Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 63 , Issue 3
Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
  • Koji Uchino, Yoshinobu Tatsuda, Kazuyoshi Sakoda
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 479-484
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Maturing loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv. Mogi) fruit were harvested on 11, 18, and 25 May 1992 and grouped into four to nine classes based on the skin color measured as the Hunter "a" value. The relationship between the skin color and fruit quality, such as sugar contents, organic acid contents, and flesh firmness was investigated.
    1. The soluble solids content increased and the titratable acidity (TA) decreased with maturation. TA in the fruit whose "a" value was more than 4, decreased concurrent with a delay in harvest.
    2. Glucose and fructose contents in the flesh increased as the color intensity deepened with each harvest date. Sucrose content of the fruit harvested on 11 May increased with maturation, whereas, it decreased in fruit harvested on 25 May.
    3. Malic acid content in the flesh decreased as the "a" value increased on every harvest date. Citric acid content was higher in immature fruit than it was in mature fruit, whereas, succinic and fumaric acid contents rose with maturation.
    4. The flesh firmness gradually decreased until the "a" value reached 6-8, it then increased slightly. The flesh of the over-ripe fruit was more elastic than that of eating-ripe ones.
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  • Masahiko Yamada, Hiroyasu Yamane, Akihiko Sato, Nobuyuki Hirakawa, Ren ...
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 485-491
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    One hundred and eighty-eight cultivars of oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) native to Japan were evaluated for fruit ripening time (FRT), fruit weight (FW), and soluble solids content (SSC). A high heritability for each of these traits was conserved in this population; the overall mean and SD of FRT, FW and SSC were early to mid-November and 15 days, 200 g and 72 g, and 17.0% and 1.7%, respectively. Subgroups of PCA (pollination constant-astringent) and PVNA (pollination variant-nonastringent) showed wide variations for each trait. As to mean values, the PVNA group had slightly earlier FRT and higher SSC than the PCA group but their FW were similar. PCNA (pollination constant-nonastringent) group showed the latest FRT and the SSC was intermediate between those of PCA and PVNA groups; whereas, PVA (pollination variant-astringent) had the earliest FRT with the lowest SSC. The PCNA and PVA groups had larger fruits than the PCA and PVNA groups. Variations in FRT and SSC of PCNA were characteristically small, which suggest that these cultivars evolved later than the others.
    There is a weak, negative correlation between FW and SSC and a weak, positive one between FRT and FW. The percentage of early ripening cultivars was higher in cultivars which originated in the northern areas of Japan in contrast to those developed in southern regions.
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  • Osvaldo Kiyoshi Yamanishi
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 493-504
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of different day/night temperatures during spring season on flower development, fruit set and fruit quality of 2-year-old potted 'Tosa Buntan' pummelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) trees grafted on trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.) rootstock was investigated. The experiment was conducted in growth chambers with setting day/night temperatures of 15°/10°C, 20°/15°C and 30°/25°C; one plot was set in a plastic house (Max. 30°/Min. 15°C) condition. Temperature treatments were started on 1 April and terminated on 30 July 1992. After the temperature treatments in the growth chambers, all trees were grown in the same way in the plastic house until harvest, 25 January 1993. All the trunks of the potted trees were strangulated with a steel wire (1.6 mm diam.) at a tension of 60 Kgf.cm degree at the start of the temperature treatment; the wire was removed 4 months later. The number of inflorescences and flower buds increased as the day/night temperatures were lowered. Higher day/night temperature treatments led to a reduction in the number of days to anthesis, the end of flowering and "June drop". The greater the leaf area per flower bud, the higher was the fruit set. Sugar and carbohydrate contents in leaves increased while N content decreased under low day/night temperature treatments, except for 30°/25°C regimen. Higher day/night temperature treatments increased the number of vegetative shoots, promoted shoot growth, enhanced chlorophyll synthesis in the first flush, hastened the rate of trunk enlargement which deepened the girdles in the trunk, and decreased the weight of flower, petal and ovary as well as citric acid content in juice. Lower day/night temperature treatments produced smaller fruit and a lower TSS-TA ratio. The TSS content in fruit juice did not differ among the temperature treatments. Under the 30°/25°C regimen, fruits at harvest exhibited broken axial parenchyma tissue.
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  • Ming-guang Liu, Isao Ogiwara, Naotoshi Hakoda, Isao Shimura
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 505-514
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Callus derived from cotyledons of 'Fuji' apple were cultured on 1/3 MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of BA and NAA. The effects of BA, TDZ, and CPPU at 1.0 to 8.0 mg•liter-1 on shoot regeneration from calli and NAA on subcultured calli were investigated.
    1. Cotyledons produced callus profusely when cultured on a medium supplemented with 0 to 4.0 mg•liter-1 BA and 0.5 to 10.0 mg•liter-1 NAA. Callus formation occurred only at the proximal part of the cotyledon exposed to 0 or 0.1 mg•liter-1 NAA. However, calli formed from the distal and middle regions at 0.5 mg•liter-1NAA or higher.
    2. Callus morphology was dependent on concentrations of NAA and BA. With NAA alone, soft calli were produced, whereas at 0.5 to 4.0 mg•liter-1 BA and at combinations of 0 to 0.1 mg•liter-1 NAA and 0.5 to 8.0 mg•liter-1 BA hairy calli were induced. Combinations of 10.0 mg•liter-1 NAA and 2.0 to 10.0 mg•liter -1 BA gave rise to globular calli.
    3. When globular calli were cultured on the medium with 4.0 mg•liter-1 CPPU and 0 NAA and then subcultured onto a fresh medium at 2-week interval for 6 weeks, 60% of the callus explants regenerated shoots; about 12 shoots per callus were obtained 12 weeks after beginning the experiment. TDZ also produced a positive effect on shoot regeneraiton from callus, but the percentage of explants forming shoots and the number of shoots formed were less than those treated with CPPU. The effect of BA on shoot formation from callus was comparatively weak. The addition of 0.1 mg•liter-1 NAA to CPPU greatly reduced the number of shoots regenerated.
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  • Ken Hirano, Masaaki Noda, Shigeki Hasegawa, Goro Okamoto
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 515-521
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The contribution of lateral and primary leaves to the growth and quality of 'Kyoho' (Vitis vinifera × V. labrusca) berries was investigated. The total leaf area on each bearing shoot was adjusted to ca. 1500 cm2 by removing primary or lateral leaves at veraison so that the percentage of lateral leaf area (LL) beyond or distal to the cluster was : ca. 100 (100 - LL), 70 (70 - LL), 30 (30 - LL), and 0 (0 - LL) of the ca. 1000 cm2.
    The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of the primary and lateral leaves on treated and intact shoots were determined.
    1. The berries on 100- and 70 - LL shoots ripened faster than they did on 30- and 0 - LL shoots. Berries on 100- and 70 - LL shoots accumulated total soluble solids (TSS) and anthocyanin faster than they did on 30- and 0 - LL shoots. Contrarily, titratable acidity of the berries on 100- and 70 - LL shoots decreased more rapidly than they did on 30- and 0 - LL shoots.
    2. During the ripening stage of the berry, the Pn of lateral leaves was faster than that of primary leaves. The Pn of basal primary leaves was significantly slower which may be responsible for the retarded ripening of berries on 0 - LL shoot.
    3. No significant difference was found in the leaf structure or the mineral nutrient content between primary and lateral leaves when measured before the veraison.
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  • Thawansak Phosang, Nagao Matsuta, Hiroyuki Iketani, Tateki Hayashi, Ry ...
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 523-528
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Viable mesophyll protoplasts were isolated from in vitro grown leaves of grapes (Vitis labruscana cv. Kyoho and V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). The best yield of mesophyll protoplasts (1.8 × 107 and 2.4 × 107 • g -1 leaf fresh weight, 'Kyoho' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon', respectively) was obtained in a combined enzyme solution of 0.5% Cellulase YC, 0.2% Macerozyme R -10 and 0.1% Driselase. More than 85% of the isolated protoplasts were viable. Most protoplasts regenerated the cell wall within first 5 days of culture. Cell division occurred after 5 to 10 days of culture in Gamborg's B5 liquid medium supplemented with 5μM 2, 4 - D, 2.5μM BA and 0.6 M sorbitol. In 'Kyoho', 12% of cell division frequency was found in the protoplasts isolated with 0.5% Cellulase YC, 0.2% Macerozyme R -10, 0.1% Driselase and 0.01% Pectolyase Y -23. In 'Cabernet Sauvignon', the frequency of cell division was low (1.4%) when the same enzyme solution was used for the protoplast isolation.
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  • Takaaki Ishii, Kazuomi Kadoya
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 529-535
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of several kinds of charcoal applied to soil on citrus growth and vesiculararbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) development were investigated. Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) trees on trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.) rootstocks were transplanted to root boxes using the soil mixed with charcoal derived from rice husk, citrus juice sediment or western spruce bark. The trees were inoculated with the spores of Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter) Gerdemann and Trappe emend. Walker and Koske. Elongation of the roots in the charcoal treatments was more vigorous than that in the charcoal-free control. The fresh weigths of the root, shoot and the whole tree increased in response to charcoal application. The intensity of VAM infection in any charcoal treatment was higher than that in the control. In particular, the percentage of the infection in the rice husk charcoal plot was 41.5 and P concentration in the leaf exceeded that of the control.
    In a Citrus iyo orchard, the percentage of VAM infection was 52% in the rice husk charcoal plot, the highest among plots. The intensity in the Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum Flugge.) plot was next, followed by the third highest rate found in the abandoned plot which had not been cultivated in recent years. The lowest percentage of VAM infection was in a clean-culture plot. A microscopic observation also revealed that in a charcoal-treated plot there were many sites where VAM fungi infected the root.
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  • Ryutaro Tao, Jun Ito, Akira Sugiura
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 537-541
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study describes the influence of the number of subcultures on the rooting ability of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Jiro) shoots cultured in vitro, and also investigates the growth characteristics of the acclimatized plants which might be affected by rejuvenation.
    1. The percentages of rooted shoots from adult plants increased with repeated subcultures. The rooting percentage was only 3.3% after three subcultures increasing to 90% after 38 subcultures. In contrast, shoots from juvenile seedlings had as high as 70% rooting after three subcultures.
    2. In terms of shoot and root dry weights, the micropropagated plants grew more vigorously than seedling plants in the first growing season. Some of the micropropagated trees bore their first flower in the second growing season, suggesting that partial rejuvenation or reinvigoration, but not true rejuvenation, was responsible for the early flowering and the juvenile characteristics observed in the micropropagated plants.
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  • Takehiko Shimada, Takashi Haji, Masami Yamaguchi, Toshihide Takeda, Ke ...
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 543-551
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The genetic relationship of mume cultivars was resolved by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay using 95 decamer oligonucleotide primers. The heterozygosity within Prunus mume was confirmed by the numerous polymorphism of DNA fingerprints which exsist among cultivars.
    Representative cultivars were selected from four groups; 1) Ko-ume (small fruit), 2) Chuu-ume (medium fruit), 3) Ou-ume (large fruit), 4) hybrid between mume and apricot; which were generally classified by fruit size and morphological traits. Japanese mume cultivar were developed independently as indicated by the dissimilarity index between Taiwan and Japanese mume. The Ko-ume and Taiwan mume group with its narrow genetic variation are different from 'Bungo' which has characteristics of the apricot. Thus, they are genetically distant from 'Bungo' and apricot.
    Four flowering mume cultivars in this experiment are closely related to the fruiting mume but were classified into a segregate group, because a possibility exists that the fruiting mume may be a derivative of the flowering ones.
    The 3 groups of mume cultivars : 1) 'Muroya', 'Inazumi', and 'Tounoume'; 2) 'Komukai' and 'Gojirou'; and 3) 'Suzukishiro' and 'Taihei' consists of synonyms. Therefore, they could not be distinguished from each other with precise RAPD assay capable of detecting DNA polymorphisms. The possibility seems to be high that the cultivars within the 3 groups are identical. 'Takadaume' was shown as the nearest to apricot among mume cultivars. 'AM2-1', 'AM2-2' and 'AM2-4' which are artificial hybrids between 'Jizouume' and 'Heiwa' were classified into the same cluster as 'Bungo'. It is sufficient evidence to prove that 'Bungo' is a hybrid between mume and apricot. It seems reasonable to suppose that RAPD assay has the potentiality to identify mume cultivars, considering the capability of discriminating these artificial hybrids.
    In conclusion, mume cultivars can be classified into seven groups; 1) Taiwan mume, 2) Ko-ume (small fruit), 3) Chuu-ume (medium fruit), 4) Ou-ume (large fruit) with white flower, 5) Ou-ume (large fruit) with pink flower, 6) Anzu-ume or Bungo-ume (apricot-mume hybrid), 7) Sumomo-ume (plum-mume hybrid). The DNA fingerprints of mume genome generated by RAPD assay reflect the own origin of mume cultivars. Hence, the method is expected to contribute to a mume breeding project.
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  • Shozo Kobayashi, Akira Sakai, Toshifumi Ohgawara, Yuri Nakamura
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 553-558
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Transformed nucellar cells of navel orange obtained by electroporation, were successfully cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (LN2) by a vitrification method. The cells treated with a concentrated cryoprotective solution (PVS2) at 25 °C for 3 min were transferred to a 1.8 nil plastic cryotube and then directly plunged into LN2. After storage for 1 year in LN2, cell viability was about 90%, as evaluated by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and phenosafranine double staining. Southern blot analysis showed that the integrated neomycinphosphotransferase II (NTPII) gene was stably maintained in the cryopreserved-regrown cells without DNA alteration. No morphological differences were observed between plants regenerated from cryopreserved cells and those from non-cryopreserved cells.
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  • Takashi Nishizawa
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 559-565
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    June-bearing strawberry plants (Fragaria × ananassa, cv. Hokowase) were exposed to winter chilling for 47 days under light or shade and then forced at 25°/20 °C (day/night) under a 15-hr photoperiod. The plants were harvested at 14-day intervals and changes in the vegetative growth and stored carbohydrate contents in the roots were noted.
    Petiole lengths and areas of new leaves of chilled plants which unfolded under forcing conditions were larger than those of the unchilled control plants, especially at higher leaf positions. Winter chilling did not precondition root growth to increase under forcing conditions.
    Under the light treatment, reducing sugar and sucrose levels (mg•g-1 dry wt) of roots increased during winter chilling, while the starch level remained unchanged. Under the shade treatment, the sucrose level in the roots significantly increased during winter chilling, with a concomitant decrease of the starch level. Although all inflorescences were removed as they emerged, the amount of stored carbohydrates in roots (mg per roots) decreased rapidly during the first 14 days of forcing, irrespective of the treatments except for starch in shade treatment.
    In the roots of shaded plants, the sucrose level at the onset of forcing was only 40% of roots of exposed plants. However, reduction of the sucrose during the first 14 days of forcing was insignificant between the treatments.
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  • Daiichiro Miyajima
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 567-574
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Komatsuna 'Osome', cultured with lower concentrations of nutrient. solutions, raised AsA and sugar concentrations in leaves. Komatsuna plants harvested when the length of the longest leaf was about 25 cm, contained the highest concentration of AsA. Sugar concentration was independent of the plant size at harvest. The light condition before and at harvest had much affect on sugar concentration. Sugar concentration was high when harvested in the afternoon of a sunny day, whereas, it was low when harvested on the next morning of the day during which komatsuna were shaded.
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  • Yuji Yamamoto, Osamu Matsumoto, Kenji Tanabe
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 575-580
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Taro plants grown from lg corms propagated by in vitro culture (IP plants) and those grown from standard 50g corms (ST plants) were compared with respect to dry matter production, their partitioning and the translocation of assimilates for 24hr after exposure to 13CO2.
    1. The relative growth rate (RGR) of IP plants was faster than that of ST plants.
    2. IP plants exhibited a faster net assimilation rate than did ST plants except between April 4 to May 20 when the rate was equal and from Sept. 24 to Oct. 14 when IP plants had a slower NAR than did the ST plants.
    3. IP plants partitioned more dry matter to corm and cormels than was retained by the foliage during the early growth stage. In ST plants, conversely, more dry matter was retained in the foliage during the first half of the growing season.
    4. Although almost 70% of the total 13C-labelled assimilates translocated to the corm and cormels in IP plants on July 14, only 35% of them did in ST plants.
    5. The amount of recoverable 13C-labelled assimilates retained by the foliage of ST plants on September 9 (44.1%) was less than that detected on July 14 (58.3%) ; thus, a significant amount always remains unexported in the foliage.
    6. The increase of cormel number in IP plants strengthens the sink demand compared with that of ST plants. It also seems that sink strength of cormels is relatively stronger than corm in IP plants.
    7. The rapid accumulation of assimilates by cormels of IP plants is attributed to their fast growth rate.
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  • Tornio Johjima, Naotaka Matsuzoe
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 581-588
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Fruit growth, coloring and pigment formation of 13 cultivars of pink and red tomatoes were investigated. Fruit growth and development of each cultivar grown in an open field or in a plastic greenhouse showed a similar tendency. The weight of individual fruits at 30 days after flowering was more than 30% of the final weight of ripe fruits of that cultivar and the weight of fruit at 40 days after flowering was more than 70% of the final weight of ripe fruit. At 45 days after flowering fruit weight was more than 80% of the final weight of ripe fruit, chlorophyll degradation had begun in the fruits, followed by carotenoid biosynthesis (turning stage) and the fruits were fully ripe within 710 days after reaching the turning stage.
    Color values, a/b ratio, of full-ripe fruits of pink and red tomato cultivars were 2.61.4 and 1.91.1, respectively. Color value of pink tomatoes was higher than that of red tomatoes. Pink and red cultivars contained 7080 μg colored carotenes per g fresh weight of full-ripe fruits grown in an open field or in a plastic greenhouse.
    Cultivars having a greater carotene content had better pigmentation after exposure to high temperature. The cultivars with a high carotene content included 'Fukuju No. 2' and 'Saturn' of pink tomatoes, and 'Moneymaker' and 'Red Cherry' of red tomatoes.
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  • Takashi Hosoki, Tetsuya Kigo
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 589-592
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Transfer of β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene into Brussels sprouts was made using Agrobacterium rhizogenes vector-system. Plasmid pBI 121 was transferred to A. rhizogenes IFO 13257 by the freeze-thaw method. When leaves of Brussels sprouts were inoculated with Agrobacterium, 34 hairy roows were produced with GUS activities. From seven root clones with GUS activities, 14 shoots were regenerated from calli on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1 mg•liter-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) plus 5 mg•liter-1 zeatin. Seven shoots obtained from four root clones again showed GUS activities, suggesting that they were transformants. In two root clones, shoots with and without GUS activity were regenerated from the same callus. Four shoots from three root clones showed no activity. Thus, half of GUS genes were stably transmitted from hairy roots to regenerated plants.
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  • Ikuko Inada, Motonobu Endo
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 593-602
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    C-banded karyotypes and their variations were studied in Allium fistulosum and A. altaicum, and the phylogenetic relationship between the two species was verified.
    1. All plants of cultivars and strains examined in A. fistulosum had the same karyotypes except for a variation of satellites [K(2n) =14V+2JT, 14V+1JT+1Jt, 14V+1JT+1J]. The telomeric and centromeric regions in all chromosomes, satellites and proximal regions to the nucleolar organizer in No. 6 chromosome, and five intercalary regions in No. 6, 7, 8 chromosomes were differentially stained as the fundamental C-banding pattern of A. fistulosum.
    2. Two strains of A. altaicum were, in whole, similar to A. fistulosum in the karyotype, including the variation of satellites. The C-banding patterns differed between the two species by the presence or absence of three intercalary bands.
    3. In F1 hybrid plants between A. fistulosum and A. altaicum, the somatic chromosome complement consisted of eight pairs of chromosomes after C-banded karyotype analysis. Almost homologous meioses in PMCs were observed in F1 hybrid plants. Moreover, F1 hybrid plants showed high seed fertility. Consequently, these results suggest that A. fistulosum and A. altaicum have homologous genomes, and indicate the degree of their close relationship.
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  • Michio Ohi, Hiromi Isoda, Koji Ohsawa
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 603-610
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Embryo development in ovules of intergeneric hybrids between E. wasabi cv. Takai (2n = 14) and A. rusticana 'Akame' (2n = 32) proceeded up to 30 days after pollination. In contrast, in the reciprocal cross of A. rusticana × E. wasabi, the embryo development was retarded and nearly all hybrid embryos degenerated by the 30th day after pollination. The hybrid ovules derived from E. wasabi × A. rusticana eventually yielded plantlets, whereas none were obtained in the reciprocal cross. We found that the MS medium for our ovule culture was superior to White's medium. The analysis of esterase isozyme and the chromosome numbers in the root tip cells, 2n=23, confirmed that the plants obtained by ovule culture were true hybrids of E. wasabi × A. rusticana. The morphological characteristics of the hybrid plants resembled those of E. wasabi.
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  • Hiroomi Kanda, Yoshihisa Kasukabe, Hiroshi Fujita, Takaaki Washino, Sh ...
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 611-618
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To clarify the involvement of RNA metabolism in chill-tolerant figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouch) and chill-intolerant cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), the effects of root temperatures ranging from 12 ° to 26 °C on root RNA concentrations and root growth were studied. RNA concentrations in figleaf gourd roots were affected by root temperature, being lowest at 23 ° to 26 °C, increasing with lower temperatures and peaking at 14 °C; concentrations then decreased at 12 °C. The concentration at 14 °C was 2.5 times higher than it was at 23 ° to 26 °C. A similar trend was observed in cucumber roots, but much less dramatic. The marked increase of RNA concentration in figleaf gourd roots was due to increases of such RNA species as rRNA, mRNA, tRNA, and RNA precursors. The extent of increases was most prominent in tRNA. Six days after exposure to 14 °C, the roots were transferred to 23 °C. The move caused a rapid drop of RNA concentration within 2 days to a pre-chill level in figleaf gourd roots but no change in cucumber roots. The marked increase of RNA concentration in figleaf gourd roots exposed to 14 °C may be caused by the low temperature-induced net accumulation of RNAs. Root growth of figleaf gourd paralleled that of RNA concentration/temperature curve; that of cucumber was nearly linear from 12 °C to 26 °C. The marked increase in RNA concentration in figleaf gourd roots exposed to 14 °C is discussed in relation to chilling tolerance.
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  • Yoh-ichi Matsubara, Takashi Harada, Toshiro Yakuwa
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 619-628
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (VAMF) inoculation on seedling growth in 17 species of vegetable crops were investigated, using two lines of VAMF (Glomus etunicatum and Glomus intraradices).
    1. Growth was noticeably enhanced by VAMF inoculation to roots in Welsh onion, asparagus, pea, celery, and cucumber. The degree of growth enhancement varied with the host-fungus combination. VAMF inoculation caused both leaf sheaths and leaf blades to thicken in Welsh onion, and enhanced the formation of shoots and crowns in asparagus.
    2. Fresh weights of shoot and root increased when the plants were inoculated with VAMF. In most vegetables, the increase in fresh weight of roots was caused by an increase of the number of roots, but in Welsh onion and asparagus, it was caused by an in- crease in the number of roots and a thickening of the main roots.
    3. VAMF infection was recognized in most vegetables except petsai. A high infection level (rate of infected portion in a root system) was obtained mainly in plants with a large growth response to the fungus. In most vegetables except Welsh onion, VAMF infection was observed only in lateral roots ; the root caps were uninfected. Vesicules (symbiotic organ) developed in the roots of plants with a large growth response to the fungus.
    4. Mycorrhizal dependency (ratio of total dry weight of 10 VAMF-inoculated plants to total dry weight of 10 non-inoculated plants) was maximum in Liliaceae (Welsh onion and asparagus) among 7 families with VAM fungus infection.
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  • Masahiro Maeda, Joseph G. Dubouzet, Ken-ichi Arisumi, Takeomi Etoh, Yu ...
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 629-638
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Forcing abilities of spring-flowering Allium species were evaluated for possible inclusion in our breeding program for new ornamental Alliums. The inflorescences of A. schubertii Zuccarini and A. sphaerocephalurn L. withered prior to blooming despite exposure to various storage conditions and staggered planting dates in autumn and winter. A. aflatunense Fedtsch. and its cultivar 'Purple Sensation', A. caeritleum Pallas, and A. oreophilum Meyer required at least four weeks of moist winter storage at 4°C to bloom. Exposure to eight weeks of moist winter storage at 4°C improved the blooming percentages of A. giganteum Regel, whereas A. moly L. required 12 weeks of similar storage to attain 100% bloom. The treatments did not dramatically affect the blooming percentages of A. cowanii Lindl., A. neapolitanum Cyr. A. roseum L. and A. cowanii ; A. neapolitanum achieved 100% bloom without exposure to moist winter storage at 4°C. In A. albopilosum Wright, cold storage and later planting reduced the blooming percentage. Except for A. cowanii, A. moly, and A. neapolitanum, longer cold storage and staggered planting did not satisfactorily extend the blooming period of the other species.
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  • Yasuhiko Koike, Akira Ohbiki, Genjiro Mori, Hideo Imanishi
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 639-644
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of various storage temperatures on Narcissus bulbs and their duration of storage on the initiation and development of flower buds were investigated. Special attention was paid to the retardation of flowering.
    1. The development of flower buds progressed most rapidly at 20°C, followed by 25° or 15°C and 30°C. For bulbs stored at 15° or 20°C, the mean flowering date was earlier, but flowering percentage and the number of florets were smaller than in those at 25°C, whereas bulb storage at 30°C delayed flowering. Therefore, a temperature of 25°C was considered to be optimal for storage.
    2. The temperature range between 15° and 20°C was optimum for the development of flower buds between the carpel formation stage and flowering. At 25°C flower buds ceased to develop and became blasted.
    3. Flowering was retarded when bulbs were transferred to 5° or 10°C and stored for up to 11 months. After cold storage, bulbs should be kept at 30°C for 3 weeks to initiate flower buds and then at 25°C for 12 weeks to promote further development; thereafter they should be grown at 15°20°C.
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  • Akira Uda, Yoshihiko Koyama, Keiichiro Fukushima, Yukihiro Ikeda
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 645-652
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Experiments were carried to clarify why STS treatment on spray carnations was less effective than that on standard carnations so as to develop an improved pretreatment for the spray carnation.
    1. Determination of Ag+ absorption in spray carnation treated with STS revealed that Ag+ content in their petals was enough to prevent petals from wilting by ethylene.
    2. The vase life of excised flowering lateral branches was longer than that of intact ones. The result suggest that the vase life of spray carnation was affected because the main stem develops many flowering lateral branches.
    3. When the number of flowers on a stem was decreased from 5 to 3 or to 1, petal wilting was delayed because of improved water balance. Petal wilting in spray carnation is attributed to water dificiency caused by large taranspirational losses from flowers and ethylene action.
    4. Treating flowers with the surfactant, polyoxyethylenelaurylether (PLE), enhanced water uptake. Spray carnations treated with STS + PLE had longer vase life than did those treated with STS alone.
    We conclude that treatments of spray carnations with 1 mM STS+1000 ppm PLE for 1 hr or 0.2 mM STS+100 ppm PLE for 24 hr extend the vase life significantly.
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  • Tadashi Takeda
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 653-662
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recently Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. became popular as an ornamental because of its floral colors and longevity. Although 80% of the crop in Japan in concentrated in the summer season, seedlings sown during the summer form rosettes which limit their production. The research reported here was conducted to seek desirable cultivars for the winter production based on the response to sowing date and growing conditions. Furthermore, the relationship between temperature during stem elongation and growth of lateral buds after cutting was sought.1. Seedlings sown from June to August gave rise to rosette formation, regardless of cultivars, however, direct sowing of coated seeds prevented rosetting.
    2. Seedlings sown on July 10 exhibited rosette growth with delayed bolting under high temperature. However they showed normal stem elongation after a few months when kept at 15°C or lower at night. High temperature and long day stimulated bolting and flowering on the seedlings sown on September 11.
    3. The scapes on 20%of the bolted plants sown on June 23 had less than half the number of nodes and the length was half that of the flower stalk produced on the same plants the following summer. Differences between the two crops depended on cultivars.
    4. To determine the effects of temperature on growth of lateral buds on the main stems, plants were grown at different temperatures from planting to cutting flowers. Growth of lateral buds on plants grown under high temperatures formed rosettes, whereas those grown at 15/30°C (night/day) bolted without having a basal cluster of leaves.
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  • Aktari Asma Begum, Masahiko Tamaki, Shunji Kako
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 663-673
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Outer tissue (OT) excised from protocorm-like bodies (PLB) of Cymbidium×Thanksgiving, cultivar 'Nativity' produced PLB on hormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and MS media supplemented with hormones. The PLB initiation from OT was earlier on hormone supplemented media compared to hormone-free MS medium. Explants showed the highest PLB formation abilitiy on the medium supplemented with 0.1 mg • liter-1 α- naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.5 mg • liter-1 benzyl adenine (BA). On the medium of this combination, rate of cell division was high and the cell division occurred from surface to deeper tissue in the protuberance (an initial structure of PLB formed on OT explants) after 14 days of culture. OT explants turned light brown after 7 days of culture and a gray transparent protuberance was observed on the outer surface of the ex- plant after 14 days of culture. The protuberance gradually increased in size and turned into a green globular PLB after 21 days of culture. This pattern of PLB formation was similar in both hormone supplemented MS media and hormone-free MS medium. Thus it suggests that exogenous hormones have no fundamental effects on PLB formation. OT-de- rived PLB formed 100% shoot on the medium supplemented with 0.1 mg • liter-1 NAA and 1.0 mg • liter-1 BA within 8 weeks, but shoot formation was markedly suppressed on the media supplemented with NAA alone.
    Histological study showed that OT segments consisted of epidermal and sub-epidermal cells, which were parenchymatous, large and vacuolated. After one week culture, all the cells of epidermis were ruptured. A small group of cells with dense cytoplasm and deeply stained nuclei was observed just below the ruptured epidermis. These cells developed into a PLB. This result showed that OT of Cymbidium PLB has ability to produce PLB directly from explants through organogenesis.
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  • Yasunori Hamauzu, Yuko Miyamoto, Kazuo Chachin
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 675-684
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of storage temperature on the change of carotenoid contents in epidermal part (surface tissue) and fleshy part (outer part of the pericarp) of tomato fruit after harvest was investigated.
    1.The color of mature green tQmato fruit changed from green to red during storage at 20°C, but changed to a mixed color or a speckled color of red, orange, and yellow at 30 °C;and turned yellow at 35°C.
    2.The epidermal part of the fruit was more sensitive to high temperature than was the fleshy part;the accumulation of phytoene and lycopene was inhibited significantly in surface tissues;high temperature prevented the accumulation of phytoene more so than it did of lycopene.
    3.The content of β-carotene increased in both parts during storage at 30 QC, but decreased with extended storage.
    4.Ascorbic acid andα-tocopherol contents decreased especially in the epidermal region during storage at 30° and 35°C, Hence, high temperatures influence the change of carotene cQntent in the surface tissues more than they do the fleshy pericarp of harvested tomato fruit.
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  • John Ofosu-Anim, Shohei Yamaki
    1994 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 685-692
    Published: 1994
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Using the compartmental analysis method, the distribution of sucrose, glucose, and fructose and their efflux from the free space, cytoplasm, and vacuole were determined in melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Prince) fruits picked 14 days after pollination (DAP), 28 DAP and 42 DAP.
    1. At all stages, the greatest percentage of total sugar was accumulated in the vacuole. The main sugars accumulated in melon early and late in the season were fructose and sucrose, respectively. Concentration of sugar in the free space increased from 44 mM at 14 DAP to 103 mM at 42 DAP, while that within the cell (cytoplasm+vacuole) increased slightly from 234 mM to 279 mM.
    2. Permeability of the plasma membrane to sucrose, glucoseand fructose was higher than that of the tonoplast and increased with fruit maturation. 3. CCCP restricted the release of sugar by reducing the rate of efflux across the plasma membrane and tonoplast while PCMBS restricted the release of sugar by reducing efflux across the plasma membrane.
    4. S-ABA of 10-5 M as compared to 10-4 M restricted the release of sugar from fruit discs; restriction was due to a reduction in the velocity constant of efflux of sugar across the plasma membrane. Thus, S-ABA may stimulate the accumulation of sugar in fruit flesh.
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