Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 65 , Issue 1
Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
  • Fumio Tamura, Kenji Tanabe, Masashi Katayama
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 1-5
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Flooding-tolerant pear rootstocks, Pyrus calleryana, No. 6 and No. 8 strains and nontolerant rootstocks, P. betulaefolia and P. pyrifolia were used in the experiment.
    The rootstocks were flooded, and the change in the density of mitochondrial particles in the fine roots was checked by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. There was no marked change in the distribution of density of mitochondrial particles in roots of P. betulaefolia and P. pyrifolia before and after the flooding treatments; the mitochondrial particles (Fraction I) were detected at 1.221.29 M of the sucrose concentrations in the gradient centrifugation. Conversely, the heavier mitochondrial particles (Fraction II), which were detected at the 1.421.49 M in the gradient, appeared in the roots of P. calleryana, No. 6 and No. 8 after the flooding treatment.
    The level of cyanide-insensitive respiration was measured in the mitochondrial fractions, Fraction I and II. Fractions I prepared from P. calleryana, No. 6 and No. 8 were less sensitive to cyanide than were those from P. betulaefolia and P. pyrifolia. Fraction II, induced in the roots of P. calleryana by the flooding treatment, was markedly insensitive to cyanide.
    These results suggest that the changes in density and respiration chain of mitochon-drial particles may be closely related to flooding tolerance in pear rootstocks.
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  • A. B. M. Golam Rabbany, Fusao Mizutani
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 7-13
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The inhibitory effect of different essential oils on ethylene biosynthesis was investi-gated by using apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Tsugaru) fruit and young peach (Prunus persica Batsch. cv. Nishino-hakuto) seed tissues. Apple tissues retain a high ethylene-pro-ducing capacity, whereas young peach seeds begin to produce ethylene rapidly after being removed from the pits. A more pronounced inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis by the oils was noted in peach seed than in apple fruit tissue. Linalool, citral, citronellal, and 1-octanal inhibited ethylene production. in apple fruit tissues by 50 to 72% over the range of 3.6 to 36 nl•ml-1; citronellol, geraniol, 1-nonanal, β-pinene, p-cymene, and α-pinene were less inhibitory of ethylene production. In the peach seeds, the aldehyde group of essential oils inhibited ethylene production and concomitantly suppressed the in-crease in ACC content by 98 to 100%; alcohol and hydrocarbon groups were less sup-pressive. Most of the essential oils, especially the aldehyde group, seem to inhibit ethylene production by suppressing ACC synthesis.
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  • Hitoshi Okuda, Takeshi Kihara, Isao Iwagaki
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 15-20
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Photosynthetic rate (Pr) and stomatal conductance (Sc) in the leaves of satsuma man-darin cv. Aoshima were measured from July to November on 1) vegetative shoots of intact (control) bearing branch unit (BBU) consistisng of two fruit bearing shoots and a vegetative one, and 2) those of BBU from which fruits were removed in June or September. The data between the bearing and non-bearing vegetative shoots are discussed in re-lation to the flowering potential for the following spring.
    Pr in the leaves of the fruit-removed BBU increased by 24% in September, whereas it increased to 41% by October by fruit removal in June. Pr increased only 30% by November when fruits were removed in September. Sc in leaves of fruit-removed BBU in-creased by 18% in September; but to 46% by October through fruit removal in June; and 114% by November when fruit removal occured in September.
    In relation to stomatal aperture, ABA concentration in the leaves was measured from September to November during which floral initiation of satsuma mandarin is believed to occur. Leaves of BBU had significantly high ABA concentration in September in the case that the fruits were still remained on the unit, but it was much lower in BBU where fruits were removed in June, and even lower when the fruis were removed in September.
    These results indicate a possible contribution of Pr increase during the floral initiation period to the vegetative shoots as well as an involvement of ABA through a regulation of stomatal aperture in the leaves during the period. Conclusively fruit removal could enhance flowering rather effectively.
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  • Mitsuo Awamura, Koji Shoda, Daijirou Yahata
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 21-26
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To clarify the effect of various seed parents on frequency distribution of parthenocar-pic characteristic among progenies of fig (Ficus carica L.), selected fig cultivars were pollinated with pollen from incomplete parthenocarpic caprifig cv. Caprifig 6085. After separating the seedlings into a caprifig or a common fig type, the occurrence of partheno-carpy in the first or second crops was investigated.
    1. In the first crop of caprifig type, a high frequency of parthenocarpy was found in progenies from San Pedro-type cultivar, whereas the Common-type cultivar only set a fair number of parthenocarpic fruit in the first crop.
    2. In the second crop, the Common-type cultivar produced progenies with a high fre-quency of parthenocarpic fruit.
    3. Almost no parthenocarpic seedlings were produced when a nonparthenocarpic Smyrna-typed cultivar was used as a seed parent.
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  • Shiping Wang, Xiaoyi Liu, Goro Okamoto
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 27-32
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Kyoho' grapevines cultivated in Ningxia, China, set a high percent of seeded berries compared with the same cultivar grown in Okayama, Japan which usually sets a lot of seedless shot berries. To clarify the differences in berry set, we compared these 'Kyoho' in terms of shoot and pistil growth, ovule development, and pollen tube penetration into the ovules. Shoot growth was less vigorous and ovule development was less abnormal in 'Kyoho' in Ningxia. Pollen tube penetration into micropyle was more abundant in 'Kyoho' in Ningxia. A better set of seeded berries in Ningxia was discussed as related to its climatic conditions and usage of own-root system.
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  • Yoshitaka Kawai
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 33-39
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of disbudding on rooting and endogenous IAA in 'Muscat Bailey A' grapevine cuttings was investigated. Disbudding completely inhibited rooting of grapevine cuttings. More diffusible IAA was found in disbudded cuttings than in cuttings with one bud. The level of extractable IAA in the basal part where adventitious roots appear was significantly higher in the 1-bud cuttings than in disbudded cuttings 10 to 15 days after planting. It is assumed that during this period, root primordia are formed. Conversely, the applications of IBA and NAA to the disbudded cuttings induced root formation. However, the daily trends of endogenous IAA, especially that of extractable IAA, differed between the IBA and NAA treatments. Extractable IAA of disbudded cuttings treated with NAA increased for 20 days after planting, whereas in cuttings treated with IBA, there was no increase, the trend being similar to that of the control cuttings. These re-sults indicate that in the process of root formation in grapevine cuttings, a difference ex-ists between IBA and NAA action. It is also assumed that disbudding eliminated the source of extractable IAA which, therefore, inhibited rooting.
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  • Daijirou Yahata, Mitsuo Awamura
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 41-47
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To elucidate the varietal differences in cell wall composition of fig fruits at harvest, the uronic acid and neutral sugar contents in the syconia of Caprifig 'VC-180' (Ficus carica L. var. intermedia Shinn×F. carica L. var. sylvestris Shinn), San Pedro type 'King' and 'San Pedro White' (F. carica L. var. intermedia Shinn) and common figs 'Masui Dauphine' and 'Houraishi' (F. carica L. var. hortensis Shinn) were analyzed. In addition, the changes in cell wall composition of ripening 'Masui Dauphine' fruits were investi-gated, comparing uronic acid and neutral sugar contents in the syconia exhibiting 10, 50, and 100% colored peel. Cell wall polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from etha-nol insoluble materials of pistillate flowers with water, hot-water, EDTA, KOH (hemicellulose fraction), and H2SO4 (cellulose fraction) solutions.
    1. In the water fractions, the varietal difference in cell wall composition was very small. The total sugar contents, including uronic acid and neutral sugar, in the hot-water, EDTA, hemicellulose, and cellulose fractions were significantly highest in the syconia of 'VC-180'. Except for 'VC-180', the difference in neutral sugar contents in the cellulose fractions was largest among other cultivars.
    2. The uronic acid contents per unit weight in the water fractions, extracted from 'Masui Dauphine' syconia during ripening, became higher in the order of 50, 100, and 10% colored peel, but there was little difference in the neutral sugar contents in the same fractions. In the hot-water and EDTA fractions, the uronic acid contents per unit weight decreased with color development ; therefore, the total sugar contents from pectic substances likewise decreased. In the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions, both the uro-nic acid and neutral sugar contents per unit weight decreased with color development.
    3. The cell wall composition per fruit of 'Masui Dauphine' was different from that per unit weight, because the ripening fruits increased in weight. As the percentage of color-ing in the peel increased, the uronic acid contents per fruit increased markedly in the wa-ter fractions and decreased in the hot-water and EDTA fractions ; the neutral sugar con-tents per fruit increased in the water and hot-water fractions. However, there were no differences in the total sugars per fruit derived from the pectic substances or in the uro-nic acid, neutral sugar, and total sugars per fruit derived from the hemicellulose and cel-lulose fractions during the ripening process.
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  • Ryosuke Mochioka, Mitsunobu Tohbe, Shosaku Horiuchi, Tsuneo Ogata, Shu ...
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 49-54
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The intensity of bud dormancy, water content, and the endogenous levels of ABA-like substances in shoots of several wild grape species native to different regions of Japan were compared with those of Vitis labruscana Bailey, cultivar 'Muscat Bailey A', from September to December.
    The onset of endodormancy (rest) in V. coignetiae Pulliat and V. amurensis Rupr., which are wild species of the more northern origin, was earlier than that in other wild species. Furthermore, the water content decreased during a period of bud dormancy, whereas, the levels of ABA-like substances increased sharply in October for these two wild species. In V. shiragai Makino and the cultivar 'Muscat Bailey A', the period of the deepest dormancy occurred in November. The water content of their shoots decreased gradually and the levels of ABA-like substances increased as the intensity of bud dor-mancy deepened. The period of the deepest dormancy of V. kiusiana Momiyama and V. sp. (tentative name Shiohitashibudo) was not well-defined, because these wild species ex-hibited low percentages of bud burst during the study period. Changes in shoot water content of these two species paralleled the changes in percentage of bud burst. However, the level of ABA-like substances in these wild species peaked in November. The period of the deepest dormancy in V. ficifolia Bunge var. ganebu Hatusima, which is of subtropical origin, occurred in November, but its intensity was lighter than that of other wild spe-cies. Its shoots also had higher water content and low ABA-like substances.
    The results show that the onset and intensity of bud dormancy differed among the wild grape species and, generally, low shoot water content and high level of ABA-like subst-ances coincided with the time of deepest dormancy.
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  • Jaturaporn Rakngan, Hiroshi Gemma, Shuichi Iwahori
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 55-65
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The study was conducted for 3 consecutive years to evaluate the effect of continuous high temperature conditions on the performance of 6-year-old Japanese pear (Pyres pyrifolia Nakai cv. Kosui). Under high temperature condition, the physiological characteristics of Japanese pear changed, namely, in the first year, pear trees that were transferred to a greenhouse in July and September were more vigorous than those transferred in November. During the autumn and spring, trees transferred in July did not accumulate sufficient chilling temperature, affecting the shoot growths in the later years; those transferred to the greenhouse in September had the shortest shoots compared to trees transferred in October and November. Trees which were transferred in November had earlier budbreak, better flower buds, flowered more uniformly, and set more fruit than did trees which were transferred in July and October. Furthermore, pollen grains from Treatment 3 germinated better than did those from trees in Treatment 1 and 2. Similar results were obtained in 2nd and 3rd seasons.
    Our analyses revealed that sugars increased in autumn just before dormancy while starch decreased. When the growth resumed in spring, starch increased and sugar decreased. Trees transferred to the greenhouse later which received more chilling had a higher starch and sugar contents.
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  • Fuminori Komai, Ichiro Okuse, Koichi Saga, Taqkashi Harada
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 67-72
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) root segments were cultured on a medium containing a half strength of inorganic salts in Murashige and Skoog's medium, 10 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 0.1 μM gibberellic acid (GA3) and various kinds and concentrations of carbohydrates. For callus induction and somatic embryogenesis, spinach root segments effectively utilized glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, or raffinose as a carbon source. Frequency of embryo formation increased inversely to sugar concentration. Fructose or raffinose increased the number of embryos per callus. Levels of sugars remained were measured in a raffinose-containing liquid culture medium in which root segments were cultured continuously. The fact indicates that fructose was preferentially utilized by the tissues of spinach. These results show that a low concentration of fructose in the culture medium promotes a high frequency of embryogenesis in spinach tissue culture.
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  • Naotaka Matsuzoe, Hiromi Aida, Katsumi Hanada, Mohammad Ali, Hiroshi O ...
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 73-80
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fruit quality of the tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculenturn Mill. cv. Momotaro) grafted on Solanum rootstocks was compared with that of tomato plant grafted on its own roots. The Solanum rootstocks used were S. sisymbriifolium, S. torvum and S. toxicarium; all of which are resistant to soil-born disease. The plants were grown under three levels of fertilizer, consisting of 15 N, 8 P2O5, 17 K2O.
    Fructose and glucose were detected in tomato fruits grafted on the four rootstock species, fructose content always exceeding that of glucose. The major organic acids were citric and malic; formic, oxalic, and pyrrolidone carboxylic acids were present at low concentrations.
    Regardless of the rootstocks, the amount of reducing sugars and organic acids in a fruit varied slightly with the cropping season, and the amount of fertilizer applied. The small difference in these fruit ingredients among tomato plants on the four rootstocks suggests that the fruit quality of the tomato plants grafted on other Solanum species is not different from that of tomato on its own roots.
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  • Yoshiteru Sakata, Shinji Monma, Tomoaki Narikawa, Shoji Komochi
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 81-88
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Sixty accessions of eggplants collected in Malaysia were evaluated for their resistance to bacterial wilt, Verticillium wiilt and Fusarium wilt, caused by Pseudomonas sola-nacearum, Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. In the evaluation of the field infected with P. solanacearum, more than 60 % of the accessions were resistant. Based on the evaluation at the seedling stage of the resistant accessions, LS1934 was judged to be the most resistant accession to bacterial wilt, but most of the same acces-sions were not resistant to Verticillium wilt. LS2436 was the only accession with a re-latively high resistance to Verticillium wilt. LS1934 and LS2436 were also resistant to Fusarium wilt.
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  • Toshiki Asao, Norihiro Ito, Takashi Hosoki, Katsumi Ohta, Keita Endo
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 89-94
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of the plant growth retardants, uniconazol at 1.25 and 2.5 ppm and paclobutrazol at 12.5 and 100 ppm and root pruning on the growth and yield of tomato plants cultured hydroponically at high temperature during summer were studied.
    1. Growth of tomato seedlings was suppressed by the plant growth retardants, especially with 100 ppm paclobutrazol or by root pruning.
    2. All of plant growth retardants decreased the number of nodes to the first truss and advanced anthesis.
    3. When plant growth retardants were applied to 2-leaf-old seedlings, stem retardation was significant to the 2nd truss.
    4. Plant growth retardants advanced harvest of the 1st truss.
    5. Fruit Brix and mean fruit weight were not influenced by the treatments.
    6. Total yield of 1st and 2nd truss was slightly increased by root pruning.
    7. Early fruit yield was increased by the plant growth retardants.
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  • Nobuyuki Fukuoka, Hiroshi Yoshioka, Emiko Shimizu, Takahiro Fujiwara
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 95-103
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present investigations were conducted to establish a relationship between seedling root respiration rate and the subsequent rooting ability of cabbage and broccoli plants.
    1. Root respiration of seedlings was affected by cultural conditions such as shade, defoliation, photoperiod, soil temperature, and flooding treatments. The extremes of these conditions resulted in a decrease in respiration in the root.
    2. Drag resistance of the seedlings after planting as measured by universal testing machine was found to be closely related to rooting ability ; its value became lower as root weight decreased and the root distribution became limited.
    3. Root respiration was also found to be closely related to rooting ability. It was observed that the higher the rate of root respiration, the more vigorously the root grew. Conversely, a lower rate of root respiration resulted in diminished root growth.
    From these data, we conclude that root generation by cabbage and broccoli nursery plants can be predicted by measuring the root respiration rate during the seedling stage.
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  • Tohru Murayama, Hideki Murayama, Yasushi Satoh, Shoji Ogasawara
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 105-111
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Optimal conditions to regenerate plants from Eustoma grandiflorum 'Bicolor Purple' protoplasts investigated in this study led to an efficient plant regeneration methood.
    Protoplasts were isolated enzymatically from young leaves of Eustoma grandiflorum seedlings cultured aseptically on MS medium for 50 days. The enzyme solution contains 2.0% Cellulase Onozuka R10, 0.2% Macerozyme R10, 0.1% CaCl2•2H2O and 9.0% mannitol (pH 5.5). Isolated protoplasts were cultured in a modified MS (200 mg•liter-1 NH4NO3) medium containing 1.0% sucrose, 9.0% mannitol, 1.0 mg•liter-1 NAA and 0.1mg•liter-1 BA at the density of 12×104•ml-1.
    Cell division occurred after 45 days in culture. A fresh medium was added weekly to promote colony formation. Colonies (0.51.0 mm in diameter) were transferred to a modified MS agar medium containing 0.1 mg•liter-1 BA and 1.0 mg•liter-1 NAA for callus proliferation. Shoots regenerated rapidly upon transferring the calli to MS mediumcontaining 0.3 mg•liter-1 BA.
    The regenerated shoots were propagated on MS agar medium containing 0.1 mg•liter-1 BA and 1.0 mg•liter-1 GA3. Hyperhydration of shoots was prevented by ventilating the culture bottles through PTFE membrane (18 mm diam.) attached to the cap. Shoots which elongated more than 1 cm were treated with Oxyberon powder (0.5% IBA) and then transplanted to rock wool cubes. The IBA-treated shoots formed the roots and grew into normal plants. But the percentage of bicolor flowers in protoplast-derived Eustoma grandiflorum plants was significantly lower than the usual means of obtaining plants fromseeds.
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  • Takejiro Takamura, Ikuo Miyajima
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 113-120
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Pollen tube growth and the development of zygotic embryos in reciprocal crosses between diploid and tetraploid cyclamen cultivars (Cyclamen persicum) were observed to understand why few seeds formed and no triploid progenies resulted from the crosses.
    In all cross combinations, many pollen tubes entered the ovules within 4 days after pollination. These results suggest that the difficulty in obtaining seeds in cyclamen crossesbetween diploid and tetraploid was not attributable to the lack of pollen tube growth.
    The degeneration of zygotic embryoswas observed approximately 5 weeks after pollination (WAP) in 2x × 4x and 4x × 2x crosses. In 2x × 4x, the degeneration of embryos was observed in most of the ovules 9 WAP, although about 20 % of ovules had globularembryos 7 WAP. No globular embryo was observed in 4x × 2x using diploid, 'Pure White' having no giant pollen grains. On the other hand, a few matured embryos, which seemedto exhibit tetraploidy, were observed in 4x × 2x using diploid, 'Pure White' having giant pollen grains. These results suggest that the difficulty in obtaining seeds, triploid seeds in particular, in reciprocal crosses between diploid and tetraploid cyclamen cultivars wasdue to the degeneration of zygotic embryos.
    The endosperm did not become cellular but was observed to degenerate in most of theovules of 2x × 4x and 4x × 2x crosses. It is, therefore, suggested that the degeneration of zygotic embryos was caused by the defective endosperm or the lack of its development inthe cyclamen crosses between diploid and tetraploid cultivars.
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  • Yuri Imamura, Motoaki Doi, Hideo Imanishi
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 121-127
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cote d' Azur' freesia corms heavier than 3 g sprouted earlier than did lighter corms kept in moist rock wool medium at 25°C ; this temperature is effective for breaking dormancy and shoot growth. Cormlets sprouted after the corm to which they were attached. The days to sprouting were reciprocally correlated to cormlet weights ; the relationship is represented by the equation : y =9.49/x +106.01 (r =0.82, significant at P=0.01), where y = days to sprouting and x = cormlet weight. Cormlets developing on the corm bases sprouted earlier than did those which were attached higher on the corms, suggesting that cormlets which formed earlier on the corm bases became receptive to high temperature earlier than did those formed later at the upper nodes. Consequently, their time of sprouting of basal cormlets was advanced.
    After bud dormancy was broken, corms of 7.312.8 g responded to chilling at 12°C immediately after planting, and their apical meristem initiated flower buds. The interval between planting and when the apical meristem enlarges was shortened to three weeks when the growing period at 25°C was lengthened. When cormlets weighing 0.81.8 g were kept at 12°C after planting, their apical meristem continued to form leaf primordia during the initial few weeks of shoot growth. To initiate flower buds within three weeks at 12°C, plants needed to grow for six weeks at 25°C prior to chilling. Our data indicate that sprouting of cormlets is retarded compared to the corms, furthermore, plants raised from cormlets are not induced to flower by chilling at their early stage of shoot development.
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  • Nobuyoshi Ogasawara, Haruhisa Inden, Tadashi Asahira
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 129-134
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Caladium plantlets were cultured in vitro under a long lighting cycle (16 hr light/8 hr dark) and a short lighting cycle (2 hr light/1 hr dark). When gas exchange between the inside and outside of the culture vessel was allowed, the short lighting cycle enhanced growth, but when the culture vessel was airtight, the lighting cycle had no effect on growth. The estimated net daily CO2 uptake under the short lighting cycle is greater than that under the long lighting cycle only when gas exchange occurs between the inside and outside of the vessel. These results demonstrate that the enhancement of growth by the short lighting cycle is due to an increase in the amount of available CO2 resulting from the reduced escape of CO2 from the vessel.
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  • Tong Hua Li, Yoshiji Niimi, Masaru Nakano
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 135-144
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study was conducted to examine whether pre-pollination is effective in improving growth of pollen tubes and seed-sets of Lilium longiflorum 'Georgia' by comparing cut-style pollination (CSP) and stigmatic pollination (SP).
    1. Pollen tubes reached the basal end of the style by 48 hr in self-pollination of 'Georgia' and cross-pollination of 'Georgia' × 'Hinomoto' by CSP. Using the pre-pollination technique in CSP enhanced the growth of pollen tubes both in self-and cross-pollination.
    2. Generative cell division of pollen tubes in the style was observed 24 hr after pollination. In cross-pollination by SP, 78% of the pollen tubes had 2 sperm nuclei and 1 vegetative nucleus ('2 S + V'), while only 15% of these appeared in the self-combination. Using CSP, pollen tubes with '2 S+ V' were 32%in cross-and 9%in self-pollination. The percentages increased to 54% and 35%, respectively, when pollen of 'Hinomoto' was used in the pre-pollination treatment.
    3. In SP, numerous pollen tubes which penetrated the style grew in a bunch between two rows of ovules in an ovary ; they reached the ovules near the mid-region of the loculi. In CSP, pollen tubes elongated poorly in the ovary; only a few pollen tubes reached the ovules near the mid-region.
    4. Penetration of pollen tubes to the micropyle occurred in about 35% of the ovules in cross-pollination-1 by SP and in less than 10% of these by CSP. Pre-pollination in CSP effectively increased the percentage of ovules with a pollen tube in the micropyle.
    5. Only 3 full-seeds per capsule in self-and 6 in cross-pollination were obtained by CSP, whereas 11 and 23 seeds per capsule, respectively, were obtained as the result of pre-pollination.
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  • Nobuo Kobayashi, Masaru Akabane, Takashi Handal, Kenji Takayanagi
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 145-153
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The inheritance of morphological characters and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers among the intersubgeneric hybrids of (Rhododendron kiusianum Makino × R. indicum (L.) Sweet) ×R. japonicum (A. Gray) Suringer f. flavum Nakai was investigated to clarify the usefulness of RAPD markers in the breeding program of yellowflowered evergreen azalea (Akabane, 1993).
    Tree forms of the hybrids were similar to R. japonicum f. flavum. Leaf morphology of the hybrids was intermediate to that of the parents. Microscopic observation of foliar trichomes revealed that all the hybrids had long hairs similar to those of R. japonicum f. flavum. The short hair trait of R. japonicum f. flavum. was observed in some hybrids. The degree of defoliation in winter varied among the hybrids.
    Seven out of 16 primers, generated a total of 28 RAPD bands. The hybrids and their parents could be distinguished by band patterns. Inheritance of RAPD bands was confirmed by Southern hybridization.
    Variations in morphology and polymorphisms of RAPD pattern among the hybrids were attributed to the heterozygosity and the phylogenetic distance between the parental species. The hybrids that had more paternal RAPD bands tended to exhibit more patrilineal morphological characters. This suggests that some RAPD markers and morphological characters may be linked.
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  • Yasuhiro Murai, Hisashi Harada, Toshihiko Takagi
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 155-159
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Optimal micropropagational conditions for shoot proliferation and rooting in vitro were investigated using 3 flowering mume cultivars, Ichinotani, Hakubotan and Yaebungo. The effects of three types of cytokinin and their concentrations on shoot proliferation were tested with 'Ichinotani'.
    1. Benzyladenine (BA) at 5 or 10 μM was most effective for shoot proliferation, whereas zeatin (Zn) was not; however, BA and Zn were both effective for shoot elongation. N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea (CPPU) had little effect on shoot proliferation and shoot elongation.
    2. The use of sorbitol, sucrose and glucose on survival rates, shoot proliferation and shoot elongation on the three cultivars revealed that the survival rate was higher on the medium containing sorbitol than on the medium containing sucrose or glucose. Sorbitol was also most effective for shoot proliferation, whereas glucose was most promotive for shoot elongation. Sucrose had little effect on shoot proliferation and shoot elongation.
    3. IBA treatments enhanced rooting. Except for 'Ichinotani', the number of roots and rooting percentages were higher as IBA concentration increased. For 'Ichinotani', optimal IBA concentration was 1 μM. Dark treatment for 10 days in combination with 1 μM IBA gave higher rooting percentages and number of roots than those receiving IBA treatment alone.
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  • Shoji Noro, Toshiyuki Arai, Tsuguyoshi Kudo
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 161-168
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Many Japanese apple growers use double paper bags on yellow-colored apple cv. Mutsu to enhance red color formation during their growth.
    To study the effect of the double paper bagging on superficial scald, young fruits of the apple cv. Mutsu were shaded individually with commericial double paper bags from early June to late September as usual in Aomori prefecture. These fruits were harvested in late October and stored at 0°C.
    The incidence of superficial scald between bagged and unbagged (control) fruits was recorded and the volatiles in their respective skins during storage were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography.
    There was less scald in the bagged fruit than in the unbagged ones. The same 65 volatiles were identified in the skins of the bagged and unbagged fruits during storage. The differences in ratios of the volatile compositions were studied noting the compositions whose ratios were smaller in the skins of bagged fruit than those in unbagged ones, and the difference in trans-2-hexenal was largest among the volatiles, followd by n-butyl acetate. No difference was found in α-farnesene whose oxidation products are believed to cause superficial scald.
    Exposure of healthy 'Mutsu' apples to trans -2-hexena, n-butyl acetate, and farnesene (mixed isomers) at 20 °C for 20 hours showed that trans-2-hexenal induced scald-like injury at the lowest concentration; whereas n-butyl acetate produced a similar degree of injury at a higher concentration. No symptoms of scald appeared on fruits exposed to far-nesene.
    Our results suggest that shading of double paper bagging reduces the concentrations of trans-2-hexenal and n-butyl acetate with which we experimentally induced scald-like injury to 'Mutsu' apples.
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  • Yanbin Xue, Kyouko Ishikawa, Yasutaka Kubo, Akitsugu Inaba, Reinosuke ...
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 169-176
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Induction of softening in banana, cucumber, carrot and Japanese radish at low relative humidity (55% RH) was investigated with respect to their endogenous ethylene produc-tion. In banana, exogenous ethylene pretreatment rapidly hastened yellowing of the peel and softening of the flesh at both high and low RH. However, pretreatment with diazocy-clopentadiene (DACP), an inhibitor of ethylene action, inhibited yellowing but did not prevent softening at high and low RH. In cucumber, carrot, and Japanese radish, softening of the firmness progressed at low RH even though endogenous ethylene activity was inhi-bited by DACP pretreatment. In cucumber, the flesh softened rapidly at low RH which was positively correlated to the increase in water soluble pectin and a decrease in sodium hexametaphosphate soluble pectin. These results may indicate that induction of softening in several types of fruits and vegetables proceeds independent of, endogenous ethylene concentration, and that the degradation of cell wall polysaccharides is induced directly by water deficit stress.
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  • Satoshi Taira, Masaya Ooi, Shunzo Watanabe
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 177-183
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In an evaluation of the relationship between volatile compounds and flavors in persimmons, such compounds from the flesh of different astringent persimmon cultivars were analyzed, and the changes in these compounds after removal of astringency with carbon dioxide were studied. Volatiles from 'Hiratanenashi', 'Yokono', and 'Atago' persimmon fruit were steam-distilled under reduced pressure before and after the removal of astringency. The distillates were partitioned against diethyl ether and the extracts in the organic phase were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. At least nine out of 23 volatile compounds which were isoloated and identified including n-butanol, 3-methy butanol, n-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-methyl hexanol, acetoin, and acetic acid were common to the three cultivars. The cultivars varied both qual-itatively and quantitatively. The total volatile compounds detected were greater in fruits after the treatment for removal of astringency than before the treatment. The degree of qualitative change in the volatile compounds during treatment differed depending on the cultivar ; it was largest in 'Yokono' and smallest in 'Hiratanenashi'.
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  • Yuko Kasai, Masaya Kato, Hiroshi Hyodo
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 185-191
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea, var. italica) florets (flower buds) senesce rapidly after har-vest at ambient temperatures. During senescence of harvested broccoli kept at 20°C, the rate of ethylene production significantly increased concurrent with a rapid yellowing ascribed to chlorophyll degradation with the rate reaching a maximum and declining thereafter. ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) synthase activity gradually de-creased as senescence progressed and, in contrast, ACC content in florets increased from the low level at the early stage of senescence and reached the high level at a later stage. ACC oxidase activity in florets rapidly increased to reach a peak, which was followed by a sharp decline to a low level as senescence progressed, in parallelling the increased pat-tern of ethylene production. The increase in ACC oxidase activity was promoted by the continous supply of exogenous ethylene as well as the enhanced rate of senescence. On the contrary, the rise in ACC oxidase activity was strongly suppressed by the treatment with 2, 5-norbornadiene (NBD), an inhibitor of ethylene action; concurrently NBD strongly retarded the progress in senescence. These results may indicate that endogenous ethylene that is involved in senescence of broccoli florets simultaneously regulates the induction of ACC oxidase activity.
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  • Kazuhiro Abe, Koichi Yoshimura, Kazuo Chachin
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 193-198
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Partially processed carrots (PPC) were transversely cut (1 cm thick) and held at 20°C and under continuous flow of air including 0, 1, 10, or 100 ppm ethylene. PPCs treated with ethylene, even at 1 ppm, became bitter and developed brown bitting injury on the cut surface. Concurrently, isocoumarin formed and the levels of phenols increased during storage of 5 days, whereas these changes were not noted in the control (0 ppm) PPC.
    PPCs exposed to 21% O2, 0.2% CO2, and 20 ppm C2H4 developed bitterness and pitting injury, and formed isocoumarin and accumulated phenols, whereas low O2 (4%) or high CO2 (18%) atmosphere delayed the onset of these changes and the combination of low O2 and high CO2 apparently surpressed them during 5-days storage period.
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