Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 62 , Issue 1
Showing 1-29 articles out of 29 articles from the selected issue
  • Jinwei Wang, Shousaku Horiuchi, Hiroyuki Matsui
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 1-7
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Histological comparisons were made between seedless cultivars 'Monukka' and 'Mukaku Shiro' and the seeded cultivar 'Campbell Early' to clarify the mechanism of seedlessness in grapes.
    1. The percentages of pollen which germinated on agar medium were 41.6, 31.3 and 22.2 for 'Monukka', 'Mukaku Shiro' and 'Campbell Early' respectively.
    2. When stigmas of 'Campbell Early' were hand-pollinated with pollen of 'Monukka' and 'Mukaku Shiro', the percentages of berry sets were 61.1 and 38.3, respectively. The percentages of seeded berries of 'Campbell Early' were 98.1 for 'Monukka' and 74.5 for 'Mukaku Shiro' as pollen sources.
    3. At anthesis, abnormal outer and inner integuments, the absence of embryo sacs, and imperfect or degenerated eggs were observed more frequently in the seedless cultivars than in the seeded cultivar.
    4. Fifteen days after anthesis, the percentages of endosperm that had started nuclear division were 95.9 for 'Campbell Early', 47.6 for 'Monukka', and 20.3 for 'Mukaku Shiro'.
    5. Cell division in some zygotes of 'Mukaku Shiro' stopped at the globular embryo stage, whereas in 'Monukka' it ceased when the embryos were heart-shaped.
    We conclude that seedlessness in 'Monukka' and 'Mukaku Shiro' is caused by the abortion of ovules and embryo sacs at anthesis and is attributed to (a) lack of fertilization of eggs in the ovules : (b) abortion of the zygote : and (c) cessation of embryo development on account of endosperm degeneration.
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  • Jinwei Wang, Shousaku Horiuchi, Tsuneo Ogata, Hiroyuki Matsui
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 9-14
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The contents of the endogenous plant hormones, gibberellin (GA), indoleacetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), were compared between 'Himrod Seedless' and the seeded 'Campbell Early' berries to clarify the mechanism of seedlessness in grapes.
    1. Although no difference was found in the kinds of GA-like substances in the berries of both cultivars from 3 days before anthesis to anthesis, the 'Himrod Seedless' berries had higher contents of GA-like substances than did those of 'Campbell Early'.
    2. The IAA-contents of 'Himrod Seedless' berries increased 3 days before anthesis and peaked 3 days after anthesis ; whereas, in 'Campbell Early' berries the increase began 3 days after anthesis and peaked on the 14th day. The time of the maximum IAA-content peak differed between these cultivars.
    3. The changing patterns for the ABA contents of the berries of both cultivars were very similar. The ABA content of 'Himrod Seedless' berries, however, was always some-what higher than was that of 'Campbell Early'.
    4. The contents of GA-like substances and ABA in degenerated ovules (seeds) of 'Himrod Seedless' 21 days after anthesis were lower than were those in normal seeds of 'Campbell Early'.
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  • Yoshikazu Nakajima, Slamet Susanto, Kojiro Hasegawa
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 15-20
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Young pomelo trees grown in concrete pots in a plastic house were water-stressed for different durations from early September to late December, 1990. The cyclical stress treatments were established by withholding water from the potted trees until the leaf water potentials reached -24 to -28 bars (7 to 13 days after irrigation) at which time they were re-irrigated. Maximum day and minimum night temperatures in the plastic house were adjusted to about 25° and 10°C, respectively, from early December, 1990, to early April of the following year.
    1. Trees, subjected to water stress from early September hardly grew in the fall, whereas those stressed from early October and the control trees sent forth several shoots per tree. The number and length of the spring shoots which sprouted in the following year were not significantly different among the treatments.
    2. The number of inflorescences, flower buds, and flowers which opened, increased as the duration of water stress was extended. Anthesis was advanced in trees from which fall shoots failed to sprout but not in trees that produced fall shoots. The stress treatments had no effect on the % fruit set which ranged from 0.1 to 1.1 for leafless flowers and 4.8 to 6.0 for leafly ones.
    3. Comparison of analyses made in late December between leaves of stressed trees with and without fall shoots revealed that leaf sugar content increased while starch content decreased, the magnitude of the difference being proportional to the duration of the stress period. Leaf N content was significantly higher in stressed trees compared to unstressed ones. No significant difference in C : N ratio in leaves was observed in late December among the treatments.
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  • Hirokazu Fukui, Yoshiaki Wakayama, Mitsuo Nakamura
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 21-26
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relationship between seed abortion and abnormal embryo sacs in Japanese persimmon cv. Nishimurawase, during embryo sac formation was histologically investigated for three years. Abnormal embryo sacs were mainly distinguished into three types; 1) degeneration of embryo sac mother cell (EMC) ; 2) degeneration of embryo sac cell; and 3) multiple embryo sacs in an ovule. Occurrence of degeneration of EMC varied from season to season. It was 9% in 1987, 4% in 1988, and 1-2% in 1989. The percentages of degenerated embryo sac cell for the three years ranged from 10 to 13. Occurrence of multiple embryo sacs in an ovule was 16% in 1987, 8% in 1988, and 18% in 1989. These multiple embryo sacs per ovule are not a factor in seed abortion because at least one egg is fertilized and forms a viable seed. Therefore, the embryo sac abnormalities, which lead to seedlessness, are attributed to the degeneration of the EMC and the embryo sac. The occurrence of 11.6% abnormal embryo sac in 1989 was statistically lower than the 21.8 and 17.5% encountered in 1987 and 1988, respectively. These yearly fluctuations were caused primarily by the degeneration of the EMC. One or two embryo sacs within eight ovules in a flower at anthesis lose their ability to set seed in Japanese persimmon 'Nishimurawase'.
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  • Takanori Yamamoto, Yoshio Satoh, Takuma Funyuh, Yukio Ishijima, Keiko ...
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 27-39
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Relationship between canopy net photosynthesis and fruit production was analyzed with 40 Japanese persimmon 'Hiratanenashi' trees grown under current common practices. Canopy net photosynthetic rates were estimated by using a multiple regression analysis of leaf net photosynthetic rates (Pn) and our recent models (Yamamoto and Hata, 1991). These models take into consideration seasonal changes in form and structure of fruit trees and the distribution of radiation flux at leaf surfaces in fruit tree crowns (Yamamoto, 1988).
    1. The Pn distribution plot against most single factors exhibit widely scattered patterns because the measurements were taken under field conditions. However, significant curves were obtained when Pn was plotted against several meteorological and edaphic factors and leaf characteristics and activities. Light-saturation value of Pn (about 21 mgCO2•dm-2•hr-1) was about 1, 400 μpmol•m-2•sec-1 of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD)
    2. The coefficient of variables of the multiple regression was 80% when all factors except dark respiration rate, as independent variables, were considered. It was 76% when meteorological elements, soil water potential, time factors, and their powers were included. The latter regression analysis gave a practical formula for estimates of Pn. Furthermore, the coefficient of variables was 64% when only PPFD and its powers were used, suggesting that PPFD is the dominating factor in Pn values under field conditions.
    3. On 22 July, a bright sunny day, when the leaf area had become maximum, the daily total amount of net photosythetic product for 13 hr (DTPP) and the daily mean net photosynthetic rate (DMPn) were calculated for each tree. The above mentioned multiple regression formula was applied, incorporating the total leaf areas, hourly distribution of leaf area frequency of leaf irradiance. The estimated DTPP which is closely related to total leaf number (TLN) ranged from 390 to 1, 400 gCO2•tree-1•(13 hr)-1. The estimated DMPn varied slightly about a mean of 15.5 mgCO2•dm-2hr-1. DTPP became large at about 2.3 in leaf area index (LAI, ) and was negatively correlated to daily mean PPFD at leaf surface (DMPPFD). DMPn was negatively correlated to both LAIc and mean leaf area density (MLAD). Therefore, it was suggested that tree crown having too large DTPP had dark leaf irradiance and low DMPn.
    4. The mean yield of fruit per tree (MYF) for 2 years was low in trees having DTPP greater than 770 gCO2•tree-1•(13 hr)-1. There was a negative correlation between DTPP and mean peel color (MPC) for 2 years. Furthermore, many trees in which DMPn were around 15.5 mgCO2•dm-2 ? hr-1 developed a large number of flower buds per tree (NFB) and had high MYF values.
    5. Relative distribution ratio of photosynthetic product into fruit (RDR), equivalent to MYF/DTPP, decreased with increasing TLN and tree vigor. RDR was positively correlated to DMPPFD, MNF, MYF and MPC.
    6. Three dimensional pillar-shaped graphs show extremely low yields of fruit under conditions of low RDR, which correlates with low leaf irradiance, low net photosynthetic rate and few flower buds on account of excessive vigor.
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  • Fumio Tamura, Kenji Tanabe, Kiyoshi Banno, Takamasa Ikeda
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 41-47
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Dormant 'Nijisseiki' pear cuttings were treated with 20% calcium cyanamide, an anaerobic condition and high temperature (45°C). ABA levels in the leaf buds of the pear cuttings were determined after they were chilled (5°C) for 0, 400, 800 and 1, 200 hr and then exposed to the high temperature treatment. Actinomycin D was injected in cuttings before or after high temperature treatment.
    1. Leaf and flower buds were released from endodormancy by exposure to 45°C for 4 hr, whereas buds in ecodormant stage failed to push given the same treatment. Dormancy of flower bud on 'Nijisseiki' pear tree and that of leaf and flower buds on cuttings was broken by exposure to 45°C for 4 hr an accumulation of 500 Chill units (A chill unit is an hour under 0°10°C). There was no significant difference between the percentage bud break of calcium cyanamide-treated trees and that of the control.
    2. ABA level in leaf buds decreased after exposure to 45°C for 4 hr following 0 and 400 hr chilling; however it increased in buds exposed to 800 and 1, 200 hr of chilling.
    3. Effect of high temperature treatment was reversed by pre-treatment whit Actinomycin D, whereas post-treatment with Actinomycin D did not do so.
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  • Hiroo Koike, Kazuyuki Tsukahara
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 49-54
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two experiments were conducted to test the influence of the dwarfing rootstock, M. 26, as an interstock and rootstock on the growth of 'Fuji' apple trees at Nagano Fruit Tree Experiment Station. In experiment 1, half of the trees of the scion/interstock/rootstock combinations of 'Fuji'/M. 26/Marubakaido N1 (Malus prunifolia var. ringo Asami) were planted such that the interstock was half-buried; in the other group, the interstock was exposed. The trees were examined when 7-year-old. In experiment 2, the effect of the length of M. 26 rootstock was studied. The excavation method was used to observe the root system.
    Experiment 1. The 7-year-old 'Fuji' apple tree in which 30 cm long interstocks were half-buried or entirely exposed had top/root (T/R) ratios of 2, 92 and 1.99, respectively. The decrease in T/R ratio when the M. 26 interstock was exposed may be due to root growth inhibition which is attributed to the shallow planting. In brown gravelly lowland soil with a effective soil layer 50-60 cm in depth, most of the roots of Marubakaido N1 rootstock or M. 26 interstock developed horizontally within 30 cm of the soil surface; more than 95% of the root weight was found within a depth of 60 cm. On trees in which the M. 26 interstocks were half-buried, the growth of the nursery-originated roots were replaced after a few years by new roots emerging near the soil surface from the M. 26 interstock. Root systems of apple trees on dwarfing interstocks planted at a 1.5×4 m spacing distance develop more vigorously in the between-row area instead of in the in-row area. This growth habit is attributed to root competition which minimized root entanglement.
    Experiment 2. On 5-year-old 'Fuji' apple trees with M. 26 rootstocks 18 or 48 cm in length, the top weight and root system of trees with the short rootstock was greater than those trees with a long rootstock.
    We conclude from these results that 'Fuji' apple trees with M. 26 interstock or root-stock should be grown as trees with 30 to 40 cm length in the nursery and that they be transplanted in the orchard with the graft union, the upper one where the interstock is present, 10 to 15 cm above the ground.
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  • Naosuke Nii
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 55-61
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The anatomy of the sieve elements in the vascular bundle in a variety of Rosaceae fruit trees-peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.), plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.), Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.), apple (Malus domestica L. Borkh.), Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) was observed by both optical and transmission electron microscopy. As a comparison, sieve elements of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. f.), and grape (Vitis vinifera L.) were examined. A distinguishing feature of the thickening portion of the sieve ele- ments in the vascular bundles of the midrib, petiole, fruit stalk, and pericarp in Rosaceae fruit species appeared to be structural ingrowth of the cell wall, but only as a trace in the roots. From the anatomical observations, the ingrowth thickening in the sieve ele- ments, which is referred to as nacreous wall formation, was completely different from the apparatus of the transfer cells. This sieve-element structure is a characteristic feature of Rosaceae fruit trees, in which sorbitol is the main photosynthetic product. In contrast, the sieve elements of fruit stalks of the other species, whose principal translocatory carbohy- drate is sucrose, do not appear similar.
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  • Satoru Kondo, Hiroshi Gemma
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 63-68
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The changes in abscisic acid (ABA) content, ethylene evolution, and anthocyanin and sugar contents of the 'Satohnishiki' cherry fruit (Prunus avium L.), and the effect of ABA application on its maturation and coloring were investigated.
    1. Among sugars in the fruit, glucose was the highest in content followed by fructose and sorbitol. The total sugar content increased greatly from 38 days after full bloom (DAFB), at which time a concomitant rise in anthocyanin accumulation was also noted.
    2. The ethylene evolution per gram fresh weight fell continuously from 17 through 31 DAFB. It increased slightly from 31 DAFB to 38 DAFB, after which it decreased again. In contrast, the ethylene evolution per fruit increased greatly from 31 DAFB.
    3. The endogenous ABA levels of the pulp and peel were relatively high on 17 DAFB, but fell to lower levels by 31 DAFB. The ABA content in the pulp increased dramatical- ly from 31 DAFB, while the level in the peel rose slightly from 31 DAFB and more rapidly after 38 DAFB.
    4. ABA application to the fruit on 36 DAFB enhanced the total sugar and anthocyanin contents of the fruit.
    It is thus suggested that the ABA content may be related to the fruit growth rate, maturation and coloring of sweet cherry.
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  • Naohiro Kubota, Noriko Nishiyama, Kazuo Shimamura
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 69-73
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Lateral bearing branches of two peach cultivars, 'Sanyo-suimitsu' grafted on Prunus persica or P. tomentosa rootstocks and those of 'Shimizu-hakuto' grafted on P. persica root- stock, were girdled at Stages 1 and 2 of fruit development. At harvest phenolic contents were determined and related to astringency. The relationships between phenolic content and fruit maturity and pit-splitting of fruit, were also investigated. Girdling advanced fruit maturation and increased fruit weight, except in 'Sanyo-suimitsu' grafted on P. tomentosa. Total soluble solids contents were higher in fruits from girdled branches ex- cept for 'Shimizu-hakuto'. Regardless of cultivar and rootstock, the total phenolic contents and fraction of higher molecular weight phenols were higher in fruits from girdled branches than in fruits from non-girdled branches. However, there was no consistent correlation between the girdling stage and phenolic content in the fruits. The earlier the fruit matured, the higher was the phenolic content, especially those on girdled branches. The exception were those fruits from non-girdled branches of 'Sanyo-suimitsu' trees grafted on P. tomentosa rootstock. There were little differences in phenolic contents between fruit with and without split pits, although girdling markedly increased the frequency of split pits.
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  • Fumio Tamura, Kenji Tanabe, Takamasa Ikeda
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 75-91
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the chilling requirements of vegetativeand flower buds of the Japanese pear, 'Nijisseiki' and their ABA contents during the restperiod. In Experiment 1, excised shoots of 'Nijisseiki' pear were kept at 5, 10, 15 and 20°C for 0 to 1, 500 hr, and the depth of rest of leaf bud was examined. Shoots kept at 5 °and 15 °C were examined for the depth of rest of flower buds. The ABA levels in the leafbuds and floral primordia were determined after exposures to 5 ° and 15 °C for 0 to1, 500 hr.
    1. On shoots that were exposed at 5 °C, the rest of the leaf bud was broken after 1, 400hr ; that of flower bud was satisfied after 1, 200 hr. After 1, 500 hr, percentages of budbreak of leaf buds were : 64 at 0 °C ; 94 at 5 °C ; 46 at 10 °C ; 30 at 15 °C, and 22 at 20°C.
    2. ABA concentrations in the leaf buds and floral primordia kept at 5 °C decreasedrapidly during deepest rest phase ; a decrease of ABA in the leaf buds and floral primordia kept at 15 °C was detectable only after 1, 100 hr of exposure.
    In Experiment 2, excised shoots of 'Nijisseiki' pear, exposed to 5 °C for 0, 300, 600 and1, 000 hr, were injected with 100 ppm ABA and kept at 5 °C for 200 more hr. The depthof rest of the flower buds and their ABA levels were determined as stated above.
    1. Budbreak of flower buds on shoots exposed 200 and 500 hr were inhibited by injection of 100 ppm ABA ; budbreak on shoots exposed for 800 and 1, 200 hr, there were nosignificant difference between those injected with ABA or water.
    2. Flower primordia of shoots administered 100 ppm of ABA contained 2 to 3 timesmore ABA than control shoots or those injected with water.
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  • Naohiro Kubota, Shingo Takagi, Shogo Kudo
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 83-88
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Peach fruits having an astringent flavor are prevalent in some orchards. This investigation was conducted to establish whether or not a relationship exists between phenolic contents as a measure of astringency and tree and/or scaffold branch vigor.
    Based on shoot growth, weak and vigorous (normal) 'Hakuto' peach trees growing in the same orchard were selected for study. At harvest, fruits from weak and vigorous trees were analysed for their phenolic contents. There were no significant difference in phenolic contents between fruits from weak and vigorous trees.
    Phenolic contents of fruits harvested from two scaffold limbs which choked (girdled) with hanging rope or from a scaffold limb which lost nearly all its leaves prematurely were compared to fruits harvested from normal scaffold limb (s) in each 'Hakuto' tree trained to 3-scaffold vase shape. The phenolic contents in fruits from abnormal scaffold limbs and especially those fruits from choked ones were significantly higher than those from the normal scaffold limbs.
    When the lateral bearing branches of 'Shimizu-hakuto' peach trees were girdled at Stage 1, 2, and 3 of fruit growth periods, the phenolic contents of fruits from the earlier treatments were higher than in those fruits from branches girdled at Stage 3 or the nongirdled control branches. L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were correspondingly higher in fruits from branches girdled at Stage 1 and 2 than were the activities in fruits on non-girdled control branches or those girdled in Stage 3.
    The possible relationship between these findings and the occurrence of astringent peach fruit is discussed.
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  • Iwao Oiyama, Shozo Kobayashi
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 89-93
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Four monoembryonic diploid (2n=18) citrus cultivars and hybrids were crossed with a triploid (2n=27) hybrid. Seeds were collected from each fruit of all crosses at maturity, and fully developed seeds were germinated. The seedlings had several ploidy levels. While most of them were diploid, some were haploid, aneuploid, triploid or tetraploid. The haploid plants were observed in two cross combinations : two seedlings out of 116 in Clementine and one out of 54 in 'Lee'. There was no difference in size between haploid and diploid embryos. Haploid embryos germinated normally and their primary roots elongated vigorously. Haploid plants transplanted to soil, however, grew very weakly. Restriction endonuclease analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA and of chloroplast DNA were performed to determine the origin of the haploids. These three haploid plants had rDNA and cpDNA fragments specific to the seed parent, but no fragments specific to the pollen parent. This finding indicates that these haploid plants are of maternal origin.
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  • Yoshihiro Shishido, Hiroshi Kumakura, Yutaka Hori
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 95-102
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Changes in source-sink interaction by defoliation and darkening of source and sink were studied.
    Each source leaf of a tomato plant is connected to all other sink organs with different strengths of the source-sink relation at the 8-leaf stage. Therefore, it occurred that one sink has a strong tie to one source and then it would simultaneously be a weak sink to another source, and they are probably keeping balance with each other independently. Removal of a sink causes two types of responses. One was a small change in source- sink relation by removal of a weak sink and the other was a large change by removal of a strong sink.
    By removing or darkening 80% of a given source, the remaining and illuminated source leaf decreased its export of the photosynthates. Moreover, the source leaf made a compensatory adjustment in the new source-sink relationship, particularly increasing the percentage of distribution to the young leaves, which will likely support the entire plant in the future, at the expense of root. Furthermore, the additional darkening of the sinks also caused the stronger response on the translocation rate.
    These responses make up the defense strategy for survival of the plant when the defoliation and darkening of the leaves occur. From these data we discuss possible roles of the source and sink to the source-sink relationship.
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  • Yasutaka Kano
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 103-112
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Hollowing (formation of a central cavity) in watermelons plagues the growers by reducing their market values. This paper reports the relationship between the occurrence of this disorder and fruit weight, cell size and number, and the volume of the intercellualr air spaces as by a) nodal position of the fruit, b) NAA application, and c) partial defoliation of the bearing.
    Fruits borne on the lower, basal nodes (Treatment L) were lighter at harvest than those borne on higher, distal nodes (Treatment H) but the former trended to develop hollowing, whereas the latter did not exhibit this physiological disorder. The basal fruits had fewer but larger cells through the transverse diameter than those of distal fruits ; they also had larger intercellular air spaces than the distal melons did. Fruits painted with NAA (Treatment N) and those on partially defoliated shoots (Treatment D) produced smaller melons having a small or no hollowing. Compared to the basal melons, the NAA- treated ones and those on defoliated shoots had proportionately less large cells and smaller intercellular air spaces.
    From these results, the following assumptions are drawn. The growth of cells in the inner region of basal fruits with its lower cell density cannot keep pace with the growth of the peripheral cells and of the rind having higher cell density. This differential growth causes cleavage to arise in the inner part of the fruit which gradually develops into a hollowing. When the growth of the fruit is suppressed by NAA or by defoliation, the cells in the inner region are able to grow as fast as those in and near the rind so that no stress is generated within the fruit. Conversely, when the number of cells per fruit is large, as it is in fruits on distal nodes, the growth of cells of the inner region keeps pace with that of the rind. Consequently, no internal strain ensues and no cavitation occurs.
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  • Yoichi Araki
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 113-119
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To establish an efficient irrigation method based on plant water status for glasshousegrown tomatoes, variations of leaf water potentials (φl) among individual plants under forcing culture and their possible causes were investigated.
    Coefficients of variability (r2) for leaf water potentials attributable to plant location ranged from 15 to 25% within a row and between rows. They ranged from 5 to 20% based on leaf position on individual plants. The difference in leaf water potentials within single leaves was much smaller, with the value of r2 fluctuating between 4 and 10%.
    The variations in leaf water potentials among plants located in different parts of the greenhouse are due largely to differences in air temperature and wind speed. Fluctuations of light intensity, relative humidity and soil moisture potential, φs, contributed to variations but to a considerably lesser extent.
    The results indicate that a minimum of three representative plants are needed for leaf water potential measurements in order to establish a reliable irrigation index for glasshouse-grown tomatoes.
    The fully expanded leaflet on the fifth leaf from the apex is suitable for the measurement of water potential. Because leaf water potential fluctuates diurnally even under a constant φs, the auther recommends that mesurements be taken early in the morning at approximately the same time.
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  • Yoichi Araki
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 121-128
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Water economy between leaf and fruit in tomato plant was studied to establish a water management practice based on plant water status.
    1. Relationships among stem, leaf, and fruit water potentials in tomato plants are influ- enced by soil moisture status. When soil moisture potential, φs, was -0.002 MPa, the water potential was highest in the stem and lowest in the fruit. But when φs was - 0.062 MPa, the water potential was highest in the fruit and lowest in the leaf. 2. Sap flow rates in the stem, petiole, and peduncle fluctuated daily. They were minimal when φs was -0.062 MPa.
    3. When φs approached -0.062 MPa, the fruit shrank, which suggests that water flows from the fruit to the stem as soil moisture is depleted. This back flow could not be measured by the heat pulse method employed in this experiment.
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  • Harumi Takahashi, Takatsugu Takai, Tsutomu Matsumoto
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 129-134
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Adaptability of Alternaria black spot-resistant strawberry lines, M 16-AR 1, 2 and 3 selected from calliclones derived from the shoot apex tissues of 'Morioka-16', to the semiforcing culture and open field culture in the cool region of Japan was examined.
    To adapt these lines to a semi-forcing culture, the chilling requirement of 1, 400 hr at or below 5 °C for 'Morioka-16' was used as a standard. In open field culture, they were grown according to the conventional methods. No significant differences in vegetative and fruit characteristics such as plant height, length of petiole, number of runners, sweetness (Brix), acidity, puncture resistance by fruit skin and crop yield, were found between 'M 16-AR' lines and 'Morioka-16'.
    We found 'M 16-AR 1, 2, and 3' suitable for semi-forcing culture and open field culture, so that these lines can replace 'Morioka-16' which is susceptible to Alternaria black spot. 'M 16-AR 2' was registered on 1 September 1992, as 'AKITA BERRY', a new strawberry cultivar.
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  • Akio Tazuke
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 135-142
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The energy requirement was estimated for the growth of a cucumber (Cucumis stativus L.) 'Tokiwa Hikari 3 Go A Gata' fruit by measuring its volume and respiration rate after the peduncle was heat-girdled. The fruit increased up to 30% in volume after the girdling treatment. The amount of growth in volume of a fruit during the first day after girdling showed temperature-dependence with Q10 of about 2. Time course of respiration rate of fruit after girdling was similar to that after cutting of the peduncle. Respiration rate (R) of fruit t hours after girdling fitted well to the equation R =a • e-b • t+ c. Con- stant c in this equation corresponds to the maintenance respiration estimated by 'starvation method'. Q10s of constants b and c were about 2. At 30°C, the amount of CO2 respired could be divided into growth and maintenance components both on the basis of fruit volume by a linear regression (r = 0.99* *). Maintenance respiration rate of fruit estimated from this regression was close to constant c.
    Dry weight, ethanol-soluble solids and ethanol-insoluble solids contents of fruit did not change significantly after heat-girdling. Change in osmotic potential of fruit after girdling could be explained by dilution on account of the influx of water. Hexose content of fruit decreased by 15% at 30°C.
    The data suggest that the energy cost for cell expansion in fruit with a girdled peduncle is similar to that of a normally growing fruit. Energy metabolism of cucumber fruit seems to be closely related to cell expansion that accompanies water import.
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  • Haruo Suzuki, Seiichi Obayashi, Junko Yamagishi, Shinobu Inanaga
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 143-148
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    In carrot, germination of imbibed and primed seeds, and seedling radicle growth of imbibed, primed, pregerminated, and primed + pregerminated seeds were compared with those of untreated seeds at optimal and low temperatures.
    Percentage germination of untreated seeds exposed to 2° and 4°C decreased remarkably compared to those kept at 25°C. However, the percentage germination for primed seeds de creased slightly or showed no decrease even at 2°C, whereas, a moderate decrease was observed for imbibed seeds. These results indicate that priming or imbibing seeds lowered threshold temperatures for germination.
    Mean germination time increased at lower temperatures with more days for untreated seeds and a very few days for primed seeds. The mean germination time was shorter for imbibed seeds than it was for untreated seeds, but the effects of both treatments were not relatively different when compared to that at 25°C. Integrated degree-days for germination to occur increased at a similar rate for untreated and imbibed seeds as temperatures were lowered, but in primed seeds it did not increase even at 2°C. This finding suggests that priming treatment accelerated germination at low temperatures by causing some physiological changes which were not directly related to the advancement of the germination stage.
    Coefficients of variation in germination time for primed and imbibed seeds were considerably greater than that for untreated seeds. There was no consistent relationship between coefficients of variation in germination time and temperatures.
    Seedling radicles of primed seeds elongated very rapidly; those of imbibed and preger. minated seeds slightly more rapid than that of untreated seeds. Effect of these presowing seed treatments on the elongation of radicles was not enhanced at 10°C compared with that at 25°C
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  • Haruo Suzuki, Hideo Inou, Junko Yamagishi
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 149-154
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Germination of imbibed and primed carrot seeds, and seedling radicle growth of im- bibed, primed, pregerminated, and primed + pregerminated seeds were compared with those of untreated seeds under different osmotic potentials.
    Percentage germination decreased significantly at -1.0 MPa in untreated seeds and tended to decrease in imbibed seeds. However, percentage germination of primed seeds did not decrease at -1.0 MPa. It was suggested that sensitivity to water stress of germi- nability could be lowered as pregermination stage was advanced.
    Mean germination time for untreated and imbibed seeds increased as osmotic potentials were lowered. Relative increase in mean germination time caused by lowering osmotic potentials was greater for imbibed seeds than it was for untreated seeds. However, mean germination time of primed seeds did not increase at osmotic potentials up to -0.4 or - 0.6 MPa. A difference in response to water stress of germination time between primed and imbibed seeds may be caused by cellular opposite osmotic adjustment during these presowing treatments.
    Coefficients of variation in germination time had no consistent trend against osmotic potentials.
    Elongation rates of seedling radicles decreased at osmotic potentials below -0.4 MPa for untreated and imbibed seeds, and below -0.2 MPa for primed, pregerminated, and primed +pregerminated seeds.
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  • Motonobu Endo, Ikuko Inada, Shunpei Uemoto
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 155-163
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Adaptability for production of young pods of winged bean in the cold region at high latitude (39 ° 42 'N) was examined using four photo-insensitive cultivars, selected at Kyushu University.
    Among the four cultivars examined in 1988, 'KUS-8' and 'KUS-12' were considered as suitable cultivars for young pod production in Iwate Prefecture. An ideal sowing time is considered to be mid or late May.
    The two cultivars were sown on two different days and grown in open field, in 1991. The first raceme budding node was lower in 'KUS-12' than in 'KUS-8'. The percentage of pod set was considerably different, being in the range of 0.9 to 27.1%, influenced by the number of days for appearance of raceme budding and cultivars. The period of harvest of young pods was 52 to 63 days. The highest total yield of young pods per 10 a (1, 000 m2) was 1, 903.5 kg for 'KUS-8' and 1, 622.8 kg for 'KUS-12' for the plots sown on 21 st May.
    Cultivation of young pods of winged bean in open field conditions can be economically possible in cold regions with 'KUS-8' and 'KUS-12'.
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  • Takao Kawai, Mitsuharu Hikawa, Toshihiro Fujisawa, Yoshiro Ono, Eiji I ...
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 165-172
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of boron and phosphate applied to the different kinds of soils and solution culture on the internal browning of roots in summer-sown Japanese radish were investigated. With hydroponics, the relationship between the incidence of internal browning and polyphenol concentrations and polyphenol oxidase activity in roots was also examined.
    1. Borax, applied to the brown lowland soils (sand) and medium and coarse-textured yellow soils (sandy loam), was effective in reducing internal browning and increasing boron concentrations in the roots, but that applied to the andosols (loam) was ineffective. Super phosphate application which increased phosphorus concentrations in the roots was effective in decreasing internal browning even in andosols.
    2. The occurrence of internal browning induced by the absence of boron in the hydroponic solution was severe at 29 °C as compared to 21 °C, although boron concentration in the root was relatively high at the higher temperature. These results suggest that the occurrence of internal browning can not be explained merely by concentrations of boron in the roots.
    3. The polyphenol oxidase activity but not the polyphenol concentrations in the roots increased in the absence of boron in the hydroponic solution. Therefore, the internal browning is considered to be caused by the increased polyphenol oxidase activity in response to the boron deficiency in the root.
    In the presence of boron in the solution, the internal browning did not occur, irrespective of phosphorus concentrations in the solution. On the other hand in the absence of boron, the occurrence of internal browning and polyphenol oxidase activity in the roots decreased with the increase in phosphate levels.
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  • Satoshi Kubota, Kazuo Yoneda
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 173-179
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of light intensity on growth, flowering, and nutritional status of Phalaenopsis were studied.
    The development of leaves and roots, dry matter production, reducing sugar contents, and amount of nitrogen absorption decreased with a reduction in light intensity; but concurrently, the concentration of 80% ethanol soluble nitrogenous compounds increased. With the reduction in reducing sugar, nitrogen absorption and assimilation were inhibited. Low nitrogen efficiency for dry matter production probably resulted from inhibition of assimilation under a low light condition. All plants initiated flower stalks and flowered under a high light condition, but the percentage of flowering plants decreased to 13 to 0% under moderate and low light conditions, respectively. High light conditions enhanced the length of flower stalks and the number of flowers per inflorescence. The inhibition of flower stalk emergence and flowering under low light conditions is attributed to the decrease in reducing sugar concentraion and to the accumulation of 80% ethanol soluble nitrogenous compounds.
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  • Yasuhiko Koike, Hideo Imanishi
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 181-187
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The effects of various duration of precooling followed by a long term storage at freezing temperature on flowering of Asiatic Hybrid lily cultivars were studied. Bulbs of cultivars, which had not initiated flower buds and those which had begun to initiate were used to determine the effects of precooling, freezing, and planting dates of the bulbs.
    1. When bulbs were precooled at 1°C under moist conditions for 46 weeks followed by storage at -2°C, high flowering percentage and an abundance of cut flowers with good quality were obtained whether floral initiation had taken place or not.
    2. Precooling at 1°C improved flower quality compared with those kept at 5°C or 9°C. Long term storage at -4°C resulted in good flower quality but it delayed sprouting and thus flowering time. Planting fozen bulbs during the hot summer season reduced their flowering potential and flower quality and so it is not recommended.
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  • Tomoko Takayama, Tomonobu Toyomasu, Hisakazu Yamane, Noboru Murofushi, ...
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 189-196
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin Al (GA1), GA4, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20, GA24, GA34, GA44, GA51 and 3-epi-GA4 were identified by full-scan gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and/or GC/selected ion monitoring (GC/SIM) in purified extracts of dormant bulbs of Litium elegans Thunb. cv. Connecticut King. The findings suggest that two independent GA biosynthetic pathways exist, the early-non-hydroxylation pathway leading to GA4 (active GA) and the early-13-hydroxylation pathway leading to GA1 (active GA). To investigate the physiological roles of ABA and GAs in breaking the dormancy of lily bulbs by cold treatment, quantification of ABA and GAs in the lily bulbs during the cold treatment and the subsequent growth was carried out by GC/SIM, using the corresponding deuterium-labeled compounds as internal standards. The levels of ABA and GA4 increased during cold treatment, reaching a maximum level at the end of the treatment; thereafter the levels decreased rapidly. The level of GA24, a precursor of GA4, also increased during cold treatment and remained elevated, whereas levels of 13-hydroxylated GAs such as GA1, GA19 and GA20 decreased during the cold treatment. The above results suggest that GA4 plays a principal role in breaking dormancy in lily bulbs. The physiological roles of ABA in lily bulbs are also discussed.
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  • Waichiro Kawarabayashi
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 197-205
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To establish a practical in vitro mass-production system using bulb scales of Lilium japonicum, several cultural methods simplifying the process to enlarge the current system were compared. In addition, the effects of cultural conditions on the differentiation and growth of bulblets in aerated liquid culture were investigated.
    1. Four cultural methods : (a) liquid medium culture with polyester fiber support; (b) liquid medium culture with horizontal rotation; (c) liquid medium culture with aeration; and (d) capsule culture were tested. Among them, system (c) appeared to be the most practical.
    2. Bulblet differentiation was observed after 3 weeks of culture. The number of bulblets increased significantly 5 to 8 weeks after culture initiation but not thereafter. No increase in diameter of bulblets was observed after the 5th week of culture, indicating that additional nutrients should be supplemented to the medium after 8 weeks of culture for subsequent growth of the bulblets.
    3. Bulblet differentiation in aerated liquid culture was enhanced, using the medium with 3/4 strength MS macro-elemetns and 40g• liter-1 sucrose.
    4. Addition of NAA to the medium promoted bulblet differentiation and its optimal concentration was 0.01 mg liter-1. Addition of kinetin or ABA did not promote bulblet differentiation.
    5. Bulblets differentiate efficiently when aerated with ambient air (20.9%O2), whereas higher oxygen concentration was ineffective. Effects of temperature and light conditions on bulblet development in aerated liquid culture were similar to those of agar culture.
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  • Yoshinori Ueda, Jin-He Bai, Hiroto Yoshioka
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 207-213
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Starking Delicious' apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) were packaged hermetically in low density polyethylene bags of 30 and 50 μm thicknesses, and stored for 11 weeks at 8°C. Oxygen concentrations in 30 and 50 μm thick bags ranged from 1215% and 5 9% ; carbon dioxide concentrations 4% and 56%, respectively. The polyethylene packaging inhibited carbon dioxide and ethylene evolution. Softening of apples in 30 and 50 μm thick bags was retarded 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, compared with the fruits in perforated bags.
    The characteristic volatiles of apple, such as butyl acetate and 2-methylbutyl acetate were produced at the beginning of storage. In perforated bags, the production of these esters was high on early period of the storage. But, as senescence of the fruit proceeded, ethyl alcohol and ethyl esters became the dominant volatiles. In the 50 μm thick package, the production of ethyl alcohol and ethyl estars, which are non-characteristic aromatic compounds for apple, was enhanced shortly after packaging; whereas production of butyl acetate and 2-methylbutyl acetate was decreased. These changes in the production of aromatic compounds resulted in an off-flavor. In the 30 μm thick package, the production of butyl acetate and 2-methylbutyl acetate was slightly inhibited, whereas ethyl alcohol and the esters were low during storage.
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  • Huhua Cai, Ganga Prasad Kharel, Fumio Hashinaga
    1993 Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 215-220
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Limonoid compounds are bitter principals in the citrus fruit. The changes of limonoid in the component parts, seed, flesh, segment membrane, albedo and flavedo, of the citron fruit (Citrus medica L.), obtained from Azuma town, Kagoshima Prefecture, during the development from November to February were investigated. Limonoids were extracted with ethylacetate and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography.
    1. Different from many other citrus fruits, such as 'Wase satsuma mandarin', 'Natsudaidai' etc., nomilin was a major limonoid in all the parts of citron fruit except seed, in which the content of nomilin was next to that of limonin.
    2. The total limonoid concentration in the seed was highest, ranging from 3, 270 to 1, 600 ppm, followed by segment membrane (350→310 ppm), albedo (250→150 ppm), flavedo (225→150 ppm) and flesh (45→30 ppm) from November to February.
    3. In mature citron fruits, total limonoid content reached the maximal levels in November, and then decreased rapidly in December and then increased slightly in February.
    4. During the maturation of the citron fruit from December to February, the total limonoid concentration in all parts except the albedo increased rapidly, followed by a rapid decrease in the over ripe stage. Limonoid concentrations continuously increased during maturation in the albedo and in the flesh from 4 to 15 ppm and from 55 to 170 ppm, respectively.
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