Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 64 , Issue 3
Showing 1-25 articles out of 25 articles from the selected issue
  • Ryosuke Mochioka, Masaatsu Yamaguchi, Shosaku Horiuchi, Hiroyuki Matsu ...
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 463-470
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Anthocyanins in the berry skins of 10 wild grapes (4 species, 5 varieties and 1 unidentified type) native to Japan were analyzed by HPLC. They were also compared with anthocyanins in several wild grapes native to Korea (1 species and 1 unidentified type) and Taiwan (1 unidentified type), and 3 cultivars : 'Delaware', 'Muscat Bailey. A' and 'Campbell Early'.
    Nineteen anthocyanins were found in the berry skins. The wild grapes contained 3 to 15 anthocyanins; those native to the southern latitudes seem to contain more anthocyanins than do those native to the northern latitudes.
    Anthocyanin of peak No. 6 was not found in the cultivars, but it was present in the wild grapes.
    A dendrogram, showing the phylogenetic relationships, was drawn from the pairwise comparison of matching coefficients based on anthocyanin components, and this dendrogram agreed well with the morphological taxonomy. On the basis of the dendrogram, the grapes in this study were separated into 3 groups : one in which more than 76% of anthocyanins matched, one in which 47 to 60%coincided, and one in which less than 33% matched.
    V. shiragai (Shiragabudo), which some taxonomists regard as a variety of V. amurensis, was clearly shown to be a different species, closely allied to V. ficifolia var. lobata (Ebizuru). Moreover, the relationships of 3 unidentified wild grapes to some group were established by their antocyanin components.
    Our data indicate that anthocyanins in grape berry skin may prove useful for chemotaxonomic classification of wild grapes.
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  • Shin Hiratsuka, Yoshiji Okada, Yoshitaka Kawail, Fumio Tamura, Kenji T ...
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 471-478
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper describes a series of style-specific proteins corresponding to five self-incompatibility alleles (S-protein), S1S5, in the Japanese pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd. culta Rehd.). Stylar proteins from various cultivars including a few unclassified S-genotypes were analyzed by isoelectricfocusing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (IEF-PAGE).
    The S-proteins were focused at the cathodic end of the gel when separated by IEFPAGE using pH 3.59.5 ampholines. The pls of these proteins were quite high, and each protein band was arranged from a cathodic end in the following order: S1, S4, S2, S5 and S3. This order was different from that reported by Sassa et al. (1992, 1993). The Si-, S5- and S3-band were densely stained with CBB (Coomassie Brilliant Blue) ; whereas the S2' and S4-band were lightly stained, especially that of the S2-band. 'Atago' (S2S5) and 'Mat- sukaze' (S-genotype not identified) did not have any S-protein bands in the basic zone of the gel, suggesting that several S-allele associated proteins are present in the neutral or acidic zones of the gel.
    Each S-protein band exhibited ribonuclease (RNase) activity, though the activity was far weaker than in those proteins focused in the acidic zone of the IEF-PAGE gel.
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  • Shin Hiratsuka, Yoshiji Okada, Yoshitaka Kawai, Fumio Tamura, Kenji Ta ...
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 479-484
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Expression and inheritance of style specific S2- and S4-allele associated S-proteins reported earlier (Hiratsuka et al., 1995) were studied using progenies of self-compatible 'Osa-Nijisseiki'.
    The S-protein bands of 'Osa-Nijisseiki', which was generated from self-incompatible 'Nijisseiki' as a mutant, were compared with those of 'Nijisseiki' by isoelectricfocusing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (IEF-PAGE). The protein band associated with S4sm-allele in 'Osa-Nijisseiki' was stained less densely with Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) than did the band from 'Nijisseiki'; the RNase activity of the former band was also weaker than that of the latter as reported by Sassa et al. (1992, 1993). However, no difference was observed in the S2-protein band between 'Osa-Nijisseiki' and 'Nijisseiki'. The S-genotypes of the 'Osa-Nijisseiki' x self and 'Osa-Nijisseiki' x 'Nijisseiki' progenies were determined and their styles subjected to S-protein analyses. Progenies with the So4sm-gene from 'Osa-Nijisseiki' possessed a lightly stained S4-protein band, whereas those of 'Nijisseiki' had almost the same density as did 'Nijisseiki'. The S2-protein band was detected consistently in progenies carrying the S2-allele.
    Style specific S2- and S4-protein bands including a faint S4-band of 'Osa-Nijisseiki' were, thus, inherited with no exception to the progenies carrying respective S-alleles. These results may show that the proteins reported here are the S-gene products of Japanese pears and that of 'Osa-Nijisseiki' is a mutant which represses the S4-gene expression.
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  • Hiromichi Hara, Toshiaki Matsuda, Teruo Tsukihashi, Teruo Matsuda
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 485-497
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The developmental processes and the ease of peeling the pellicle in Japanese and Chinese chestnuts were investigated with light phase and scanning and transmission electron microscopes.
    During the early growth stage of Japanese chestnut, tannin accumulated in pellicle cells as scattered granules in vacuoles, aggregates along tonoplasts, electron-dense vacuoles, vacuoles with high density of tannin, etc. At harvest, however, most of the pellicle cells were filled with tannin. The tannin cells, which had high electron-dense vacuoles, were located mainly in the middle and outer layers of pellicle, whereas those adjacent to the cotyledons accumulated less tannin.
    Various aspects related to the ease of peeling the pellicle, i. e. the adhesive force between pellicle and cotyledon were examined but aspects specific to the variety were not recognized.
    In Japanese chestnut varieties, whose pellicles are difficult to peel, tannin accumulated in most of the cells of pellicle tissues; the cells in contact with the cotyledon and those in the middle layers of pellicle were crushed during the growth of fruits. The low electron density matrix and the electron-dense structure of network developed between the pellicle and the epidermis of the cotyledon. The network structure is probably made of tannins which penetrates into the epidermal cells of the cotyledon.
    In Chinese chestnut varieties, whose pellicle peels easily, the pellicle cells accumulate little tannin; those in contact with the cotyledon degrade slowly. No penetration of electron-dense structure of network into epidermal cells of the cotyledon occurs.
    These finding suggest that the adhesive force between the pellicle cells and the cotyledon depends, not only on tannin accumulation in the pellicle cells, but also on the degradation of the cells contacting the cotyledon.
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  • Takao Kurahashi, Kuniaki Takahashi
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 499-508
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The light condition, fruit quality and photosynthetic rate of 'Fuji' apple trees with the M. 26 interstock trained to a Y-trellis system were compared with those trained to a central leader in order to make clear the superiority of Y-trellis system in the yield and fruit quality.
    1. The foliar canopy in the Y-trellis was V-shaped, the leaves covered the ground surface area evenly; whereas, the canopy of the central leader tree was cylindrical and the leaves were concentrated around the trunk.
    2. The survey blocks (foliar zones) with more than 20% relative illuminance were distributed evenly over the entire canopy in the Y-trellis, whereas those of the central leader tree were concentrated in the periphery of the canopy; hence, the canopy of the Y-trellis was superior to that of the central leader for light interception.
    3. Percentage of soluble solids content in the fruit from the Y-trellis was higher than that harvested from the central leader tree. The brix of fruit exposed to relatively intensive illumination tended to be higher than those growing in the shade.
    4. There was a significant positive correlation between PPFD (photosynthetic photon flux density) and photosynthetic rate.
    5. We conclude that, in spite of the smaller leaf area index (LAI), the higher photosynthetic rates on trees trained to the Y-trellis give rise to a superior yield.
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  • Takao Kurahashi, Kuniaki Takahashi
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 509-515
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The dry matter production and assimilate partitioning ratio (APR) in each organ of 'Fuji' apple trees on M. 26/Marubakaido (Malus prunifolia var. ringo Asami) trained to a Y-trellis system were compared with those trained to a central leader to make clear the reason of superiority of trees trained to the Y-trellis in yield.
    1. No significant differences in current shoot length, shoot number, and leaf area index (LAI) were found between trees trained to the two training systems. The yield of the Y-trellis trained trees was 6, 945 kg/10 a, which is 22% higher than that of the central leader trained trees.
    2. The dry matter production of the Y-trellis trained trees was 2, 417 kg/10 a, or 23% heavier than that of the central leader trained trees. The fruit dry weight in the former was 1, 198 kg/10 a, or 43% heavier than that in the latter; the APR into fruit were 49.5% and 43.1%, respectively. The APR into the current shoot and older wood of the former were lower than those in the latter.
    3. There were significant positive correlations between the dry matter production and the current shoot length, LAI, and yield. The APR into fruit was positively correlated with the crown density, whereas it was negatively correlated with current shoot and older wood.
    4. We conclude that more efficient dry matter production and higher assimilate partitioning ratio into fruit of the Y-trellis trained trees gave rise to the superior yield over the central leader trees.
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  • Yogesh Hari Shrestha, Takaaki Ishii, Kazuomi Kadoya
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 517-525
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The response of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsu wase) on trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.) rootstocks to inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi, such as Glomus ambisporum Smith and Schenck, Gloumus fasciculatum (Thaxter) Gerdemann and Trappe emend. Walker and Koske, Glontus mosseae (Nicolson and Gerdemann) Gerdemann and Trappe, and Gigaspora ramisporophara Spain was studied at low phosphorus (P) application.
    Under high air temperature stress conditions in August, the photosynthetic (Pn) and transpiration (Tr) rates of VAM-inoculated trees were faster than non VAM ones. But in September when air temperature decreased, the Pn and Tr rates did not differ significantly between VAM-inoculated trees and non infected ones. In general, infected trees had larger leaf area and higher leaf P concentration and the tree growth was more vigorous than was that of non infected ones.
    When 13CO2 was fed to fruit-bearing trees under the optimal air temperature conditions, fruits were the strongest sink for photosynthates and new leaves were the second strongest. The leaves of VAM and non VAM trees assimilated 13CO2 equally fast per unit leaf area, and the distribution of 13C into various parts of the bearing trees did not differ. VAM trees, however, had 3 times more photoassimilates per tree than uninfected ones because the former had a leaf area 3 times larger than the latter and grew more vigorously.
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  • Daijirou Yahata, Yoshiki Oba, Minoru Kuwahara
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 527-533
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The mechanism of flower-bud differentiation in satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. var. praecox Tanaka) as related to changes in carbohydrate contents, α-amylase activity and levels of IAA and GA-like substances in the summer shoots of 6-year-old 'Ueno Wase' trees grown indoors was investigated in autumn.
    1. To determine when flower-bud differentiation occurred, excised summer shoots were defoliated, treated with 150 ppm BA, and then kept at 28°C for 10 days with their bases in water. Shoots were treated from mid-October to early-December at a biweekly interval. Unitil mid-October, only vegetative shoots sprouted, whereas in early-November a considerable number of flowers emerged. Therefore, flower-bud initiation occurred to be in late-October.
    2. Increase in starch content in the summer shoots coincided with the flower-bud initiation period. In contrast, sugar content decreased from mid-October to mid-November. Towards early December, starch content decreased in the leaf laminas and stems, while sugar accumulation accelerated in the laminas, petioles, buds, and stems. From these results, we proposed that flower-bud differentiation of satsuma mandarin has no direct correlation with the changes in carbohydrate contents in these parts of the shoots.
    3. In summer shoots, α-amylase activity decreased in early-November and increased with the advance of flower-bud development. The activity in laminas was lower than that in petioles, buds, and stems but it fluctuated greatly throughout the investigation period.
    4. During the flower-bud initiation period in late-October, endogenous GA-like substances in the buds of the summer shoots was higher than those in the petioles. IAA level in the buds was higer in mid-October than in mid-November.
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  • Zheng-Rong Luo, Keizo Yonemori, Akira Sugiura
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 535-541
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effectiveness of RAPD analysis for cultivar identification of persimmons (Diospyros kaki) was evaluated by using 10 base primers (Operon Technologies, CA). A protocol of reproducible RAPD analysis for persimmon was established by determining suitable buffer and optimum concentrations of DNA polymerase, MgCl2, primer, and dNTP. The 12.5 μl reaction mixture, found to be reliable for RAPD for persimmon, contains 50 mM Tris-HCI (pH 8.9), 20 mM NaCl, 1.0%Triton-X 100, 0.1% gelatin as a buffer solution (Levi et al., 1993), 0.06 units-μl-1 AmpliTaq DNA polymerase, 2.0 mM MgCl2, 0.28 μM primer, and 0.1 mM each of dNTP per reaction. Among these elements, the kinds of buffer and concentrations of ampliTaq DNA polymerase and MgCl2 were important for reproducibility of RAPD. Amplification was performed by 45 cycles of 1 min at 94°C, 1 min at 45 °C, 2 min at 72°C in the Perkin Elmer Cetus DNA Thermal Cycler. 5 ng•μl-1 DNA were used as a template. By this reproducible protocol, we selected 2 primers (OPA-06 and OPA-08) among 20 primers (OPA-01 to OPA-20) as effective ones for cultivar identification of persimmons. The fifteen cultivars tested were completely distinguishable from each other by RAPDs, using OPA-06 or OPA-08. Furthermore, two bud mutants of 'Hiratanenashi', i. e. 'Tonewase' and 'Sugitawase', showed different DNA patterns with a few additional minor bands by RAPD, using OPA-06 primer. It may be possible to identify persimmon sports by this method. In addition, polymorphisms among 11 Diospyros species were observed by RAPD, using OPA-10 primer. The same method revealed little polymorphisms among intraspecific levels of D. kaki or D. lotus. The potential of RAPD analysis for persimmon identification is discussed.
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  • Takayuki Tanaka, Satit Wimol, Takayuki Mizutani
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 543-548
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For this study two watermelon cultivars [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum, et Nakai], 'Fujihikari' and 'Sweet Princess' were used. 'Fujihikari', characterized by its striped and spherical fruit with medium-size seeds, is one of the most popular F1 cultivars in Japan. While 'Sweet Princess', which has non-striped and oval fruit with small seeds, is an American cultivar bred at the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. Initially, they were hybridized and crossed once with the offspring of a self-pollinated 'Fujihikari'. Then the offspring selected for their distinguishing characteristics were self-pollinated three times. In the resultant filial generation, segregation of the characteristics of fruit shape and seed size was observed. It was determined that two fruit shapes, spherical (Os) and oval (O+), are controlled by a single allele which shows incomplete dominance, while seed size was found to be controlled by a dominant or epistatic short seed gene (Ti), and a recessive or hypostatic medium seed gene (ti).
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  • Yoh-ichi Matsubara, Takashi Harada, Toshiro Yakuwa
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 549-554
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The means and spore density of inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal (Glomus etunicatum) spores and addition of carbonized material to bed soil on seedling growth in Welsh onion (Alliuin fistulosum L.) were investigated in relation to VAM fungus infection.
    1. Growth was enhanced by VAM fungus infection in both 'Green-negi' and 'Ishikurafutonegi'. In 'Green-negi', greater growth enhancement through host-fungus symbiosis was obtained in plants inoculated with 1000 spores•g-1 rather than 3000 spores•g-1 inoculum. Growth of these plants was further accelerated when 70 g of carbonized material were mixed with 10 kg of bed soil.
    2. VAM fungus infection promoted both leaf emergence and leaf blade elongation, especially in leaves above the third true leaf. In 'Green-negi', growth promotion was largest in leaves located in higher leaf position, and further growth was promoted by the addition of carbonized material to bed soil. Thickening of both leaf blades and leaf sheaths, and an increase in number of main roots were observed in VAM fungus-infected plants.
    3. The rate of VAM fungus-infected portions in a whole root system of Welsh onion fluctuated, increasing initially (1st stage), remaining constant (2nd stage), and then decreasing (3rd stage). The infected portions in a whole root system increased when carbonized material was mixed with bed soil.
    4. VAM fungal hyphae grew on the surface of the carbonized particle.
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  • Yoh-ichi Matsubara, Haruto Tamura, Takashi Harada
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 555-561
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) plantlets infected with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus (Glomus etunicatum and Gigaspora margarita) were transplanted to a field contaminated with Verticillium dahliae to investigate the disease tolerance of a VAM fungus-infected plant.
    1. Eight weeks after transplanting, plant height, number of leaves, leaf size, and proximal diameter of the main stem were larger in VAM fungus-infected plants than in noninoculated plants. The primary flower bloomed later in VAM fungus-infected plants than in noninoculated plants.
    2. The rate of VAM fungus-infected portions in a whole root system reached the maximum of 40.8% with Glomus etunicatum 10 weeks after inoculation, whereas it was 40.2% with Gigaspora margarita 8 weeks later.
    3. The appearance of verticillium wilt was delayed and reduced by VAM fungus-infection, and the effects were more apparent in Glomus etunicatum than in Gigaspora margarita. VAM fungus-infected plants yielded more fruits than did the noninoculated plants; the incidence of fruit malformation caused by verticillium wilt were smaller, especially in Glomus etunicatum -infected plants.
    4. Lignin (stained with a reagent consisting of phloroglucinol and HCl) accumulated in the firstly and secondly branched roots more richly in VAM fungus-infected plants than in noninoculated plants. Observation using transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed that the secondary cell wall of cortical cells in the thirdly branched roots was thicker in VAM fungus-infected plants than in noninoculated plants.
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  • Hajime Araki, Erwin Yuliadi, Takeshi Ogasawara, Takashi Harada, Toshir ...
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 563-569
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Plantlet regeneration from leaf blade segment of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) was enhanced proportionally with the addition of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA) to the medium but inversely with leaf maturity. Plantlets regenerated directly from immature leaf blades most efficiently on a medium supplemented with 0.1 μM 2, 4-D and 0.1 μM BA. Callus tended to be induced in the meida containing higher than 0.1 μM 2, 4-D, especially, green and compact morphogenic callus, in media supplemented with up to 0.1 μM 2, 4-D. Some morphogenic calli differentiated shoots in the initial medium, whereas those induced in the medium with 1.0 μM 2, 4-D and 1.0 μM BA needed to be subcultured in a growth regulator-free medium to differentiate shoots and develop into plantlets. Immature leaf explants responded better than did mature ones to the exogenous plant growth regulators for plant regeneration. All immature leaf explants collected in June formed shoots in the media with 0.1 μM 2, 4-D ; those collected in October developed into plantlet not only through direct shoot formation but also by callus formation in that medium. Petiole segments which were maintained in MS medium developed shoots directly on the medium with 0.1 to 1.0 μM BA. Morphogenic callus induction and subsequent shoot differentiation from petiole occurred on media containing with 0.1 μM 2, 4-D and from 0.1 to 1.0 μM BA.
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  • Huibao Lou, Shunji Kako
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 571-579
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), a -naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) either alone or in combinations of the two at various concentrations in callus induction media on somatic embryogenesis from cotyledon explants of Cucumis sativus L. cv. Fushinarimidori were studied. NAA and 2, 4-D were beneficial to somatic embryo formation. IAA induced adventitious shoot production but failed to stimulate somatic embryo formation. The most effective auxin for somatic embryogenesis was 2, 4-D, which induced the highest frequency somatic embryogenesis at the concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0 mg•liter-1. The number of somatic embryos formed was, however, significantly larger with 2.0 mg•liter-1 than at 1.0 mg•liter-1 2, 4-D.
    A combination of 0.5 mg•liter-1 2, 4-D and 10.0 mg•liter-1 NAA led to a high frequency of somatic embryo formation and as many somatic embryos as 2, 4-D alone at 2.0 mg•liter-1 Furthermore, either 1.0 mg•liter-1 2, 4-D plus 1.0 mg•liter-1 NAA or 2.0 mg•liter-1 2, 4-D plus 0.5 mg•liter-1 NAA resulted in a greater production of somatic embryos as compared with 2.0 mg•liter-1 2, 4-D. In contrast, when 2, 4-D was combined with IAA, only somatic embryos and no adventitious shoots were formed. Somatic embryogenic capacity, however, was significantly restricted by the addition of IAA, and both the frequency of somatic embryo formation and the yield of somatic embryos decreased quadratically with an increasing concentration of IAA.
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  • Yoshihiro Shishido, Xiaolu Zhang, Hiroshi Kumakura
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 581-588
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Studies were conducted on the effects of root stock varieties, leaves and size on scion growth and assimilate transport in eggplant. The translocation and distribution of photosynthetic assimilates from root stock and scion leaves on different stock/scion combinations were determined by 14CO2 pulse feeding method.
    1. Different root stock varieties resulted in a variation of the scion growth response. The scion dry weight and leaf area were extremely higher in rootstock varieties of 'Taibyo VF (Solanum integrifolium Poir. × S. melongena L.) ' and Scarlet eggplant (S. integrifolium Pior. : Hiranasu ('Akanasu': Takii Seed Ltd)) than in 'Senryo No. 2 (S. melongena L.) '. However, the root weight were not changed significantly between root stock varieties.
    2. The scion growth was enhanced by increasing the number of root stock leaves from 0 to 3. When three leaves were left on the root stock, the scion grew vigorously, indicating that these leaves significantly affect growth.
    3. The percentage distribution of 14C-assimilates by the stock leaves to the scion ranged from 3540% on 28 days after grafting; about 50% of the assimilates in the root stock came from the scion leaves.
    4. The source-sink relationship between the scion leaf and the roots was analyzed by relative sink strength (RSS) and was found to be unrelated; however, a close relationship was found between the root stock leaves and roots. The relationship between growing parts and both scion and stock leaves was strong. The photosynthetic assimilates from both scion and root stock leaves were translocated through the graft union, the amount is depending on the degree of vascular connections established.
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  • Hiroko Yamazaki, Takaaki Nishijima, Masaji Koshioka
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 589-598
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Changes in abscisic acid (ABA) content and water status in bulbs of Allium wakegi were investigated throughout the year. The life cycle of A. wakegi was divided into a nonbulbing period (from October 1 to March 15), a bulb developing period (from April 1 to May 15) and an established bulb period (from June 1 to September 15) ; it was divided in a dormant period (from April 1 to August 15) and an active growth period (from September 1 to March 15)
    ABA content in bulbs increased during the bulb developing period and then tended to decrease during the established bulb period. In the non-bulbing period ABA content was relatively low. Water potential decreased in the bulb developing period, was remained low during the established bulb period and then rapidly increased just after planting. Pressure potential in bulbs tended to be higher in the non-bulbing period than in the established bulb period. The innermost scales had the highest ABA content. during the different stages of bulb development.
    During the non-bulbing and bulb developing period, there was a significant inverse correlation between ABA content and pressure potential in bulbs. This is interpreted that the changes in water status is associated with an increased ABA content during the bulb developing period; however, the correlation was poor during the established bulb period. During the dormant period, there was a positive correlation between ABA content and the depth of dormancy although the time of deepest dormancy (May 1) did not coincide with the maximum ABA content (June 1). From these results, it is suggested that bulb development is accompanied by a change of water status which induces accumulation of ABA and that ABA is involved in bulb dormancy.
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  • Katsuhiko Inamoto, Eunjung Bae, Motoaki Doi, Hideo Imanishi
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 599-604
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Seedlings of cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus Cay. 'Radiance') were irradiated at 25 °C for 72 hr by a blacklight blue lamp (main radiation peak at 352 nm ; UV-A), a fluorescent sun lamp (310 nm ; UV-B) or a germicidal lamp (254 nm ; UV-C), which were placed 60 cm above plug flats. Irradiation by a fluorescent sun lamp and a germicidal lamp inhibited hypocotyl elongation compared to the control irradiated by a three-band fluorescent lamp. Seedlings irradiated by a germicidal lamp died after irradiation. Decreasing the distance between the fluorescent sun lamp and the plug flats inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Seedlings irradiated by a fluorescent sun lamp gained less dry matter, compared to seedlings irradiated by a three-band fluorescent lamp, but this suppression was reversed by the supplemental irradiation of a three-band fluorescent lamp with a fluorescent sun lamp. Exposure of seedlings to UV-B provides a useful means of preventing excessive hypocotyl elongation and improves the quality of plug seedlings.
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  • Shigeru Mizuguchi, Rieko Yamashita, Masanori Ohkawa
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 605-610
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Experiments were conducted to clarify the relationship between seasonal changes in bulb growth of Lilium japonicum Thunb. in the field under natural conditions and bulblet formation on in-vitro cultured scales.
    When scales are detached from a bulb, vestiges of stems from past years are detectable on the basal plate. The year, the scales were formed, was identified by the positions of the residual stems on the basal plate. Each year, a new daughter bulb, consisting of about 7 scales, which develops within the mother bulb and the growth of the new shoot, which occurs between April and July, consume 3 to 4 outer-scales of the mother bulb.
    The bulbs were collected on 10 March, 1 July and 14 October, and their scales cultured for 13 weeks. The rate of bulblet formation on the scales collected on 10 March was fastest. The formation rate and fresh weight gain of the regenerated bulblets, which formed on the outer scales, were faster than those on the inner scales.
    We conclude that to regenerate bulblets by in-vitro scale culture, early spring is the optimum time to collect the bulbs.
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  • Nobuo Kobayashi, Rieko Takeuchi, Takashi Handa, Kenji Takayanagi
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 611-616
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To use RAPD method for the identification of evergreen azalea cultivars, the optimum method for DNA extraction in Rhododendron spp. was investigated. Of almost all Rhododendron species native to Japan and some cultivar groups, neither SDS nor CTAB method was sufficient to isolate clean DNA from leaves. But, by using the modified CTAB method after Greenwood et al. (1989), we obtained a good yield of high quality DNA from the materials used in this experiment.
    Using the optimum extraction method mentioned above and RAPD analysis, differences among azalea cultivars could be distinguished. Sixteen out of 100 primers tested produced obvious, definitive polymorphic DNA bands. Cultivars in the Edo-Kirishima group (9 cultivars) or Kurume azalea group (14 cultivars) were clearly recognized from one another by using primer OPK-19 or OPK-20. In the Satsuki group, these two primers could be used to discern 'Kouzan' from its bud sport cultivars.
    The results of this study strongly suggest that RAPD method is a very useful tool for cultivar identification in evergreen azalea.
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  • Yukiko Shimada, Genjiro Mori, Hideo Imanishi
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 617-623
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was carried out to observe the progress of flower formation under natural conditions and also to investigate the effect of temperature on the initiation and development of flower buds in Ornithogalum arabicum L.
    Florets are normally initiated in early September. The primordia of the outer and inner tepals of the first floret appear in late October and carpel primordia are formed in late December. Further development of flower buds continues slowly until mid-April, when the pollen tetrads are formed and the plants bloom in mid-May.
    Plants which were moved in late October from outdoors to the greenhouse kept above 20 °C flowered in late February. Cut flowers with long scapes were obtained in March by exposing plants to the natural low temperature until late January.
    When plants were subjected to 5°13 °C for 8 weeks from tepal to outer stamen formation stages, flowering and scape elongation were accelerated. However, within the range from 5° to 13 °C, higher temperature hastened the development of flower buds to carpel primordia formation and resulted in earlier flowering. This accelerating effect was obtained even when plants were exposed to 9 °C from bract primordia formation stage. Flowering of bulbs exposed from 5° to 13 °C were similarly accelerated, the wet ones more so than dry ones.
    The percentage of bulbs producing flowers increased with increasing storage period at 30 °C after harvest over those stored at 20 °C. This implied that exposure of bulbs to 30 °C was more favorable to flower bud formation than 20 °C.
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  • Kenji Nagatal, Akio Kurihara
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 625-631
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ethephon application as a substitute for ethylene treatment to accelerate the ripening of kiwifruit was investigated.
    In Experiment 1, 'Hayward' and 'Monty' fruits were immersed in 100 or 500 μl•liter-1 ethephon on the vine on Sept. 13, 110 days after full bloom. The immersion accelerated flesh softening and increased the soluble solids of the fruit. It also accelerated postharvest and other ripening-related physiological changes; the 500 μl•liter-1 ethephon treatment improved flavor and decreased the acid content.
    In Experiment 2, the 50, 100, 300 and 500 μl•liter-1 ethephon solutions in which fruits were immersed after harvest accelerated ripening-related physiological changes. Ethephon treatments at 50 and 100 μl•liter-1 had no effect on flavor and taste but resulted in the softening of the flesh and a decrease in acidity. Treatments at 300 and 500 μl•liter-1 ethephon resulted in fruits with good flavor and taste.
    These results suggest that ethephon application could be substituted for ethylene gas treatment to hasten the ripening process of kiwifruit.
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  • Kazuhiro Abe, Tomitaka Suzuki, Kazuo Chachin
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 633-638
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Partially processed cucumbers were prepared as several styles : 1) longitudinally into 6 equal, half-length segments (LCS) and 2) sliced into 1 cm thick transverse sections (OCCS), and obtusely to the transverse at 3) 15, 4) 30, 5) 45, 6) 60 and 7) 75 degree, expressed respectively as 15 CCS, 30 CCS, 45 CCS, 60 CCS, 75 CCS.
    1. The ratio of cut surface area/weight of LCS was the largest, the weight and cut surface area of sections increased with an increase in obtuse angle, but the ratio of the surface area/weight did not show significant difference.
    2. The respiration rate (O2 consumption and CO2 production) of LCS was the fastest, whereas that of the CCSs increased with a increase in angle. The concentrations of O2 and CO2 in polyethylene bags containing the sections did not show significant difference during holding at 1°, 8° and 20 °C.
    3. The color of the cut sections did not change during 7 days at 1 °C, whereas at 8 °C and 20 °C, LCS began to brown and soften the fastest followed by 60 and 75 CCS; the browning and softening reaction in the 0 and 30 CCS were least rapid. The bacterial population of LCS increased rapidly, whereas those of CCSs increased with an increase in the cutting angle.
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  • Takatoshi Koyakumaru, Kazuhiro Sakoda, Yoshinori Ono, Naokazu Sakota
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 639-648
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The respiratory physiology of mature-green mume (Japanese apricot, Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) fruits was investigated using four cultivars (Gojiro, Nankou, Hakuoukoume, Shirakaga) ; fruits were held for 7 days at 25 °C under various controlled atmospheres (CA).
    1. Changes in respiration rates were similar in four cultivars; those held in 3% O2 or higher attained climacteric maximum of O2 uptake and CO2 production rates almost concurrently up to the 3rd day. O2 uptake and CO2 production rates in the fruits depended on the CA conditions, decreasing as the O2 concentration was lowered, or conversely, as the CO2 concentration was increased. Anaerobic respiration of mume fruits occurred at O2 concentration of up to 2% at 25 °C.
    2. Ethyl alcohol and acetaldehyde production rates increased from the 4th day of CA storage. Fruits held at O2 concentration of up to 1% developed browning injury and produced ethyl alcohol at a high rate; the percentage of fruits with water-core injury was high in the CA condition of low O2 in the absence of CO2.
    3. Ethylene production rates were suppressed under high CO2 concentrations or O2 levels less than 5%. In 3% O2 or higher, ethylene production rates reached the peak half or one day after the respiratory climacteric peak. However, in all CA conditions, the volume of ethylene produced was highly correlated with that of O2 uptake during the 7-day storage.
    4. These results indicate that maintaining mume fruits in about 10% CO2 and 3-4% 02 may help to retain optimum quality at 25 °C, but that such CA conditions delayed the respiratory climacteric rises just slightly and increased ethyl alcohol production after the 3rd day of storage. Therefore, under these conditions, the storage period of mume fruits at ambient temperature may be limited to 3 days.
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  • Md. Shahidul Islam, Toshiyuki Matsui, Yuichi Yoshida
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 649-655
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of preharvest application of elevated CO2 throughout the fruit growing period on organic acid, sugar content, acid invertase activity (β-fructofuranoside fructohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.26), and color quality in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Momotaro) fruit during storage at 20 °C was determined.
    The CO2-enriched tomato fruits contained significantly lower concentrations of citric, malic and oxalic acids, but had significantly higher reducing sugars and acid invertase activity at harvest and during storage. The concentration of these acids decreased with storage, whereas the activity of acid invertase and reducing sugar contents increased in the treated fruits; they were relatively constant in the control fruits. Furthermore, the elevated CO2 resulted in a deeper red color during storage.
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  • Yanbin Xue, Yasutaka Kubo, Akitsugu Inaba, Reinosuke Nakamura
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 657-664
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ripening characteristics and texture changes were investigated in green banana (Musa AAA group, Cavendish subgroup cv. Giant Cavendish) fruit held in low (65%) and high (95%) relative humidity at 20 °C. Low RH hastened the yellowing of the peel in terms of the Hunter a* and b* values and advanced the onset of the respiratory climacteric rise and ethylene emanation by about 6 and 12 days than high RH, respectively. Loss in flesh firmness, which was rapid in fruit held in low RH, was positively correlated to increased polygalacturonase (PG) activity, increased water-soluble pectin (WSP), and decreased hydrochloric acid-soluble pectin (HP). The appearance of PG activity was 6 and 9 days earlier than ethylene production at high and low RH, respectively, suggesting that induction of cell wall degrading enzyme activity might occur without ethylene emanation.
    There was no relationship between cellulase activity and softening. These results suggest that RH in the storage atmosphere affects weight loss of banana fruit and ultimately influences the ripening characteristics of the fruit.
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