatographic tracings derived from emanations of JH grown in soil culture was the tallest followed by that from JH grown in 3 unit solution culture; the peak derived from the emanation of JH grown in the 1 unit solution culture was shortest.
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