Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 63 , Issue 1
Showing 1-28 articles out of 28 articles from the selected issue
  • Akihiko Sato, Hiroyasu Yamane, Masahiko Yamada, Katsuichi Yoshinaga
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 1-7
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Inheritance of seedlessness in grapes was studied using 2, 577 progenies resuliting from the crosses of seeded × seeded parents and 2, 073 progenies from the crosses of seeded × seedless.
    The degree of seedlessness of progenies was scored as follows : 0; progenies with seed- less berries, 1; progenies with aborted or imperfect seeds, 2; progenies with normal seeds. Very few progenies with a score of 0 were obtained in the seeded × seeded crosses. The seeded × seedless crosses were divided into two groups (1) crosses which yielded seedless progenies and (2) crosses which did not yield seedless progenies. Within Group 2, 'Black Corinth', 'White Corinth' and 'Concord Seedless' which seem to carry the recessive character were used as the pollen parent. Group 1 consisted of 8 cultivars which were derived from 'Thompson Seedless' or 'Monukka'. The per cent segregation of the prog- enies in these crosses was 5.4, 41.5 and 53.1%, exhibiting score of 0, 1 and 2, respectively.
    We proposed a hypothesis explaining this segregation ratio as follows; the seedlessness of the cultivars derived from 'Thompson Seedless' or 'Monukka' is controlled by five dominant genes, the seeded cultivars being recessive homozygous and the seedless culti- vars being heterozygous in every locus.
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  • Ryosuke Mochioka, Toshiro Ono, Hiroyuki Matsui, Shosaku Horiuchi, Shoi ...
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 9-15
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The influence of clipping the prickles on nut growth, bur abscission and translocation of photosynthates in Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.) was investigated. To study the export of photosynthates, leaves of bearing, excised shoots (but not the nuts) were exposed to 14CO2 for one hour in an airtight container. Parts of the shoots and nuts were analyzed for radioactivity 24 hours later.
    1. Clipping the prickles with scissors 2 weeks after anthesis when the stigma was emerging from the bur reduced bur set at harvest to 71% of the control; when the treatment was made 6 weeks after anthesis, the set was reduced to 86% of the control. The nut weights at harvest were reduced to 87 and 67% of the control when the prickles were clipped 2 and 6 weeks after anthesis, respectively.
    2. The percentage of abscission was increased by shading the bur with aluminum foil from 3 weeks after anthesis to harvest; bur size was also significantly smaller than that of the controls.
    3. Burs assimilated carbon dioxide in the light and dark. When the prickles were clipped 4 weeks after anthesis, the assimilation of carbon dioxide by the bur under light was lower than that of the control; in the dark it was much lower than that in the light. 4. Clipping the prickles did not affect the translocation of photosynthates from the leaves to the burs.
    5. Within a given. cultivar, the developing bur size and final bur size were positively correlated with nut weight at harvest for the 10 cultivars examined.
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  • Sayuri Teramoto, Yuriko Kano-Murakami, Masahiko Hori, Kiyofumi Kamiyam ...
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 17-21
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    DNA finger-printing' by Restriction Fragments Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) can distinguish individual pear cultivars by a paternity analysis as demonstrated in many other organisms, including humans. In this study, 17 cultivars of Japanese pear were identified from their specific hybridization patterns using human minisatellite DNA probes (33.6, 33.15). By using these analysis, eight hybrid Japanese pears were traced to their parents; 'Housui' was proven not to be a hybrid of 'Ri-14'×'Yakumo'.
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  • Toshio Yoshida
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 23-30
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The inheritance of two types of dwarfism, namely "rosette" and "match" types originating from selfing and crossing of trifoliate orange strains, 'Hiryu' and 'Small leaf C' were investigated. One-year-old seedlings were classified into four tree forms; straight, crooked ('Hiryu'-like), rosette and match. Rosette type seedlings had extremely short internodes, less than 1 mm. Match type ones grew very little after germination. From the segregation patterns of tree form in the populations investigated, it was considered that rosette type and match type were controlled by a single recessive gene and two recessive ones, respectively. The rosette type seedlings responded to GA3 with a significant elongation of their internodes, whereas the match type seedlings did not respond to GA3treatment. The zygotic seedlings occurred at a high rate (47%) in the population from a selfing of 'Hiryu'. Rosette type seedlings in the population were divided into two types, one had straight twigs and the other one had crooked twigs as a result of GA3 treatment.
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  • Noboru Muramatsu, Toshio Takahara, Tatsushi Ogata, Toyoji Takatsuji, K ...
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 31-37
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Over 80% of the leaves from 28-yr-old 'Kawano Natsudaidai' (Citrus natsudaidai, Hayata) trees were removed by typhoons on September 14 and 27, 1991. To allay the question of whether fruit thinning would hasten the recovery of the damage, four thinning treatments were applied : 1) the entire crop was removed in Octover; 2) half of the crop was eliminated in October; 3) all fruits were removed in November; 4) no thinning was done. In addition, relatively undamaged trees were observed as a control.
    1. Two months after the typhoons, the amount of dead wood was not significantly different among treatments, but nine months later, trees in the unthinned plot had more dead limbs than did trees in the completely defruited plot.
    2. Trees completely thinned in October had more new fall shoots than did trees in the three other treatments.
    3. The new shoots which developed in the following spring produced about the same number of leaves, but more shoots per lateral shoot emerged on trees thinned in October than they did on unthinned trees. Completely thinned trees had more dead roots than did unthinned trees. All roots over 1 cm in diameter on unthinned trees died and their rootlets were very thin.
    4. The acidity of fruits on defoliated trees did not decrease, and the fruits failed to turn yellow. The sugar content of fruits from defoliated trees was lower than that of fruits harvested from healthy trees.
    Our results lead us to recommend that after a severe typhoon during which 'Kawanonatsudaidai' trees are defoliated, the crop should be completely thinned to aid in the speedy recovery of trees.
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  • Tetsuo Masuda, Hideo Bessho, Sadao Komori, Shichiro Tsuchiya
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 39-43
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Effects of cytokinins (N6-benzyl amino purine : BAP, thidiazuron : TDZ) and casamino acid on adventitious shoot formation from the root of plantlets regenerated in vitro were investigated to establish an efficient regeneration system for apples through adventitious shoot formation. Shoot cultures of Mains prunifolia Borkh. var. ringo Asami strain MO-84 were grown on a Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1.0 mg liter-1 BAP. Micropropagated plantlets were obtained at the end of 45 weeks of subculture on an MS medium containing 0.1 mg liter-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Intact micropropagated plantlets were placed singly on the surface of the modified MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of BAP or TDZ, plus 0.1 mg liter IBA and 0.1 mg•liter-1 GA3 at 25°C under 3, 000 lx for 16 hours per day.
    1. Optimum morphogenic response for adventitious shoot formation was obtained by using modified MS medium supplemented with 2.193.29 mg•liter-1 TDZ, 0.1 mg•liter-1 IBA, and 0.1 mg liter-1 GA3. Multiple and rosetted adventitious shoots on the root of intact micropropagated plantlets were observed at the concentration of 2.193.29 mg•liter-1 TDZ, whereas, single adventitious shoot formation was observed at 0.1 -1.10 mg •liter-1 TDZ or 5.0 mg•liter-1 BAP.
    2. Among several factors in this experiment, cytokinin (BAP, TDZ) was most effective for adventitious shoot formation; casamino acid (1, 000 mg•liter-1) had an additive effect.
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  • Shuichi Iwahori, Rumiko Kai, Mutsuo Nishi
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 45-50
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Subcellular localization of calcium in the cells of the abscission layer and adjacent tissues was investigated electronmicroscopically by a Slocum and Roux's antimonate precipitation method using leaf explants of Calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour.). Calcium localization, which was detected as electron-dense small particles, was determined by comparing the specimens which were fixed with fixatives with or without potassium antimonate. In fresh or IAA-treated explants only a few particles were present in the cells of the abscission layer along the plasmalemma and in the cytoplasm. In the explants which underwent some senescence, more particles were present along the plasmalemma and in the middle lamella of the cell wall, and a few in the cytoplasm and in the vacuole. In abscising explants, which were treated with trifluoperazine (TFP), abundant particles were present in the degenerated middle lamella. The role of calcium in senescence and abscission is discussed.
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  • Hiroyuki Kohmura, Suguru Chokyu, Takashi Harada
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 51-59
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new and effective micropropagation system was established involving somatic embryogenesis and induction of bud clusters in Asparagus officinalis L. 'Hiroshima Green' (2n=30).
    1. Multiple, compact bud clusters (clumps of numerous, green, bulbous structures) were induced from an excised shoot apex cultured in MS liquid medium supplemented with 10 mg• liter-1 ancymidol three months after inoculation. Culture tubes on a revolving drum were rotated vertically at 2 rpm at 22°C under continuous illumination at 80 μmol•m-1•s-1. The bud clusters were routinely maintained over the course of 2 years by their subdivision into small segments and subculturing them in the same fresh medium at monthly intervals. Callus did not form during the culture period, and bud clusters exhibited genetic stability. This method for induction of bud clusters was universally applicable to other asparagus cultivars. 2. In the course of 30 to 60 days, embryogenic calli were induced from 10-20% of segments excised from bud clusters and cultured on MS solid medium supplemented with 10-5 M 2, 4-D. The embryogenic calli subcultured biweekly on this medium yielded embryogenic cell lines which apparently remained genetically stable for more than one year.
    3. Somatic embryos were formed frequently on bud clusters that had been subcultured for more than 3 to 6 months in MS liquid medium, supplemented with 10 mg• liter-1 ancymidol. From these somatic embryos, embryogenic calli with proliferative ability were induced at a high frequency (more than 30%) on MS solid medium, supplemented with 10-5 2, 4-D.
    4. No albino or abnormally dwarf plants were detected among approximately 2, 000 plants regenerated from somatic embryos. Chromosome numbers (2n = 30) did not vary among the 15 randomly sampled regenerated plants.
    These results suggest that a micropropagation system that involves somatic embryogenesis and induction of multiple bud clusters can be effectively applied to the cultivation of asparagus.
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  • Keiko Kataoka, Syuichi Date, Tanzyuro Goto, Tadashi Asahira
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 61-66
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Synthetic auxin treatment for promoting the fruit growth of tomato without pollination sometimes causes puffy fruits. The newly developed cytokinin-like substance, forchlorfenuron (1- (2-chloro-4-pyridyl) -3-phenylurea, CPPU). when applied at anthesis, reduces tomato puffiness of auxin-induced parthenocarpic fruits. Addition of 50300 mg•liter-1 to an auxin solution did not decrease fruit weight but thickened the peduncle, enlarged columella, and elongated the calyxes beyond those of the control fruits.
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  • Yuji Yamamoto, Osamu Matsumoto
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 67-72
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Adventitious buds were differentiated on the hypocotyl-derived callus of Solanum melongena cv. Taya-nasu, but they did not develop into shoots upon subculturing because of recallusing. After being grafted on a hypocotyl of 'Taya-nasu' seedling, the adventitious bud grew into a shoot; concurrently, vigorous roots developed on the hypocotyl. These morphogenic responses resulted in plantlets which could be transplanted in soil. Both eggplant and tomato hypocotyls are suitable organs for rootstock sources using this micrografting technique.
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  • Haruo Suzuki, Seiichi Obayashi
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 73-79
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Carrot seeds, untreated, imbibed, primed, pregerminated and primed + pregerminated, were sown in the field on 28 March, 4 and 11 April. The effects of these presowing seed treatments on seedling emergence, subsequent growth, and yield were examined.
    Percentage emergence of seedlings from presowing-treated seeds was not improved. However, mean emergence times of seedlings from presowing-treated seeds were shortened compared to that of untreated seeds. The effect of seed treatments on emergence time of seedlings was in the following order: primed + pregerminated >primed > pregerminated > imbibed. This trend coincides with a previous finding in which plants were grown in pots under low temperature conditions.
    Plant dry weight from primed + pregerminated seeds was heaviest of all treatments at early and middle stages of growth, followed by weight from primed seeds. However, plant dry weights from imbibed and pregerminated seeds were not always significantly heavier than those from untreated seeds.
    In the second (4 April) sowing, mean root fresh weight and percentage of number of roots at 50 g or heavier from prime + pregerminated and primed seeds were higher than those from other treatments or those from untreated seeds. In the third (11 April) sowing, there were no significant differences in the size and yield of roots among treatments and the control.
    The results show that pregermination after priming of seeds improved the yield of carrot when sown in the spring and the temperature is still relatively cold.
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  • Yoshihiro Shishido, Hiroshi Kumakura
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 81-89
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The effects of root temperature on photosynthesis, transpiration, root respiration, and translocation and distribution of photosynthetic assimilates in tomato plants were studied by steady-state feeding with 14CO2. Plants at the seventh leaf stage which had grownunder constant 25° and 22°C air and root temperature respectively, were subjected to 22°, 15°, 10° and 5°C root temperatures.
    1. With lowering of root temperature, except 5°C, the photosynthetic rate did not decreased significantly during 8 h of daylight, whereas the transpiration rate decreased significantly. Root respiration rate at higher root temperatures increased gradually during the day and maintained its level during the night with a small fluctuation, whereas, root respiration decreased proportionately to the decrease in temperature.
    2. The amount of carbon respired by the root kept at 22°C plant was about three times higher than that evolved by plants held at 10°C. Export of 14C-photosynthetic assimilates from the 3rd leaf and its accumulation in the root decreased with lowering of root temperature.
    Using these data, we discuss the significance of root respiration for the productivity of plants on the basis of carbon balance at the different root temperatures.
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  • Yoichi Araki
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 91-97
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Tomato plants under glasshouse culture frequently suffer from over-luxuriant vegetative growth, resulting in malformed fruits and delayed maturity. By imposing a mild water stress on the plants, a balance between vegetative and reproductive growths can be restored in favor of better fruit growth. To achieve this balance, an irrigation trial was conducted comparing method based on plant water status with that based on soil water status. Irrigated soil depth was 40 cm in both methods.
    Vegetative growth was much poorer when plants were irrigated on leaf water potential (ΨL) than on soil moisture potential (ΨS) of pF 2.0. However, marketable yield and soluble solids contents of the fruits were significantly higher when ΨL rather than ΨS was used to time the irrigation.
    From these results, it is concluded that soil water management based on ΨL, is preferable to that based on ΨS in the forcing cultivation of tomato in greenhouses. ΨL of -0.1MPa in the early growing stage (from planting to flowering on the third cluster) and -0.5 MPa thereafter are recommended as indicators for irrigation; a soil depth of 40 cm is recommended.
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  • Hideyuki Takahashi, Mamoru Kimura, Hiroshi Suge, Takashi Saito
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 99-108
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The interactions between vernalization and photoperiodic effects on the flowering of 12 turnip varieties were examined under controlled environment. Seedlings of all varieties bolted and flowered under a long-day condition of 24 h day-length (LD) when the germinated seeds had been pre-exposed to low temperature at 3 °C (LT) for 30 days. Under the LD condition, the ratio of flower formation of all the varieties except for 'Tennoji' significantly decreased as the duration of LT treatment was shortened to less than 7 days. With LT treatment of more than 14 days, 80 to 100% of plants in all varieties formed flower buds under LD. When the seedlings were subjected to either LT and subsequently grown under a short-day condition of 8 h day-length (SD) or LD without LT treatment, the number of plants that formed flower buds substantially decreased. Furthermore, the effect of seed vernalization was counteracted by subsequent SD conditions under which the vernalized seedlings were grown throughout the experiment. Namely, flower formation and bolting of the vernalized seedlings were significantly inhibited when the LT-treated seedlings were subsequently grown under SD. These flowering responses of turnip plants to temperature and photoperiod significantly differed among the varieties used. We have classified the turnip varieties into five groups. 'Tennoji', 'Shogoin', and 'Hakatasuwari' strongly responded to the single treatment of either LD or LT, resulting in a high ratio of flower formation (Type I), whereas either treatment hardly induced the formation of flower bud in 'Yorii', 'Hinona', 'Ohnobeni', and 'Kanamachi' (Type II). 'Ohyabu', 'Ohmi', and 'Atsumi' showed an intermediate degree of flowering ratio between the Type I and II in repsonse to either LD or LT treatment (Type III). In 'Yamauchi', LD itself did not induce flower formation of non-vernalized plants, but the LT caused a high ratio of flower formation even under SD (Type IV). By contrast, 'Narusawana' showed a substantial ratio of flower formation due to LD without LT treatment, while the seedlings treated with LT did not flower under the following SD in this variety (Type V). Thus, the flowering of turnip plants is dramatically influenced by photoperiod as well as by temperature, and the responses to the two factors significantly differ among the varieties.
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  • Tomio Johjima
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 109-114
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Carotene synthesis and coloring in tomato fruits of various genotypic lines grown in an open field or in a plastic greenhouse were investigated.
    1. The mean color values, a/b ratio, of the respective typical color lines showed clearcut differences, that is, the respective values were as follows : red lines (R -T -), 1.531.83 > tangerine lines (R-tt), 0.760.86 > yellowish-tangerine lines (rrtt), 0.510.66>yellow lines (rrT-), 0.200.30. The color values of the respective genotypic lines of red tomato were as follow : RRTT (1.81) >RRTt (1.71) >RrTT =-RrTt (1.57). The color values of the heterozygote lines were lower than that of the homozygote line.
    2. Red lines, tangerine lines, yellowish-tangerine lines and yellow lines, grown in an open field and in a plastic greenhouse, contained 57, 150, 15 and 3 ug, mean colored carotene•g-1 fruit fresh weight, respectively.
    3. In red lines, homozygote RRTT had the highest a/b ratio and carotene content, and the best pigmentation in a hot season. Contrary to this, heterozygote RrTt had the lowest a/b ratio and carotene content, and the poorest pigmentation in a hot season. With the decline of carotenes, the content of neurosporene and ζ-carotene, the precursor of lycopene, declined more than that of lycopene, which shows that the influence of high temperature on carotene synthesis and coloring in tomato fruit comes from the early process of synthesis of colored carotene precursors.
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  • Shiro Isshiki, Hiroshi Okubo, Naoki Oda, Kunimitsu Fujieda
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 115-120
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Isozyme variation in 73 accessions of eggplant were investigated for elucidating intraspecific relationships of Solanum melongena. Of the nine enzymes examined, three enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase at locus Adh-2, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase at locus Gpi-2 and phosphoglucomutase at loci Pgm-1 and Pgm-2 were polymorphic among the accessions, whereas the other enzymes showed no detectable variations. Isozyme genotyeps at the loci in the 73 accessions were classified into eight types. Both of the isozyme and morphological variations support the idea that the eggplant originated in India and that the Japanese eggplants are derivatives of the Chinese line. The relationships among genotypes at Pgm-1, fruit shapes and ecotypes were implied to exist in Japanese and Chinese eggplant.
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  • Ying-hua Qu, Hideaki Takagi, Nobuyoshi Ogasawara, Takeomi Etoh
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 121-130
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Morphological development of inflorescences and types among garlic, Japanese bunching onion and asatsuki (Allium schoenoprasum L. var. foliosum Regel) was examined with a scanning electron microscope.
    1. A spathe primordium from the receptacle emerged as a circular (ring) protuberance surrounding a shoot apex. The ring of tissue increased in height on both sides from which true leaves arose.
    2. Reproductive apices of fertile and sterile complete-bolting garlics first divided into equal parts. On each half of the apex, flower primordia formed regularly into a dichasial cyme, and subsequently the whole apex developed into a compound inflorescence composed of two dichasial cymes. When the inflorescence elongated, it acquired the appearance of a determinate umbel.
    3. Some of flowers of the fertile garlic lines and almost all of the sterile complete-bolting garlic cultivars aborted. The dichasial cyme lost its shape as the flowers aborted.
    4. In Japanese bunching onion and asatsuki, flower initiation occurred first on the center of the reproductive apex and proceeded toward the circumference, but the order of flower initiation and the disposition of flowers exhibited no regularity. The mature inflorescences of these two Allium species also had the shape of a determinate umbel.
    5. That the initiation time, location, and bracteole number and position of bulbils were different from those of flowers, suggests that the bulbils differentiated independently of flowers.
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  • Shigeru Mizuguchi, Masanori Ohkawa, Tetsuro Ikekawa
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 131-137
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To propagate efficiently bulblets of Lilium japonicwn Thunb., two experiments were conducted : Experiment 1. White calli, induced from scales of a mother bulb were cultured on MS-media containing various concentrations of NAA (0, 0.01 and 0.1 ppm) and BA (0, 0.25, 1.0 and 2.5 ppm) at 25 °C under 300 lx of continuous light for 8 weeks. The optimum concentration for the growth of white callus was the combination of 0.01 ppm NAA and 1.0 ppm BA. The significant differences occurred between treatments. Experiment 2. The effects of NAA and BA on regeneration of bulblets from the white callus were examined. The white callus (about 64 mm3) was cultured in MS-media containing various concentrations of NAA (0, 0.01 0.1 and 1.0 ppm) and BA (0, 0.01 and 0.1 ppm) at 25 °C under 2000 lx of continuous light for 12 weeks. Adventitious globular buds formed on the callus on hormone-free medium after 3 weeks in culture. Bulblets developed from the adventitious buds after 6 weeks. The combination of 1.0 ppm NAA and no BA suppressed bulblet formation but induced only roots from the callus. Conversely, 0.1 ppm NAA and 0.1 ppm BA promoted the growth of the white callus and the formation of abnormal bulblets.
    Consequently, the media with no or low concentrations of plant growth hormones were optimal for the normal bulblet formation.
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  • Tokiko Nagashima
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 139-149
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Phases of seed germination and subsequent embryo devlopment in 47 species in Orchidaceae were examined.
    1. Embryo after seed germination in 47 orchid species were categorized into 4 color groups : 1) white (32 species) ; 2) pale yellow (3 species) ; 3) pale green (7 species) ; and 4) green (5 species). White embryos change gradually from pale yellow to green during formation of protocorm, but in Cephalanthera falcata, Cremastra appendiculata and Gastrodia elata the embryos remain.
    2. A single celled slender rhizoid develops from protruded part of protocorms in Chysis bractescens and Paphiopedilum insigne var. sanderae, but 610 rhizoids are devloped in the other species. No rhizoid was recognized in Gastrodia elata. Abundant root hairs were formed on roots of seedlings, except in Cephalanthera falacata. Furthermore, a part of root enlarged and produced bulbs in Habenaria radiata and Orchis graminifolia, but the shoots died gradually after formation of bulbs.
    3. Rhizoids develop within 3 days after germination in (Bletilla striata) and 155 days in (Calanthe discolor × C. aristulifera). Root developed within 33 days after germination (Calanthe discolor and Bletilla striata) and 333 days (Calanthe tokunoshimensis). Rhizoid and root development are delayed in species having triangled protocorm showing whitish embryo at germination than in species having round and ellipsoidal protocorm. Futhermore, a tendency was observed that species which develop rhizoid fast also develop roots rapidly.
    4. Terminal buds of protocorm elongated downward and formed a rhizome which kept elongating and branching in temperate Cymbidium. After elongation of the rhizome ceased, the terminal bud grew upward and differentiated into shoots and roots.
    5. Among the 47 species examined, germinating embryos of terrestrial species from temperate and semi-tropical zones are generally whitish; they grew slowly and irregularly.
    The germinating embryos of terrestrial and epiphytic species from temperate to tropical zones were pale yellow to green. They grew fast and uniformly after germination.
    6. No correlation was found within a subfamily with respect to color and growth patterns of embryos and protocorm.
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  • Hajime Ohno
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 151-157
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Respiratory changes leading to flower bud blasting in the orchid Cymbidium × Sazanami 'Haru-no-umi' at high temperature were examined. When plants bearing inflorescences grown between 5° to 20°C (low) were transferred to a phytotron kept at 30° day/25°C night (high), CO2 evolution by the flower buds decreased rapidly and reached about 1/3 of the initial rates during two weeks with rise of temperature coefficient (Q10) near to 3. Flower stalks and bracts showed similar but slower reductions in CO2 evolution. Their Q10 values were around 2 and not different from those of the control inflorescences placed at low temperatures (20°/15°C). Both respiratory rates and Q10 values remained relatively constant in the control inflorescences. Respiratory rates of flower buds grown at natural low temperatures were high on fresh weight basis and increased with flower bud development on flower bud basis. The respiratory quotient (RQ) was between 1.15 and 1.35. On the contrary, the rates of those grown under natural high temperatures (25°C ?? ) showed lower values and did not increase on flower bud basis. The RQ decreased dramatically from 1.5 to 0.7. Application of gibberellic acid (GA3), which prohibited flower buds from blasting, suppressed the reductions of respiratory rates and RQ values. The results indicate that reduction of respiratory rates, RQ decrease and Q10 rise, are involved in the blasting of Cymbidium flower buds caused by high temperature.
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  • Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Yoshinori Komatsu, Yoshiharu Yokoo, Tadayasu Furuka ...
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 159-166
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The effect of a pulse treatment with cis-propenylphosphonic acid (PPOH) on the opening of cut rose flowers (Rosa hybrida L.) was investigated. Treatments with a 5 or 10 mM PPOH solution for 20 hr delayed opening of cut 'Sonia' roses kept in vase water at 20°C. PPOH had no effect on the change of the flower weight. In this experiment, the cumulative water uptake of PPOH-treated flowers during the first 4 days decreased accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in total transpiration. Analysis of the similar experimental results obtained from June 1989 to July 1990 revealed a significant, positive correlation between the delaying effect of PPOH on the flower opening and PPOH uptake into the flowers (P < 0.01). In field experiments in which PPOH-treatment was carried out in a commercial planting grower, 5 or 10 mM PPOH treatment for 30 hr also delayed the flower opening of cut 'Carlred' roses. The delaying effect of PPOH was more evident when flowers were kept in vase water at 10°C than were kept at 20°C. The treatment was effective even with a 6-hr treatment. When the PPOH-treated flowers were held at 10°C for 2 days longer than the water-treated ones. the former were comparable to or superior with the latter in their opening rates and appearance when both lots were transferred to 20°C. Similar PPOH results were obtained with 'Bridal Pink', 'Aalsmeer Gold' and 'Marina'. The results indicate that PPOH pulse treatments: 1) can delay the opening of cut rose flowers, particularly when held at 10°C, and 2) may extend the shelf life of the flowers if refrigerated in the stockroom at a retail shop.
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  • Takashi Hosoki, Hiroyuki Kanbe, Tetsuya Kigo
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 167-172
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Transformation of ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana × Sanderae Hort.) and kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC) was studied using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens or A. rhizogenes -vector system. A plasmid, pBI 121 (β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene combined with kanamycin resistant gene, nptII) was transferred to Agrobacterium by tri-parental mating or freeze-thaw method.
    After leaf disks of ornamental disks were inoculated with a suspension of A. tumefaciens harboring pBI 121, they were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with growth regulators, kanamycin sulfate and carbenicillin sodium. Six calli appeared from edges of leaf disks from which shoots differentiated. Of the 10 shoots examined, nine showed positive reaction to 5 bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl glucuronide (X-gluc) suggesting that GUS gene was transferred to plant cells. These nine shoots survived on MS medium containing kanamycin sulfate whereas shoots regenerated from non-infected leaf disks died. Based on these results, nine shoots were recognized to be transformants harboring pBI 121.
    Petioles of ornamental kale lelaves were inoculated with a suspension of A. rhizogenes harboring a plasmid, pBI 121. Ten roots developed, but only two roots showed positive reaction to X-gluc. Five shoots which were regenerated from these two roots on MS medium supplemented with growth regulators and carbenicillin sodium gave a positive reaction to X-gluc, and to 4-methyl umbelliferyl glucuronide (MUG). The shoots survived on MS medium containing kanamycin sulfate, indicating that the five regenerated shoots were transformed.
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  • Hiroto Yoshioka, Yoshiki Kashimura, Katsuyoshi Kaneko
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 173-182
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Arabinose and galactose are lost from the cell walls of apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) during softening. However, the amounts of galacturonic acid, rhamnose, xylose, mannose, and glucose fluctuate very little.
    The polyuronides were separated with DEAE-Sepharose and the changes in the sugar residue compositions of the polyuronides during softening were examined. A large amount of galacturonic acid and a small amount of rhamnose increased in the water-soluble polyuronide fraction and decreased in the EDTA- and. HC1-soluble polyuronide frac- tions during softening. The amounts of arabinose and galactose decreased in water-, the EDTA- and HCI-soluble polyuronide fractions. The amounts of xylose, mannose and glu- cose fluctuated little in water-, EDTA- and HC1-soluble polyuronide fractions. KOH-soluble polyuronides were abundant in xylose and glucose, and changed little during softening.
    Most of the water-soluble polyuronides which increased during softening exhibited a lower affinity to ConA Sepharose than did the EDTA- and HCl-soluble polyuronides. These water-soluble polyuronides contained a large amount of galacturonic acid and only a small amount of rhamnose and other neutral sugars.
    It was suggested that the preferential release of polyuronides poor in neutral sugar residues occurs in apples during softening. Losses of arabinose and galactose residues from the polyuronide molecules may be involved in the solubilization of these polyuronides.
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  • Atsushi Yanagisako, Yoshiyuki Maeda, Keishi Shimokawa
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 183-188
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two enzymatic metabolites from chlorophyll a were detected in crude enzyme extracts preparated from ethylene-treated fruits of Citrus unshiu. They were identified as pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a using high performance thin layer and liquid chromatographic techniques and fluoresence spectroscopy.
    Sodium ascorbate enhanced conversion of chlorophyll a to pheophorbide pigments, whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate strongly inhibited the formation of pyropheophorbide a. These results suggest that the crude enzyme extracts contain the two enzymes, 'Mg-de-chelatase' and 'Decarbomethoxylase'
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  • Atsushi Yanagisako, Yoshiyuki Maeda, Keishi Shimokawa
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 189-194
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two enzymatic reaction metabolites were isolated from a crude enzyme extract of degreening Citrus unshiu fruits when pheophorbide a was used as a substrate. One was identified as pyropheophorbide a but the other was unidentified.
    A time course study of pheophorbide a degradation and metabolite formation disclosed that pheophrbide a is firstly metabolized to an unidentified intermediate "X", which is then degraded top pyropheophorbide a.
    Optimum pH for "X" formation from pheophorbide a was 7.0 with potassium phosphate buffer. Linearity between the rate of the conversion and protein concentration was obtained over the range of 0.250.50 mg protein per 10 ml of the reacetion mixture. Tentative Km for pheophorbide a is 4.0 mM. The reaction was strongly inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate and AgNO3.
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  • Keishi Shimokawal, Hidehiro Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki Maeda, Yoshinori Uchi ...
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 195-201
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of allylisothiocyanate (an inhibitor of ethylene action) on ethylene-enhancement of chlorophyllase in satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) fruit were investigated. The aim is to accumulate knowledge of action mechanism of ethylene. The isothiocyanate inhibited ethylene-enhancement of chlorophyllase activity in vivo. A correlation (r=0.9580, significant at 0.1% level) exists between chlorophyllase activity and Hunter's color index, (L+ b) /2+a, a marker of degreening. Participation of 'chlorophyllide a peroxidase', a candidate enzyme of degreening, was recognized, in independent of ethylene and/or allyl-isothiocyanate treatments. It is conclusive that chlorophyllase is a key enzyme in ethylene-enhanced chlorophyll degradation of satsuma mandarin fruit.
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  • Yoshihiko Koyama, Akira Uda
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 203-209
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Carnations 'Nora' and 'Coral' were harvested at the bud stage IV to investigate the effect of temperature, light intensity, and sucrose concentration on bud forcing and flower quality.
    1. When cut budded carnation shoots were forced at 20°, 25°, and 30 °C, at the higher temperature, the days to anthesis were shortened and the vase life was extended, but the browning of the stem base became more intense. But the obvious tendency was not indicated in the total days (days to forcing + vase life) from harvest. The petal color was close to normal one at 20° and 25 °C, while it turned into pale at 30 °C by increasing L values with a reduction of a and b values in Hunter's readings.
    2. 'Nora' developed normal petal color at 0.2 and 1 klx of light, whereas 'Coral' required 2 and 3 klx to force flowers with normal petal color.
    3. Use of sucrose concentrations ranging from 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15% in the forcing solution revealed that as the concentration increased, the flower diameter was increased and vase life was extended. At 7% or higher, dehydration symptoms were observed at the tips of the leaves and calyxes. At higher sucrose concentrations, the L values decreased simultaneously as a and b values increased in the Hunter's readings; thus, the petal color was intensified.
    4. The petal color was considered to be the more important trait than any other characters in the quality of cut flowers. The best forcing conditions for obtaining the optimum quality of flowers with normal petal color were : 1) 20° to 25 °C; 2) 0.2 to 1.0 klx for 'Nora' (pale pink) and 2 to 3 klx for 'Coral' (red) ; and 3) a 3% sucrose in the forcing solution.
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  • Yoshihiko Koyama, Yoshihiko Koyama
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 211-217
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The experiments were conducted to establish a method for marketing budded carnation shoots for Mother's Day. To supply flowers of high quality, we investigated some important conditions as follows; storage potential of the flowers, silver thiosulphate (STS) application to extend vase life, the use of a greenhouse as a forcing room and treatment by commercial forcing solutions.
    1. Buds of carnation 'Coral' were forced after various storage periods. A storage period longer than 16 weeks is not advisable because it delays the onset of anthesis. The longest practical storage period is 12 weeks.
    2. The carnation shoots stored for 4 weeks at 1 °C were successfully forced in a green house in early May. The color of the petals was nearly normal.
    3. After storage for 4 weeks at 1 °C, dipping the cut ends of carnation shoots in 1 mM STS for 2 hr extended the vase life to 26.8 days.
    4. High-grade cut flowers for Mother's Day were obtained by using a greenhouse as a forcing room, together with the application of an STS dip after storage, and a treatment with a commercial forcing solution. This forcing method is simple and makes the availability of carnation flowers for Mother's Day predictable.
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