Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 64 , Issue 4
Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
  • Takanori Yamamoto, Hirosuke Itoh
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 729-739
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Application tests of a system analyzing fruit tree forms and the canopy structureswere conducted for densely planted, dwarf apple trees using lenses having focal lengths(FL) shorter than 50 mm and a fisheye lens.
    1. Minimum distances possible to photograph various sizes of artificial subjects and anapple tree (central leader trained) were measured using 6 lenses ranging in focal lengthfrom 16 to 50 mm. With a cask strained fisheye lens (FL =16 mm), the distance couldbe reduced by one third or fourth of that in a standard lens (FL=50 mm).
    2. The photographs taken by wide angle lenses had no distortion and gave successfulresults in the test by changing a parameter related to their perspective strengths (α).
    3. Three methods to correct lens distortion were devised using data of a scale-picturein a film which was photographed by the fisheye lens (FL =16 mm) ; thus, their correc-tion parameters were obtained. Outputs from the system with a subroutine program todiminish the effects of the distortion were compared among 3 methods. The results by thebest method was comparable with that from another lens but different from the other twomethods.
    4. Using different lens angles, photographs of densely planted apple trees a) havingvarious heights and widths, b) taken at different distances, and c) in orchards withseveral combinations of row and tree spaces were analyzed geometrically.
    5. Our analysis reveal that system was applicable to densely planted, dwarf apple treesusing super wide angle/ cask strained fisheye lenses.
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  • Yoshihide Yamakawa, Li-Hung Chen
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 741-747
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated transformation of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C. F. Liang and A. R. Ferguson) was achieved by direct formation of adventitious buds on infected petioles. Leaf explants of four cultivars (cv. 'Hayward', 'Matsua', 'Abbott', and 'Bruno') were co-cultivated with four Japanese wild strains of A. rhizogenes (ArM 123, IFO 14555, A5 and A13). ArM 123 inoculations of the cultivars 'Hayward' and 'Bruno' resulted in 30.6 % and 16.7 % of adventitious buds formation respectively. Transformation of the adventitious buds was confirmed by opine assays and Southern blotting with 7.5 kb Eco RI-fragment of T-DNA. The direct formation of transformed adventitious buds suggests a new A. rhizogenes -mediated transformation protocol instead of hairy root induction.
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  • Masahiko Yamada, Hiroshi Fukumachi, Tetsushi Hidaka
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 749-756
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Leaves of 2-year-old seedlings of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) and mango (Mangifera indica L.) were exposed to high irradiance (2000 μmol m-2•S-1) provided by metal halide lamps and to 70 ± 5 % of relative humidity. Temperature was raised by incre ments of 3 °C each, at every 1.5 hr interval, from 30 °C till 36 °C. Net assimilation rates decreased for both species as the temperature was increased, but the decline in net assimilation rates was more in longan than in mango. As the temperature increased, stomatal conductance decreased and intercellular CO2 concentration increased for both species especially in longan. A positively significant correlation (r=0.91**) was found in longan between stomatal conductance and net assimilation rate at 30 °C and 33 °C, but r = 0.27NS at 36 °C. In mango, however, the correlation coefficient was consistently significant, r ranging from 0.79 ** to 0.92**, at the three temperatures. Intercellular CO2 concentration and net assimilation rate were not closely related at 30 °C and 33 °C, but a strong negative association was found at 36 °C in both longan (r= --0.89**) and mangc (-0.70**). These results indicate that the decline in net assimilation rate was caused by nonstomatal limitations at high temperatures. The extent of decline in the chlorophyll fluorescence ratio [variable (Fv) to maximum fluorescence (Fm)] by high temperature treatment in the dark was greater in longan than in mango, suggesting that mango leaves are more tolerant of high temperatures than are longan leaves.
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  • Naoto Iwasaki, Akiko Yoshida
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 757-762
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Photosynthetic and root respiration rates were investigated in relation to tree growth of four 7-year-old Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) cultivars. The differences in ecological characteristics and adaptability to warm climate among the cultivars are discussed.
    1. Increases of trunk girth during the growing season were greater in the early-maturing cultivars 'Tone wase' and 'Nishimura wase' than they were in the relatively latematuring cultivars 'Fuyu' and 'Hiratanenashi'. In autumn, the total sugar contents of the non-bearing 'Fuyu' shoots were highest, whereas its starch contents were lowest among the 4 cultivars.
    2. The photosynthetic rate of a single leaf in early July was high in 'Fuyu' and equally low in 'Hiratanenashi' and 'Tone wase'. In early August, however, photosynthetic rates were high in 'Hiratanenashi' and 'Tone wase' and low in 'Nishimura wase'.
    3. There were no significant differences in seasonal changes in root respiration rate among the cultivars. However, in mid-August, the root respiration rates at 30 °C were lower in 'Fuyu' and 'Nishimura wase' than they were in 'Hiratanenashi' and 'Tone wase'; there were no differences at 25 °C. These results show that tree growth of the early maturing cultivars was greater than that of relatively late-maturing cultivars in the warm climate; 'Hiratanenashi' and 'Tone wase' which maintain higher photosynthetic rates during the summer seem to be more adaptable to the warm climate than the other two cultivars.
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  • Shozo Kobayashi, Yuri Nakamura, Junko Kaneyoshi, Hiromi Higo, Ken-ichi ...
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 763-769
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) and trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) were trans- formed with a chemically synthesized gene encoding the human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA gene promoter. The introduced gene (s) were expressed in the young leaves of the regenerated plants. The highest hEGF peptide content so far detected, by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosor- bent assay for hEGF, was about 65 and 113 pg•mg-1 soluble proteins in kiwifruit and trifoliate orange leaves, respectively.
    This is the first demonstration of the production of human bioactive peptides, non- fused with other proteins, in fruit trees and is suggesting the possibility of producing some useful components in fruits by using transformation technique.
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  • Keizo Yonemori, Dan E. Parfitt, Shinya Kanzaki, Akira Sugiura, Naoki U ...
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 771-777
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    RFLP analysis of PCR products from a variable region of the chloroplast genome was conducted to determine their potential for use in phylogenic studies of the genus Diospyros. The target region of cpDNA was reliably amplified by the procedure of Arnold et al. (1991) from all 14 Diospyros species tested. When restriction fragment polymorphisms of amplified products were examined at the intraspecific level with 10 endonucleases (Ase I, Bfa I, Bst NI, Dde I, Msp I, Nco I, Rsa I, Scr FI, Sty I, and Taq I), 15 cultivars of persimmon (D. kaki) and 3 horticultural varieties of D. lotus were monomorphic within species. However, restriction fragment polymorphisms were observed at the interspecific level. The 14 Diospyros species tested could be divided into 6 groups by the digestion patterns with ScrF I, 5 groups with Bst NI or Taq I, 4 groups with Bfa I or Sty I, 3 groups with Ase I, Dde I, or Nco I, 2 groups with Msp I or Rsa I. These results clearly indicated that the present analysis method is extremely valuable for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies at the interspecific level of the genus Diospyros.
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  • Keiichi Utashiro, Hisashi Yamada
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 779-786
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Changes in polyphenol content during fruit growth and ripening of pear cultivars on different rootstocks were investigated to clarify the possible cause of astringency in 'Le lectier' pears, as compared to the non-astringent 'Marguerite Marillat' and la France'.
    1. Polyphenol content on fresh weight basis was highest in the fruitlets at the end of May and then decreased until harvest in all cultivars tested in 1993. However, polyphenol content at harvest in 'Le Lectier' pears, which sometimes produce some astringent fruit, was two to four times higher than those of non-astringent 'Marguerite Marillat' and 'La France'.
    2. Polyphenol content on a fruit basis in 'Marguerite Marillat' and 'La France' showed little change throughout the fruit growth period, while it increased until harvest in 'Le Lectier'.
    3. Fruit produced on Old Home/Quince A interstock/rootstock had higher polyphenol content during fruit growth than those on Pyrus betulaefolia in both 1993 and 1994.
    4. Effect of rootstock on ethylene evolution during ripening period after harvest was not consistent in 'La France' and 'Le Lectier' pears.
    5. During fruit ripening after harvest, polyphenol content remained at an amount similar to that found at harvest in all cultivars.
    6. In 1994, fruit from potted trees on Pyrus betulaefolia had higher polyphenol content than those from field-grown trees on the same rootstock in 'La France' and 'Le Lecrier' pears, resulting in a higher degree of astringency in pot-grown 'Le Lectier' pears.
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  • Takanori Yamamoto, Emi Sugai, Takayuki Niida
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 787-799
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Several characteristics of fruit growth, i. e., the ratio between the daily mean rate of change in cross or polar diameter to their final diameters (DRC or DRP) were measured in 15 apple and 8 cherry cultivars, and analyzed with respect to their correlations to the several indices of susceptibility of fruit cracking, the physical properties of the peels and the distribution of invisible fine cracks.
    1. In apple cultivars, the 4 indices of the susceptibility were : cracking index (CI), mean density of ring fracture (MDR), mean density of lengthwise fracture (MDL) and MDR + MDL. These indices correlated positively to the ratio between the daily rate of change in cross diameter, measured about 30 days after full bloom, to the final diameter (DRC1). Furthermore, the same indices correlated positively to the difference between the ratio in the transverse direction and that in the polar direction (DRC-DRP) and the degree of irregularity in the fruit growth, i. e., their standard deviation from the mean ratio or their standard error from the estimated ratio (DRPsd or DRCse and DRPse).
    2. In cherry cultivars, the mean densities (number) of lengthwise fractures on the fruit surface per centimeter (MDL) were highly and positively correlated to DRC at the beginning of the III stage of the fruit growth and also to DRC-DRP at the same time.
    3. The shearing stress of the apple peels correlated negatively to mean DRC, mean DRP and DRCsd. And the many values relative to DRC, DRP, DRC-DRP and their standard deviation correlated positively to the elongation length of the peels in the direction of the longitudinal arc in both species.
    4. These strains and irregular thickenings may increase fine and invisible cracks in both species.
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  • Yogesh Hari Shrestha, Takaaki Ishii, Isao Matsumoto, Kazuomi Kadoya
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 801-807
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi were studied at low concentrations of applied phosphorus (P) on satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsu wase) trees which were grafted on trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.) rootstock. The VAM fungi used were Glomus ambisporum Smith and Schenck, Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter) Gerdemann and Trappe emend. Walker and Koske, Glomus mosseae (Nicolson and Gerdemann) German and Trappe, and Gigaspora ramisporophora Spain.
    The trees that were inoculated with the VAM fungi grew larger and had better fruit quality as compared with non VAM control trees. The fruit of former were larger, had higher sugar contents in the juice, and better peel color in both 1992 and 1993 than did the latter. In the non VAM control trees, there was a significant difference between seasons in fruit size and quality. This difference is attributed to the low rainfall in 1992 resulting in high sugar content while fruit development was retarded. In 1993, however, heavy precipitation from June to November produced large fruit, but with lower sugar content.
    After water shortage treatment of 10 days, the water stress tolerance of satsuma mandarin trees was improved by the inoculation of a VAM fungus (Gigaspora ramisporophara).
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  • Yoshinori Ikoma, Masamichi Yano, Kazunori Ogawa, Terutaka Yoshioka, Zh ...
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 809-814
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Methods for extracting total RNA from various tissues of satsuma mandarin and kiwifruit were examined. Satisfactory yields in total RNA were obtained from tissues with the exception of the albedo tissue of satsuma mandarin, by using a modification of the conventional extraction method devised for fruit tissues by Lopez-Gomez and Gomez-Lim (1992). In the albedo tissue, the polysaccharides may interfere with RNA extraction but further modification of the extraction method improved its yield. The modification involved repeated back extraction, chloroform/isoamyl alcohol extraction, and increasing the volume of the aqueous phase before precipitating RNA with LiCl (3 M final concentration). From the total RNA, poly (A)+RNA was purified using an oligo (dT) -cellulose column. The poly (A)+RNA could be successfully used for Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and the construction of a cDNA library. This modified protocol is applicable to other fruit tissues rich in polysaccharides.
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  • Shinichi Adaniya
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 815-823
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    One hundred-six selfed lines of the first generation of Zingiber mioga Roscoe were raised during 1988 to 1989. In this study, 29 selfed lines with different numbers of chromosomes (2 n=4960) were randomly selected from them together with a parental line (2 n = 55) and used for the experiment. To evaluate the variations among the 29 lines, 11 morphological characters of aerial parts, rhizomes, and the number of spikes per plant were analyzed by principal component analysis. The analysis showed that most of the selfed lines were smaller than the parental line. Some selfed lines however had more tillers, leaf blades, spikes, and wider leaf blades, and/or thicker main pseudostems than the parental line. The parental line and 20 selfed lines that produced more than four spikes per line were used for an analysis of the morphological variations of spikes. The length, width, and weight of spikes were analyzed by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Spikes of the selfed lines were classified into six groups in the two analyses. On the basis of the spike types classified, three selfed lines were eventually selected from four selfed lines which had more spikes per plant than the parental line. The results show that lines of Z. mioga can be improved by selecting desirable genotypes through seed propagation.
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  • Kazuo Ichimura, Shin-ichi Watanabe, Masayuki Oda
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 825-831
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    When chilling sensitive plants are exposed to low temperature, photosynthetic activity is rapidly reduced. To investigate the biochemical mechanisms involved in chilling-induced reduction in photosynthetic activity of the chloroplast, it is necessary to isolate active chloroplasts in a coupled state. When chloroplasts were isolated from chilling-sensitive melon (Cucumis melo L.), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by the current, conventional method, active, coupled chloroplasts were not obtained from melon and bell pepper leaves. To improve the method for isolating active chloroplasts from these plants, sucrose as an osmoticant was replaced with NaCl and sorbitol in the grinding and suspension media, respectively; isoascorbate and EDTA were also added in the grinding medium. With these media, isolated, chilled chloroplasts had measurable electron transport rates, and sufficient coupling to investigate the site of inhibition of photochemical processes. Melon leaves exposed to 5 °C for 24 hr under 100 μmol•m-2•s-1 showed a much reduced photosynthetic rate at 25 °C, compared to unchilled leaves. Measurements of activity of chloroplasts isolated from chilled and unchilled leaves by the improved method revealed that the whole-chain electron transport rates were unaffected by chilling, whereas the extent of coupling was decreased. This result suggests that photophosphorylation would be involved in the inhibition of photosynthesis in chilled melon leaves. Thus, the improved method for isolating chloroplasts is applicable to study the inhibition site of photochemical reactions in chilling-sensitive melon, bell pepper, and eggplant.
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  • Yoh-ichi Matsubara, Takashi Harada
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 833-838
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The infection process of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Gigaspora margarita, in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) seedling roots was histologically investigated to clarify the mechanism as to how the organism enhances asparagus plant growth. Such information may lead to a better understanding of growth through symbiosis. The sequential infection process was classified into four main stages.
    Stage I: a hypha penetrated into the host roots via the intercellular spaces of the epidermal cells to the cortex. Stage II: the hypha initially elongated longitudinally in the outer cortex and then in the inner cortex. Stage III: the hypha invaginated to the surface layer of the cortical cell; at the invaginating point, the primary cell wall became thin and indistinguishable; the secondary cell wall also became thin but remained visible. After invaginating, the hypha formed a ramified arbuscule which pushed the host cell plasmalemma inwardly but did not crush it. No hypha penetrated the endodermis. Stage IV: the arbuscule collapsed into a mass.
    This study clarified the histological characteristics of host cell wall and middle lamella during an infection by the AM fungus (Gigaspora margarita) in asparagus seedling roots.
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  • Hideo Ikeda, Keiko Tagami, Naoya Fukuda
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 839-844
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Melon plants were grown from spring to summer (crop 1) and summer to autumn (crop 2) by a passive hydroponic system which was laid below the ground surface, so that plants can be grown and harvested without management of the nutrient solution. The effects of the initial concentration of nutrient solution on the growth of plants, yield and quality of fruits, and absorption of water and minerals were investigated while using this system.
    The concentrations of the nutrient solution had varied effects on plant growth and fruit yield of melon, depending on the growing season. The marketable fruits were harvested from plants grown in the higher concentration plots in crop 1 and in all plots in crop 2. The temperature of the root zone was relatively low and fluctuated little even in the summer (crop 1), because the growing system, that is, solution reservoir was laid below the ground surface. Thus, it was concluded that this passive hydroponic system may be an useful and practical production technique for melons. However, more trails need to be conducted to adjust the nutrient solution for practical use.
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  • Yu Hai Wang, Shoji Tachibana
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 845-852
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Relative contributions of supraoptimal air and root-zone temperatures on the growth inhibition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during hot seasons were evaluated. Seedlings of a Chinese cultivar, Sangoh (Ji huang gua 3) and a Japanese cultivar, Sharp I were grown in water culture for 8 days in controlled environment rooms. The environmental conditions were : 26/26 °C, 26/37 °C, 37/26 °C or 37/37 °C daytime air/root-zone temperature regimes (air temperature in the night was 5 °C lower than that in the day), 80/90 % relative air humidity, and a 15-hr photoperiod of ca. 480 μmol•m-2•s-1 PPFD.
    Temperature of leaves was approximately equal to air temperature during the daytime. Although plants thrived best at 26/26 °C and worst at 37/37 °C combinations, when growth at 26/37 °C and 37/26 °C regimes was compared, high air temperature was more inhibitory than high root-zone temperature. Root growth, leaf expansion rate, leaf water content, photosynthetic rate and leaf mineral concentrations were reduced more severely by high root-zone temperature. Seedlings of 'Sangoh' were significantly more tolerant to high root-zone temperature than were those of 'Sharp I'. Possible causes of growth inhibition by high air temperature compared to that by high root-zone temperature and the mechanisms of the cultivarietal difference in thermotolerance of cucumber plants are discussed.
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  • Yasunori Yoshida, Nobuaki Fujishige, Kenji Yamane, Yukio Ijiro, Ryosuk ...
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 853-858
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    To make clear factors of flowering in Chinese yam (Dioscarea opposita Thunb.), effects of seed tuber size and seed tuber removal on flowering were determined. Growth patterns of plants with or without flowering were analyzed.
    1. Plants of D. opposita Thunb. 'Ichoimo' planted in late May, 1994, initiated flower bud from late June to early July.
    2. Minimum fresh seed tuber weights for flowering were 40 g in 'Ichoimo' and 75 g for 'Nagaimo' in 1993; their dry weights were 10.8 and 9.8 g, respectively. Flowering occurred on plants started from seed tubers which weighed 10 g or more in dry weight.
    3. When seed tubers were excised early from the mother plants, the number of flowering plants decreased significantly. Conversely, when the seed tubers were removed later, an increased frequency of flowering plants was observed.
    4. Although there were no differences in the lengths of the main stem, dry weights of roots and new tuber between plants with and without flowers, total length of lateral branches on flowering plants was longer than that of plants without flowers.
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  • Takashi Nobuoka, Masayuki Oda, Hidekazu Sasaki
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 859-865
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Suitable conditions for healing of graft unions on tomato seedlings were studied. Transpiration rates of scions were determined at relative humidities of 70, 85 and 97%, light intensities at 0, 77, 465 μmol•m-2•s-1 and leaf temperatures. To investigate the effect of water uptake by rootstocks, the scions were cut and their hypocotyls were either immersed or not immersed in water.
    1. In the immersed scions, supplied with adequate water, the transpiration rate increased with decreasing relative humidity. The transpiration rate changed slightly with the passage of time and no wilting was observed in every humidity treatment. 2. The transpiration rate of immersed scions increased with increasing light intensity. Stomata opened under high light intensity but did not respond to high leaf temperature. However, high leaf temperature increased the transpiration rate with an increase of light intensity which is attributed to the increased vapor pressure deficit in the boundary layer of the leaf.
    3. In cut scions not immersed in water, the effects of humidity and light intensity on the transpiration rate were initially similar to those of immersed scions. After 2 hr, however, low humidity or high light intensity caused the scions to wilt and the transpiration rate to decrease markedly; no difference in transpiration rates was observed among humidity and light intensity treatments. The decline of transpiration rate is not only attributed to stomatal closure but also to the decrease in cuticular transpiration rate induced by increasing (becoming more negative) the water potential in scions.
    4. Consequently, high humidity and low light intensity prevent wilting of scions, thus favor healing of the graft union. It is considered that use of certain films reducing thermal radiation, which depress the rise of leaf temperature, extends the favorable range of light intensity for healing of graft union.
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  • Yulian, Yukihiro Fujime, Nobuyuki Okuda
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 867-874
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Morphological properties of capitulum initiaton and floret development of garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.) were observed with a scanning electron micro- scope (SEM). Sixteen cultivars varying in flowering time were used. The flowering process was classified into 10 stages. A capitulum was initiated from stage 2 (early involucre forming-stage). The differentiation between ray and disc florets occurred at stage 5 (late floret forming-stage). Disc florets has a pistil and five stamens. Disc florets covered the entire surface of receptacle except for one or two layers of ray floret which are located on the periphery of the receptacle between the disc florets and the involucres. A ray florets has a pistil, but no stamen.
    There were cultivar differences in capitulum size, numbers of ray and disc florets, and involucres. The diameter of the capitulum ranged from 71.0 ±0.0 mm to 42.0± 6.2 mm; the number of ray florets per capitulum ranged from to 23.7 ± 5.4 to 14.2 ± 0.5; where the range of disc florets was from to 478.0± 0.0 to 276.2 ± 44.8. The number of bracts (involucres) per capitulum ranged from 41.0±0.0 to 27.50±5.0.
    Individual cultivars differed in flowering response between spring and autumn. In the spring, budding in all cultivars occurred earlier than that in autumn. Capitulum of 'Kairyo chuba satoyutaka', 'Tatsunami', and 'Otafuku-A' became visible 10, 15, and 35 days after planting, respectively. In autumn, however, capitulum initation of 'Kairyo chuba satoyutaka' occurred 70 days after planting.
    The number of nodes from the cotyledon to capitulum in the spring was significantly fewer than that formed in the autumn. The node number of 'Kairyo chuba satoyutaka' was 32.8 in the spring, and 54.7 in the autumn.
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  • Tadashi Takeda
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 875-882
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    This study was designed to determine the flowering responses of Gypsophila elegans Bieb. 'Covent Garden Market' to temperature and daylength. Plants sown in spring to early summer bolted quickly after producing several opposite leaves, whereas plants sown in late summer to autumn remained vegetative with increasing rosetted leaves until early spring.
    Plants that grew under a photoperiods of less than 10 hours remained in a vegetative, rosette phase irrespective of the sowing time.
    The threshold day length that induces vegetative or reproductive growth is about 10 hours of daylight. Intermediate photoperiods of 12 to 14 hr lead to bolting plants with very short internodes. Photoperiods in excess of 10 hr have a quantitative effect; the longer the day length, the greater was the degree of flower promotion. High temperature in summer inhibited or delayed bolting but promoted vegetative growth.
    Supplemental lighting promoted bolting of the rosetted plants that induced under a natural short day since the end of summer. Compared to a continuous light regimen, a 16-hr day was less effective in advancing bolting and flowering.
    During the winter when the minimum temperature was 10 °C or lower, a long photoperiods was effective for inducing flowering. Hence, it is possible to obtain cut flowers with marketable quality within 55 to 65 days by exposing rosetted plants to continuous lighting.
    These results mentioned above indicate that Gypsophila elegans is a qualitative long-day plant with a critical photoperiod around 10 hours for bolting. Rosetted plants had no low temperature requirements for both bolting and flowering.
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  • Takejiro Takamura, Ikuo Miyajima
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 883-889
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Cross-compatibility and characteristics of F1 progenies in intraspecific crosses between diploid and tetraploid cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum Mill.) were investigated.
    1. Although many pollen tubes reached the ovules in reciprocal crosses between diploid and tetraploid cultivars, only a few fully developed seeds were obtained and the seedlings derived therefrom were all tetraploids.
    2. More fully developed tetraploidy seeds were obtained when plants such as the diploid cultivar 'Pure White' having numerous giant pollen grains are used as pollen parent. Therefore, we hypothesize that fertilization of a 2x-egg by a giant pollen grain is the mechanism whereby tetraploid progenies originate in 4x×2x cyclamen crosses.
    3. Progenies from crosses between diploid and tetraploid cyclamen cultivars are predicted to remain tetraploid in further generations because F2 progenies are all tetraploids.
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  • Eiichi Kodaira, Genjiro Mori, Hideo Imanishi
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 891-897
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In this study, the growth periodicity of plants of Allium cowanii (syn. A. neapolitanum with large flowers), grown in an unheated plastic house, was clarified. Simultaneously, the effect of temperature on the initiation and development of flower buds was investigated.
    A bulb shows a sympodial branching system from mid-September to early December; 2 to 3 inflorescences are initiated as a result of repeated sympodial branching. The first inflorescence initiated in mid-September, the primordium of florets becoming visible in early and mid-October; the tepals and stamen are differentiated from late October to mid: November, leading to anthesis in mid-February of the following year. A second inflorescence is initiated in mid-October and bears flowers in early March. To assess a) the starting time of bulb storage, b) duration of storage, and c) storage temperature, bulbs were stored at 15°, 20°, 25°C, or 30°C from 1 July to 1 October or at 9°, 15°, 20°, 25°C, or 30°C from 1 August to 1 October. At the end of the storage periods, the initiation of the first inflorescence was observed at all temperetures below 25°C, but the optimum temperature was 15°20°C. Most bulbs stored at 30°C were in the vegetative state.
    When bulbs were grown in a greenhouse kept above 10°C after different periods of temperature treatment, those stored at lower temperatures bloomed earlier, except for those stored at 15°C from 1 July; they had low percentages of flowering plants. However, the number of flowering inflorescences per bulb was small.
    Plants grown above 20°C after planting in early October flowered 18 days earlier than did those grown at above 10°C. The early blooming scapes were shorter and had fewer florets than did the late blooming ones.
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  • Nobuyoshi Ogasawara, Takaaki Hiramasu, Hideaki Takagi
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 899-904
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Delphinium 'Blue Bird' seedlings exposed to low temperatures below 9 °C flowered rapidly when the air temperature was increased. When seedlings were not exposed to the low temperatures, flowering was delayed but eventually all the seedlings flowered in the summer. The chilled seedlings did not differentiate flowers during the chilling periods. The results inidicate that flower differentiation does not occur under low temperatures but under high temperatures and the critical temperature for flower differentiation is lowered by exposure to low temperatures. Increasing the chilling duration hastened flowering, indicating that the effect of low temperatures on the flower differentiation is quantitative.
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  • Yoshihiro Kageyama, Kuniyoshi Konishi
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 905-911
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    A cut flower production of chrysanthemum cv. Shuhouno-chikara (standard type of cut flower) was investigated using the method of supplying nitrogen along a standard nitrogen application curve. The standard nitrogen application curve (1.0-fold) had been determined in a previous study to modify the rate of nitrogen absorption and growth curves.
    Rooted cuttings of chrysanthemum were transplanted into a hydroponic apparatus in a plastic film green house on 30 th July 1992. The terminal shoots were pinched above the fifth node on 23 rd July and the plants' subsequent growth was trained to two lateral shoots for cut flowers. The cut flowers were harvested on 9 th November.
    Experimental plots consisted of ; three plots, where nitrogen was supplied along the 1.0, 0.8 and 0.6-fold nitrogen application curves, and 100 ppm N plot in which nitrogen concentration in the culture solution was adjusted weekly to 100 ppm.
    Plants in 1.0 and 0.8-fold plots grew normally and produced good quality cut flowers compared to those in 0.6-fold plot whose quality was poor. Plants in 100 ppm N plot grew vigorously throughout the experiment, and developed excessively large leaves and flower stems for marketable cut flowers.
    Plants supplied with nitrogen divided weekly along the nitrogen application curves absorbed entirely all the nitrogen during the initial 2 to 3 days, therefore, this was a restrictive method of nitrogen application in hydroponics.
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  • Takashi Handa
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 913-918
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Seventy-two transgenic plantlets were obtained from 18 hairy-root clones of prairie gentian (Eustoma grandiflorum (GRISEB-) SCHINNERS) transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes possessing the binary vector plasmid pBI121, which carried the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) and the β-glucuronidase (GUS) genes. Transformed hairyroot clones were selected on a medium containing kanamycin (km). Efficient and rapid plant regeneration occurred spontaneously on a selective medium without phytohormones. They conferred resistances to km and GUS activities. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Southern analysis certified the existence of the NPT II and the GUS genes in the regenerated plants. Southern analysis confirmed that 1 to 7 copies were integrated into the plant genome.
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  • Yoshiji Niimi, Masaru Nakano, Ken-ichiro Maki
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 919-925
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Lilium regale and L. rubellum were crossed reciprocally to introduce economically and horticulturally desirable traits of L. regale, such as vigorous growth and disease resistance, into L. rubellum.
    1. In L. regale ×L. rubellum, seeds containing an embryo were obtained with a low frequency (3.3 %) by stigmatic pollination at anthesis, but they did not germinate in soil or in vitro. Seedlings were successfully obtained with frequencies of 5.3 to 6.7 % by applying ovule culture 30 to 60 days after pollination.
    2. In L. rubellum ×L. regale, the growth of pollen tubes was inhibited in the style after stigmatic pollination at anthesis; hence, no ovule with an embryo was obtained. Growth of pollen tubes was promoted by stigmatic pollination when the pollination was done 2 to 5 days after anthesis. Embryos definitely formed if stigmatic pollination was carried out 5 days after anthesis, but they could not be rescued even when ovule culture was utilized. Cut-style pollination had no effect on production of ovules with an embryo.
    3. Hybridity of seedlings resulted from L. regale × L. rubellum was confirmed by nuclear rDNA analysis. All of the hybrid plants analyzed were diploid with 2n = 24 chromosomes and showed pollen fertilities of below 3 %. Flower color of the hybrids was light pink. A single hybrid clone produced a double flower.
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  • Akira Uda, Masahito Yamanaka, Keiichiro Fukushima, Yoshihiko Koyama
    1996 Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 927-933
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    When a cut carnation absorbed more than 0.5 μmol Ag during treatment from STS solution containing 0.25, 0.5 or 1 mM Ag for different durations, its vase life was doubled as compared with a non-treated control. Longevity of the flower was not significantly influenced by STS concentrations or durations within a range used in this experiment.
    The distribution of Ag in cut carnations depended on the concentration of STS solution. In cut flowers treated with 0.25 mM STS, more Ag was detected in the stems, compared to that detected in the leaves and the flower heads. Conversely, in cut flowers treated with 1 mM STS, more Ag was detected in the leaves, than in stems. Toxic symptoms were observed on the stems after a treatment with 0.25 mM STS and on leaves after a treatment with 1 mM STS.
    To determine the optimal concentration and duration for the practical STS pretreatment, we recommend that the amount of STS solution absorbed by a cut flower be measured to estimate Ag absorbed.. Absorption of 0.5 to 1.0 μmol Ag per cut flowering carnation stem should yield maximum vase life without causing toxicity.
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