Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 66 , Issue 3-4
Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
  • Shozo Kobayashi, Toshifumi Ohgawara, Wataru Saito, Yuri Nakamura, Mits ...
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 453-458
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To produce citrus triploids through somatic hybridization, protoplasts isolated from nucellar calli of 'Juman' satsuma mandarin, 'Ohmishima' navel orange or 'Trovita' sweet orange were fused electrically with protoplasts from mesophyll cells of haploid strains of Clementine (No. 1 and No. 2) ; three combinations (satsuma mandarin + haploid No. 1, navel orange+haploid No. 2, and sweet orange+haploid No. 1) were practically tried.
    Chromosome observations of root tip cells showed that the regenerated plants were diploid (2 n=18) or triploid (2 n=27). In each combination, triploid plants were observed. Hybridity of the plants was checked by RAPD-PCR method. Triploid plants produced in this study contained both parent-specific bands, indicating that the triploid plants are somatic hybrids.
    Download PDF (5734K)
  • Masahiko Fumuro
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 459-465
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The dry matter production and assimilate partitioning ratio in each organ of the dwarf phenotype of 'Nishimurawase' persimmon trees on 'Mamegaki' (Diospyros lotus L.) rootstock were compared with the normal phenotype to assess why the former is more productive.
    1. Fresh weight of above- and under-ground part of bearing trees of the normal phenotype were 5.9 and 5.3 times heavier than were those of the dwarf phenotype. Woodleaf ratio and top-root ratio did not differ between the phenotypes.
    2. No significant difference in yield per unit area occupied by the tree canopy exists but the dwarf phenotype produced 2.3 times more fruits per unit trunk cross-sectional area.
    3. Total dry matter increases during the growing season by bearing normal trees was greater than that of the dwarf, however, no significant differences in the amount of dry matter produced per unit leaf dry weight or unit leaf area were found. The assimilate partitioning into fruit was higher, whereas the ratios of current shoot to older wood were lower in the dwarf phenotype as compared with the normal phenotype.
    4. Total dry matter increases in the bearing normal and dwarf trees were 1.3 and 2.2 times higher, respectively, than those of the non-bearing trees.
    5. We conclude that trees of the dwarf phenotype have a higher assimilate partitioning ratio to the fruit, and that less dry matter in proportion to leaf area was partitioned to the current shoot and older wood than in the normal phenotype of 'Nishimurawase' persimmon trees on D. lotus rootstock.
    Download PDF (2723K)
  • Hitoshi Ohara, Junichi Izawa, Satoru Kimura, Naoki Hiroi, Hiroyuki Mat ...
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 467-473
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of various plant growth regulators on parthenocarpic fruit set and subsequent growth of 'Hayward' kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C. F. Liang et A. R. Ferguson var. deliciosa] were investigated.
    Higher percentages of parthenocarpic fruit set were obtained at harvest when N- (2-chloro-4-pyridy1) -N'-phenylurea (CPPU) at 1, 2, 5 and 10 ppm was applied three times; 1 day before anthesis (DBA) and 2 times at about weekly intervals after anthesis. The size of the mature parthenocarpic fruits induced with CPPU was equal to or larger (weight) than that of the hand-pollinated fruits, and the treated fruits matured a few days earlier.
    Triple applications of GA3 or GA4 at 1000 ppm induced about a 20% set of parthenocarpic fruit. The size of mature GA3- or GA4-treated fruits was about 12% (weight) of that of the hand-pollinated control. Double applications of 500 ppm t-zeatin (z), and single and double applications of N6-benzyladenine (BA) at 500 or 1000 ppm respectively induced 60% and 20% to 40% set of parthenocarpic fruit, the size of the mature Z- and BA-treated fruits respectively being about 9% and 2% to 3% (weight) of that of the handpollinated ones.
    To obtain nearly a 100% set of parthenocarpic fruit as well as fruit sizes similar to those of hand-pollinated fruits at harvest, flowers and growing fruits should be sprayed with CPPU 3 times at 2 ppm, 1 DBA then 7 and 14 days after anthesis (DAA), or twice at 5 ppm, 1 DBA and 7 DAA, or once at 10 ppm, 1 DBA.
    Download PDF (455K)
  • Yasuhiro Murai, Hisashi Harada, Hiroyuki Yamashita
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 475-480
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In vitro propagation by dormant, meristem culture of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. 'Bakuoh junkyou' was investigated by placing 1 mm shoot tips on four kinds of basal media (WP, MS, B5 and 1/2 MS) with cytokinins. Judging by survival rates and shoot length, the best medium was WP supplemented with BA or CPPU with 100% survival, whereas WP supplemented with 2 ip yielded 80% survival. For shoot proliferation, BA was most effective among 3 kinds of cytokinins tested, whereas zeatin and 2 ip were more effective for shoot elongation. IBA promoted rooting, the optimum being 2 μM; no rooting occurred without IBA treatment. The rooting ability of shoots increased with the number of subcultures; a maximum of 86.7% was attained after the 20 th subculture.
    Download PDF (4039K)
  • Masahiko Fumuro
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 481-488
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of trunk girdling at an early stage of current shoot elongation on tree growth and total dry matter production and partitioning in 3-and 4-year-old Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) cv. Tonewase were determined.
    1. Girdles (5 mm width) made on trunks on 1 May inhibited current shoot, leaf and trunk growth. However, there were no differences in shoot number, total leaf number and specific leaf area (SLA) between girdled and non-girdled trees. Fresh weights of shoots and rootlets of girdled trees were ligher, and wood-leaf ratio and top-root ratio were higher, compared with non-girdled trees. Dry matter gains by shoot, leaf and rootlet of girdled trees during the growing season were slower, compared with non-girdled trees on nonbearing trees. Dry matter partitioning in current shoot was less, while in older wood of girdled trees, it was higher, compared with non-girdled trees. There were no differences in amount of dry matter gains per unit leaf area and per unit leaf dry weight between girdled and non-girdled trees.
    2. Regirdling the trunk on 21 April in the following year inhibited current shoot, leaf and trunk growth, and furthermore, decreased total leaf number. However, there was no difference in SLA between girdled and non-girdled trees. Fresh weights of shoots, leaves and rootlets of girdled trees were ligher and wood-leaf ratio and top-root ratio were higher, compared with non-girdled trees. Dry matter gains of shoots, leaves, fruits, roots and rootlets of girdled trees during the growing season were less than those of non-girdled trees. Dry matter partitioning to current shoot, leaf and rootlet was less, but greater in older wood and fruit of girdled trees compared with non-girdled trees. There were no differences in amount of dry matter gains per unit leaf dry weight between girdled and nongirdled trees.
    Inhibiting tree growth by girdling the trunk at an early stage of shoot elongation resulted in a reduction of dry matter production. This is attributed to 1) the smaller size and number of leaves and 2) the inhibition of new root growth by blockage of translocation of photosynthates from leaves to roots.
    Download PDF (545K)
  • Takashi Yano, Yoshikazu Ninomiya, Yasuo Shimizu
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 489-493
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two typical symptoms of ulcerous Kohansho, the convex and concave types, frequently appear on the flavedo of Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) fruit. The external appearances of these two symptoms and similar disorders caused by painting with crushed peel juice or pricking with a thorn were compared by histochemical examination.
    1. In cross sections of the ulcerous Kohansho, a fan-shaped, degenerated region and the central vascular bundles on the same side of the fruit were always observed.
    The convex type symptom at first appeared as a blackish, oily spot which changed to a milky white spot and finally, to a brown, convex spot. Histochemical analysis revealed that the region consisted of small, irregularly shaped cells surrounding the degenerated region in whose margins, the cell walls were lignified and suberized layers were observed. The concave injury was accompanied by small, irregularly shaped cells which were lignified but the suberized layers were not noticeable.
    2. In regions damaged by painting with crushed peel juice, the degenerated part was not fan-shaped and the degeneration proceeded parallel to the epidermis. Vascular bundles were not observed in the degenerated region.
    3. Areas damaged by pricking with a thorn remained clear even after lignification and suberization of the tissue had advanced so that it is possible to distinguish that injury from that caused by ulcerous Kohansho.
    These observations led us to conclude that the degenerating processes in the typical ulcerous Kohansho differed histologically from those caused by crushed peel juice or mechanical injury.
    Download PDF (7642K)
  • Akira Suzuki, Atsushi Takahashil, Koji Aobal, Tetsuo Masuda, Yoshiki K ...
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 495-503
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The internal ethylene concentrations (IEC), 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylate (ACC) and N-malonyl-ACC (MACC) contents, ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities were measured on several attached and detached fruits of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars during maturation. The purpose was to investigate the ability of fruits of 'Starking Delicious', 'Senshu' (mid-season) and 'Golden Delicious' and 'Fuji' (late season) to synthesize ethylene.
    The attached fruits of 'Starking Delicious' and 'Golden delicious' contained high IEC (40100 μl?L -1), whereas 'Senshu' and 'Fuji' contained low IEC (<10 μl?L -1). The results of ACC content, ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities indicated that ACC synthase activity and ACC content were limiting factors of IEC in three cultivars except 'Starking Delicious'. IEC in attached fruits of 'Starking Delicious' had no correlation with these.
    IEC in detached fruits of all cultivars increased after 1 2 weeks in storage; and the value consistently exceeded IEC in attached fruits. The physiological reason, however, was not clarified by the changes of enzymes activities. It was indicated that detaching the fruit from the tree triggered the elevation of IEC, because the fruit was taken off before IEC increased.
    MACC content in attached fruits was almost constant during the maturation stage in all cultivars, but that in detached fruits increased several-fold during storage at 20°C.
    Download PDF (432K)
  • Naosuke Nii, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Mikio Nishimura
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 505-511
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of applying different amounts of nitrogen on the accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrate and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RuBisCO) and on some characteristics of peach leaves were determined on young trees. The leaf nitrogen contents of trees supplied 0 and 1.5g N/pot (N-0 and N-1.5, respectively) were lower than were those administered 9.0g/pot (N-9). On a dry weight (DW) basis, leaves sampled from N-0 trees and N-9 trees were 1.8% and 4.0%, respectively. The chlorophyll content per unit leaf area increased with increased nitrogen applied. The starch content on a dry weight basis was inversely proportional to the amount of nitrogen administered, whereas total soluble sugar per unit dry weight was proportional. The sorbitol and sucrose contents per unit leaf fresh weight were the lowest in leaves from N-0 trees. The RuBisCO content detected by immunoblotting after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as by immunostaining of sections under the light microscope increased with the increase in the amounts of nitrogen applied.
    Download PDF (3946K)
  • Hiroyuki Miura, Hiroko Yamazaki, Takaaki Nishijima
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 513-517
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Individual seeds of Malabar spinach or Malabar nightshade Basella alba L. were sown in plastic cells of flats with a commercial potting mixture ("Shinkenbyokun, type 140") with three different water contents. The moisture levels were adjusted by adding 16, 52, and 100g of water to 500g potting mixture. After sowing, the plastic flats were stored for different periods at 15 and 25°C and then watered, and transferred to growth chambers controlled at 30°C (day) and 20°C (night), and an 8-hr photoperiod to induce emergence.
    Seeds, in flats with 52g water and stored at 15°C for 10 days, began to emerge 2 days after transfer to the growth chambers and attained 63 to 70% emergence within 5 days. Seeds without the post-sown treatment (control) emerged 5 to 6 days after transfer; the number of seeds emerging gradually increased and reached 23 to 24% 20 days after transfer. A high percentage of seeds emerged in the post-sown treatment of 52g water at 25°C for 5 days. Results of the two treatments showed that the rate of emergence was faster and the length of the hypocotyl was less variable in the post-sown treatment of 52g water kept at 15°C for 10 days.
    Therefore, the optimal treatment of improving the emergence of Malabar spinach seeds is to sow them in a potting mixture with a moisture content equivalent to 52g water per 500g mixture (water content of 41 to 45%) and chill them at 15°C for 10 days.
    Download PDF (301K)
  • Akio Tazuke
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 519-526
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of adding NaCl to a nutrient solution of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Asomidori) plants at 10 leaves stage on the fruit growth were studied in solution culture. Nondestructive growth analyses of individual fruits until marketable size (20 cm long) were repeated for 3 to 4 weeks after the treatment.
    NaCl had marked effects on the relative growth rate (RGR) based on volume depending on NaCl concentration and the growing season. Thirty mM NaCl had little effect on fruit RGR, whereas 100 mM NaCl caused necrosis. In the spring experiments, 50 mM and 60 mM NaCl caused a decrease in RGR with high variablility among fruits. In the autumn experiments, 60 mM NaCl did not decrease RGR when fruit temperature was not controlled, but it did when fruits were kept at 20°C or 30°C. Sixty mM NaCl is suggested to be the threshold for normal fruit growth, at which other environmental factors seem to interact with the treatment.
    Download PDF (372K)
  • Toshinari Kanazawa, Hajime Araki, Takashi Harada, Toshiro Yakuwa
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 527-533
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two experiments were undertaken to test the effects of low temperatures on the breaking of rest in Allium victorialis L. ssp. platyphyllum Hult. bulbs and on their subsequent growth characteristics.
    Under natural conditions, bulbs of these wild species do not sprout in the late summer but in the following spring. However, sprouting was accelerated by transplanting the dormant bulbs from the field to the greenhouse kept at about 25°C (day) and 15°C (night) under natural day length. The sprouting rate was very low in bulbs transplanted before November; the leaves did not elongate normally as the bulbs lacked sufficient exposure to low temperature in the field. The plants became dwarfed. When bulbs were transplanted in December, the sprouting rate increased, the leaves expanded earlier, and the plants grew taller.
    Bulbs stored at 0°C for short periods grew better than did those stored at 5°C, but as the storage duration was lengthened, the bulbs in both treatments grew equally well. These results confirm that the rest of A. victorialis could be broken by chilling bulbs.
    Download PDF (3223K)
  • Tatsuo Sato
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 535-541
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rhizophore Protein Band Analysis using Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) was conducted on Dioscoreas collected in Japan and Korea. In D. opposita, there were two typical band in male cultivars such as 'Nagaimo' and 'Tokkuriimo' regardless of rhizophore shape. Many band patterns were recognized in female D. opposita cultivars, such as 'Ichoimo' and 'Tsukuneimo'; some of which more closely resembled those of D. japonicathan those of the male cultivars in D. opposita. These female cultivars in D. opposita segregated from the male cultivars with respect to susceptibility against Yam Mosaic Virus and the Chinese Yam Necrotic Mosaic Virus and the viscosity of the rhizophores. Band patterns of D. japonica and D. opposita cultivars with long narrow rhizophores differed. Within D. opposita, cordate leaves correlate with femaleness, whereas long, cordate leaves correlate with maleness even though their band patterns are similar, the rhizophore shapes also differ. Band patterns and rhizophore shapes of D. esculents, D. alata and D. cirrhosa differ from those of D. opposita and D. japonica.
    Download PDF (4278K)
  • Takao Kawai, Mitsuharu Hikawa, Toshihiro Fujisawa
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 543-548
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of GA3, uniconazole, and the their combination treatments on the incidence of internal root browning, polyphenol contents, and polyphenol oxidase activity in roots of Japanese radish were investigated.
    1. Foliar sprays of 50 to 150 ppm GA3 reduced the incidence of internal root browning; the most effective concentration was 100 ppm GA3. Foliar sprays of 10 and 20 ppm uniconazole increased the incidence of internal root browning. Polyphenol contents and polyphenol oxidase activity in roots were decreased by GA3 but increased by uniconazole.
    2. The combined treatment of GA3 applied to leaves and of super phosphate applied to the Ando soil decreased the incidence of internal root browning more effectively than did each as a single treatment. Polyphenol contents and polyphenol oxidase activity in roots were lower in a combined and single treatments than in untreated control.
    These results suggest that the internal root browning of Japanese radish can be controlled by exogenous GA3 and by super phosphate which lower the polyphenol contents and polyphenol oxidase activity in the roots.
    Download PDF (304K)
  • Shoji Tachibana, Yong Chen Du, Yu Hai Wang, Fumika Kitamura
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 549-555
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., cv. Sharp I) were grown in hydroponic culture at root-zone temperatures of 25, 35, and 38°C for 10 days. Cytokinins in the leaves and roots were quantified at day 5 and 10. Zeatin and its riboside were the main cytokinins in the leaves, while the roots contained a considerable amount of isopentenyladenosine besides the above two cytokinins. High root-zone temperatures caused a marked decrease in cytokinin concentrations. The change was gradual at 35°C but very rapid at 38°C, and fluctuated more in the roots than in the leaves. In plants grown at 38°C, cytokinin concentrations in the roots were very low already at day 5; at day 10 both the roots and leaves contained only negligible concentrations of cytokinins. Zeatin riboside was more sensitive to high root-zone temperatures than the other cytokinins in the leaves.
    Cucumber plants were grown at 38°C for 10 days and treated with 0, 10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) to leaves in combination with 0, 10-6, and 10-5 M abscisic acid (ABA) treatments to roots. Treatment of roots with 10-6 M ABA promoted slightly growth of BAP-untreated plants; but 10 5 M ABA was inhibitory, irresepective of BAP treatments. On the other hand, foliar sprays of BAP at 10-4 M caused a marked increase in the growth rate of ABA-untreated plants. Lower BAP concentrations had no significant effects. This growth-promoting effect of 10-4 M BAP sprays to leaves was not observed when the roots were supplied with ABA at either concentrations.
    The results strongly suggest that inhibition of cytokinin synthesis in the roots and the resultant decrease in endogenous cytokinin concentrations in the leaves are the bases for growth inhibition of cucumber plants at supraoptimal root-zone temperature.
    Download PDF (416K)
  • Masafumi Oozono, Nobuo Sugiyama
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 557-562
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Remobilization of carbohydrates previously accumulated in stem tissues was investigated by monitoring changes in carbohydrate types and quantities in leaves and stems during the growth of crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Gokuwasesisuko). Fructose, glucose, and sucrose were the main non-structural carbohydrates in leaves. Fructan did not accumulate in inner and outer leaves, but did so in wrapper leaves. Fructan and sucrose were the dominant non-structural carbohydrates in stems, with fructose and glucose occurring in low concentrations. Fructans with a degree of polymerization (DP) 3 decreased during the latter stage of head formation, with a concomitant increase in fructans with a high DP. DP3-10 fructans increased or stayed constant in the stem during the late stage of the head formation. These results suggested that fructans which are accumulated in stem tissues are not hydrolyzed and translocated into head leaves.
    Download PDF (360K)
  • Akio Tazuke
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 563-568
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of NaCl addition and reduced aeration to nutrient solution on the growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Asomidori No. 5) fruit were studied. NaCl was added to nutrient solution when plants had about 10 expanded leaves; the aeration treatment was started 2 days later.
    The relative growth rate (RGR) by fruit volume was not affected by aeration frequency at 0 mM NaCl. In the spring experiment, RGR at 60 mM NaCl decreased markedly when the solution was aerated infrequently (dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) being 1 to 2.5 mg liter-1), whereas RGR at 60 mM NaCl approximated that at 0 mM NaCl when the solution was aerated continuously (DO being 5 to 7.5 mg liter-1). The effect of NaCl at 60 mM in combination with reduced aeration on RGR in the autumn experiment was less marked than that in the spring experiment.
    DO was suggested to be one of the environmental factors involved in the seasonal dif- ference in the growth of cucumber as influenced by 60 mM NaCl (Tazuke, 1997).
    Download PDF (338K)
  • Mikihiko Terada, Akiko Tamura, Yoshihiro Kageyama, Kuniyoshi Konishi
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 569-574
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of growing season and irrigation regime on growth, water use (soil evaporation and transpiration), and yield of rose plants were investigated. Rooted cuttings of 'Carl Red' roses were grown in a greenhouse and watered at the four following soil moisture tensions, i. e. 3, 10, 32, and 50 kPa (pF 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 2.7, respectively) during summer, fall-winter, and winter-spring seasons.
    In all seasons the best plant growth was obtained with the 3 kPa treatment which simultaneously coincided with the largest amount of water use. In the other treatments, as the soil moisture tension was increased, the amount of water use decreased and growth was inhibited. There was no effect of irrigation regime on water use per unit plant growth.
    The amount of water use per ten days varied within and among seasons. We postulate that the variations among seasons were caused by irradiation and temperature changes; whereas, those within season were caused by the difference in plant size, especially the leaf area.
    As the soil moisture tension was increased, the days to flowering from pinching or harvest increased, and the number, quality and marketability of cut flowers decreased.
    Based on these results, we recommend that the optimal soil irrigation tension for greenhouse rose production is kept at 3 kPa throughout the growing season.
    Download PDF (388K)
  • Yukio Ijiro, Ryosuke Ogata
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 575-579
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    How different day/night temperature affect the growth and development of the vegetative and reproductive parts, including the bulbs of amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybridum) plants in growth chambers for two years was investigated. One-year-old, 2-leafed seedlings were transferred to growth chambers set at 17 °/12°C (low, L plot), 24°/17°C (middle, M plot) and 30/24°C (high, H plot) under natural daylength.
    1. High temperatures (H plot) hastened the unfolding and elongation of leaves, and increased markedly the growth of mother bulb and daughter bulbs, but the plants did not flower.
    2. In plants exposed to low temperature (L plot), the leaves were the slowest of the three plots to unfold and elongate; the mother bulbs were slow to enlarge but produced the most daughter bulbs. The temperature favored floral development.
    3. Middle temperature (M plot) educed intermediate vegetative growth and the enlargement of mother and daughter bulbs. This condition was optimum for flower stalk elongation and flowering.
    Thus, comparing the responses of amaryllis grown under low, middle, and high day/night temperatures, high temperature favored promotion of mother bulb enlargement, but the moderate and low temperatures were optimum for bulb and flower production.
    Download PDF (236K)
  • Satoshi Kubota, Tamotsu Hisamatsu, Kazuo Ichimura, Masaji Koshioka
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 581-585
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of light exposure versus dark with and without GA3 application during a 20°C treatment on development of axillary buds in Phalaenopsis were investigated.
    In the light-20°C treatment, the days to spiking from beginning of temperature treatment were 21.3 days. No buds on plants held at 20°C in the dark spiked after 36 days but when transferred from the dark to the light, they spiked 18.6 days later. The application of GA3 in dark did not substitute for light to induce bud emergence. Consequently, we conclude that spiking of Phalaenopsis requires exposure to 20°C and also light.
    The axillary buds had 4 to 5 bract leaves before the 20 °C treatment was imposed, but no lateral bud existed within the bracts. After 21 days at 20 °C, spiking have already begun, and bract leaves thickened and elongated. Differntiation of a lateral bud also occurred between the apical meristem and the inner bract leaf. These responses failed to occur in the dark with or without GA3 application. This suggests that development and elongation of axillary buds do not occur under dark condition, the initial reaction for spiking requires light; and GA3 may not participate in the process.
    The sugar contents of the spiked plants in the light-20°C treatment increased, but those of the non-spiked plants in the dark decreased significantly, compared with those at the begining of treatments. However, there was little difference in the number of days to spiking from onset of light exposure between the treatments. Therefore, it seems that the suppression of spiking in the dark can not be attributed solely to the reduction in sugar contents.
    Download PDF (4404K)
  • Hideo Imanishi, Naoe Ueno, Katsuhiko Inamoto
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 587-595
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Just after harvest in mid-June or 2 weeks after storage at room temperature, bulbs (11 cm in circumference) of 'Gander' were exposed to 34 °C for 1 week or 1 day with or without ethylene treatment at 10 or 50 μl?liter-1 air for 8 hours. After the exposure, bulbs were stored at 20 °C for 0-6 weeks and then precooled for 3 weeks at 15 °C and then for 8 weeks at 5 °C. Precooled bulbs were planted in a box and grown at 20-15 °C (day-night).
    When bulbs were pretreated with the high temperature and ethylene at the vegetative stage just after harvest, their floral development was advanced and the resulting plants showed higher flowering percentage and earlier flowering.
    Length or weight of cut flowers and perianth length increased with extended storage period at 20 °C. We attribute that to the bulbs being precooled at a more advanced stage of flower bud development.
    Cut flowers with good quality were obtained when bulbs were precooled from the outer perianth to gynoecium formation stage. But the stage differed with the duration of the high temperature exposure before the 20 °C storage and whether or not the bulbs were given the ethylene treatment.
    Quality of cut flowers were determined more by the developmental stage of flower buds when bulbs were moved to 5 °C after receiving 15 °C for 3 weeks, rather than by the floral stage at the start of the 15 °C treatment.
    Download PDF (506K)
  • Nobuyuki Matsui, Kazuo Yoneda
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 597-605
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Hybrid seedlings of Miltonia 'Spring Cynthia'×X Milt. vexillaria (Miltoniopsis Nichols.)and 'Sein Ida Seigel' × 'Mein Ida Seigel' were grown at Dando-san, Aichi, at about 700 melevation (highland culture) and at Fujisawa, Kanagawa, near sea level (lowland culture)during the summer to investigate the effect of growing temperature. Some bulbs were ex-posed to 15 °C under a 16-hr photoperiod and a light intensity of 20 μmol•m-2•sec-1 for 40 days, whereas others were kept at room temperature under natural photoperiod andlight intensity prior to planting.
    1. Although there were seedling varaiations within the crosses, bulbs grown under high-land culture in August bloomed 10 or more day earlier, produced more scapes, and moreflowers per scape than did bulbs grown under lowland culture.
    2. The growth and flowering of Miltonia cultivars were accelerated by artificially chillingthe plants for 40 days in the growth chambers prior to planting.
    Thus, by growing different seedling selections at the lowland and highland sites, withand without artical chiling, the maketing period of Miltonia could be prolonged in Japan.
    Download PDF (1635K)
  • Hitoshi Watanabe, Toshio Ando, Shin-ichi Iida, Ken-ichi Buto, Tatsuya ...
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 607-612
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two species of Petunia sensu Jussieu having 2 n =18 chromosomes, P. pubescens and P. pygmaea, were crossed with 46 native taxa of Petunia. Petunia pubescens and P. pygmaea failed to set any capsules when crossed with taxa having 2 n =14 chromosomes, including a garden petunia cultivar, 'Pearl Sky Blue'. Petunia pubescens hybridized with all native taxa having 2 n = 18 chromosomes, except P. parviflora and P. pygmaea. Petunia pygmaea hybridizes only with P. parviflora. In relation to the interspecific cross-compatibility;therefore, species of Petunia sensu Jussieu could be separated into at least three groups:1) taxa with 2 n =14 chromosomes, 2) two taxa with 2 n =18 chromosomes (P. parviflora and P. pygmaea), and 3) the remaining taxa with 2 n =18 chromosomes.
    Download PDF (282K)
  • Bo Ning, Yasutaka Kubo, Akitsugu Inaba, Reinosuke Nakamura
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 613-620
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Respiration and ethylene production rates of Chinese pear 'Yali' fruit (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. var. sinensis Kikuchi) stored in CO2-enriched and/or O2-reduced atmospheres. In addition, several types of polyethylene film packaging were also applied to the long-term storage of 'Yali' fruit.
    1. Oxygen uptake and ethylene production in 'Yali' fruit at 20 °C decreased with increasing CO2 concentration up to 40%. Ethylene production under 60% CO2 was markedly inhibited, whereas O2 uptake was promoted; a physiological disorder in the flesh developed.
    2. Under the same storage condition, oxygen uptake and ethylene production consistently decreased with decreasing O2 concentration. However, when O2 was decreased to less than 5%, CO2 output exceeded O2 uptake, suggesting that anaerobic respiration was occurring.
    3. Respiration was inhibited in fruit kept at 10 or 20 °C under 5% CO2 + 3% O2 during the first 4 days of storage and then increased suddenly thereafter accompanied by the development of a physiological disorder.
    4. The storage life of the fruit packed in a film with soda lime at 10 °C, in which O2 became to about 8%, was prolonged by about a month, as compared to that of those packed in a perforated bag. The gas concentration higher than 5% CO2 and/or lower than 5% O2 within a plastic bag caused an accumulation of ethanol and the development of disorder in flesh, thus shortening storage life of fruit.
    Our results suggest that 'Yali' fruit is sensitive to both CO2-enriched and O22-reduced atmospheres, and that 2% CO2 and 8% O2 are about optimal for its long-term storage.
    Download PDF (511K)
  • Kazuhiro Dan, Masayasu Nagata, Ichiji Yamashita
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 621-627
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Factors for the formation of methanethiol using a disrupted broccoli tissue solution were investigated. A trace amount of methanethiol was detected in the headspace of a capped test tube containing the disrupted fresh tissue solution after incubation at 20 °C for 1 hr. When L-cysteine or reduced glutathione was added to the sample solution, a considerable amount of methanethiol was formed. In a molecular weight of below 10, 000 fraction of the fresh sample solution, a significant amount of methanethiol was formed by adding L-cysteine. However, in a disrupted tissue solution prepared from a heat-treated tissue, no detectable methanethiol was formed by adding L-cysteine.
    We propose that methanethiol is a degradation product of methyl methanethiosulfinate (MMTSO) which is present in the disrupted fresh tissue solution. The concentration of the MMTSO is pH-dependent, being higher in basic than in acidic solutions. No MMTSO was detected in the disrupted tissue solution prepared from a heat-treated tissue. When L-cysteine was mixed with the fresh sample solution, MMTSO disappeared.
    It was confirmed that MMTSO was formed by an enzymatic reaction in the disrupted fresh broccoli solution which reacts nonenzymatically with L-cysteine or reduced glutathione to produce methanethiol.
    Download PDF (409K)
  • Takuji Ito, Katsuaki Sasaki, Yasuji Yoshida
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 629-635
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seasonal metabolic and chemical changes in the developing mango (Mangifera indica L. 'Irwin') fruit cultured in a plastic house at the Yuasa Experimental Farm (34° north latitude, 135° east longitude), Kinki University, at Yuasa-cho in Wakayama Prefecture were investigated. The fruits which had developed from June 14 (young-fruit stage) to August 21 (mature green stage) and the ones which were picked at mature green stage on August 2, 8 and 21 and stored at 25 °C were used. The changes in respiration rate, soluble sugars and starch, and organic acid content were determined.
    The fruit enlarged rapidly before the endocarp started to harden on July 4, but it slowed after the hardening process stopped on July 19.
    The respiration rate of fruit during development declined rapidly until July 19, but remained steady thereafter. The postharvest respiration reached maximum value on the 1st or 2nd day after the onset of the climacteric rise. The beginning of coloring and flesh softening coincided with the time when the respiration rate reached the climacteric peak. The emission of aroma began at a few days later after coloring.
    At harvest on August 21, fructose and sucrose contents were 3.4 g • 100 g-1 FW and 1.9 g • 100 g-1 FW, respectively, whereas, glucose content was 0.2 g • 100 g-1 FW. Fructose was the predominant sugar during development. Starch content increased rapidly from 2.1 g • 100 g-1 FW to 11.7 g 100 g-1 FW between July 19 (completion of endocarp-hardening) and August 21. After ripening, starch became almost undetectable, whereas sucrose increased significantly; fructose increased slightly. As a result, the major sugar was sucrose with the majority of the reducing sugar being fructose. Thus, if the mature green stage fruit has high starch content, it tends to have a high sugar content at the full ripe stage one.
    Of the organic acids, citric and malic acids were detectable, the former being more abundant than the latter. Citric acid content increased to a maximum of 1.4 g • 100 g-1 FW at the beginning of the endocarp-hardening period then decreased steadily to 0.6 g • 100 g-1 FW on August 21. It decreased further in full ripe fruit.
    Based on our data, we believe that the time when the skin begins to turn red and/or yellow on the tree, is the optimum harvest stage for the 'Irwin' mango fruit cultured in a plastic house.
    Download PDF (412K)
  • Yohoko Shono, Tomomi Tsuda, Yoshinori Ueda
    1997 Volume 66 Issue 3-4 Pages 637-640
    Published: 1997
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Green pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds were quartered and vacuum-infiltrated in the presence of 14C (U) -sucrose for 2.5 min. After decanting the radioactive solution, the seedpieces were incubated aseptically for 2 days at room temperature. Subsequent changes incarbohydrate content in relation to the accumulation of oligosaccharides were studied.
    The radiolabel from labelled sucrose was incorporated mainly into starch but also intothe oligosaccharides: raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose. Our data indicate that sucrosein maturing pea seeds can serve as a substrate for oligosaccharides biosynthesis.
    Download PDF (214K)
feedback
Top