Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 68 , Issue 1
Showing 1-31 articles out of 31 articles from the selected issue
  • Shuji Shiozaki, Yoichi Kamata, Tsuneo Ogata, Shosaku Horiuchi, Kenji K ...
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 1-9
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the grape berry, which accumulates abscisic acid (ABA) markedly during ripening, the localization of this hormone was investigated by instrumental analysis and immunohistochemistry using an indirect immunoperoxidase method. In the instrumental analysis the levels of ABA in the outer wall, inner wall and placenta from unripe berries were nearly the same, ranging between 50 to 80 ng/gfw. After veraison, ABA levels in these tissues increased and reached a peak at 11 weeks after full bloom. The lowest level of ABA was in the inner wall ; it was intermediate in the outer wall, and highest in the placenta. Mouse antiserum raised against free (+) cis, trans abscisic acid was used in the first immunostaining step. Although positive immunoreactivity was detected on the sections, there were no visible differences in the immunoreactivity of the outer wall, inner wall and placenta. Phloem in both the peripheral and the central vascular bundles revealed high immunoreactivity in the ripe, but not in the unripe grape berries. In the ripe grape berry, the immunoreactivity of xylem in the peripheral and central vascular bundles was considerably lower than that of the phloem. This result suggests that the transport of abscisic acid from the leaves via the phloem contributes to its increase in the grape berry during ripening.
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  • Shinjiro Shiomi, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Reinosuke Nakamura, Akitsugu Inaba
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 10-17
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruits vary in ethylene production rates, depending on the cultivar, which can affect the storability of the fruits. To understand these differences at both the biochemical and molecular levels, two popular cultivars, 'Andes' and 'Earl's Favourite' were used ; these cultivars produce relatively high and low amounts of ethylene, respectively. Ethylene biosynthetic activity in the peel, mesocarp and placenta of 'Earl's Favourite' fruits harvested at different stages of maturity remained low even at the commercial harvest maturity (CHM), and ethylene production in the intact fruit was also low. In 'Andes', 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS) activity and ACC content in the mesocarp and placenta and ethylene production in intact fruit increased drastically at CHM. Northern blot analysis using mRNA extracted from the respective tissues of fruits at different stages of maturity indicated that CMe-ACS1 mRNA accumulated in the mesocarp and placenta of 'Andes' at CHM, whereas in 'Earl's Favourite' there was no accumulation in any of the tissues at all maturities. In ACC oxidase (ACO) genes, mRNA for ACO1 accumulated in the mesocarp and placenta of both cultivars at CHM, and that for ACO2 was almost constitutively expressed. Ethylene, exogenously applied to fruits at the preclimacteric stage, slightly induced CMe-ACS1 mRNA accumulation in 'Andes' but not in 'Earl's Favourite' fruits, whereas wounding induced CMe-ACS1 transcripts accumulation in both cultivars. The accumulation of ACO1 mRNA in the two cultivars was greatly stimulated by ethylene and wounding treatments. When 'Andes' fruit at climacteric stage were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action, transcripts for CMe-ACS1, ACO1 and ACO2 were barely detectable. These results suggest that the difference in the ethylene-forming capability between the two cultivars may result from the expression of CMe-ACS1 mRNA during natural fruit ripening and in response to exogenous ethylene.
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  • Masayoshi Shigyo, Mitsuyasu Iino, Hiroko Ino, Yosuke Tashiro
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 18-22
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    In a series of alien monosomic addition lines (AMALs, FF+nA, 2n=17) of Allium fistulosum L. with extra chromosomes from A. cepa L. Aggregatum group, the transmission rates of the extra chromosomes were assessed to examine the possibility of maintaining these lines by seed propagation. Chromosome numbers of the seedlings obtained from reciprocal crossings between the AMALs and A. fistulosum (2n=16 ; genomes, FF) were 16 and 17. The percentage of plants with 17 chromosomes in the seedlings obtained from the crossings FF (♀)×FF+nA (♂) and FF+nA (♀)×FF (♂) were used to indicate the male and female transmission rates, respectively. The male transmission rates varied from 0 to 7.6% (mean 2.6%) among eight kinds of extra chromosomes, whereas the female transmission rates ranged from 6.1 to 40.4% (mean 19.8%). These results revealed the following : 1) Both the male and female transmission rates are generally low. 2) These rates show considerable variations among the extra chromosomes. 3) The female transmission rate is obviously higher than the male transmission rate in all AMALs. Furthermore, both transmission rates of the extra chromosome 8A were relatively high and those of 5A were low. Chromosome numbers of the pollen grains produced by the AMALs were eight and nine. The percentages of pollen grains with nine chromosomes varied from 18.1 to 49.4% (mean 34.9%) among the eight types of AMALs and were undoubtedly higher than the male transmission rates in all the AMALs. These phenomena seem to relate to a certation between pollen grains with different chromosome numbers or a chromosome elimination after fertilization. The present results demonstrate that crossings, with the AMALs as seed parents, are useful to maintain the series of AMALs by seed propagation.
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  • Kazuo Ichimura, Toshihiko Hiraya
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 23-27
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cut sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus L., cv. Diana) flowers were treated with 1) 100 g·liter-1 sucrose for 16 hr, 2) 0.2 mM silver thiosulfate complex (STS) for 2 hr, 3) 0.2 mM STS for 2 hr followed by 100 g·liter-1 sucrose for 16 hr, and 4) water (control), and the effects of the treatments on vase life were evaluated. Compared to the control, all treatments promoted floret size, advanced opening, and extended longevity. Treatment with STS followed by sucrose was the most effective in promoting floret opening as well as extending longevity. Anthocyanin concentrations were increased by treatments with sucrose alone or STS followed by sucrose. Ethylene production was inhibited by all treatments, particularly in the presence of sucrose. These results show that STS followed by sucrose is more effective than STS alone in improving the vase life of cut sweet pea flowers.
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  • Yoshiji Niimi, Masaru Nakano, Namiko Isogai
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 28-34
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Excised scales of lily bulbs were kept at 15°C and 25°C, and under continuous light or dark to study the regeneration and development of bulblets. The seven species were examined : Lilium rubellum Baker, L. speciosum Thunb. 'Uchida', L. nobilissimum Makino, L. formosanum Wallace, L. longiflorum Thunb. 'Hinomoto', L. maculatum Thunb., and the Asiatic hybrid L. X 'Benisugata'. 1. Generally, more bulblets were regenerated at 25°C than at 15°C in all Lilium spp : bulblets of L. rubellum and L. X 'Benisugata' were formed equally well at 15°C and 25°C. Regardless of temperatures, more bulblets of L. formosanum, L. longiflorum 'Hinomoto', and L. X 'Benisugata' regenerated in the light more than they did in the dark. 2. Regenerated bulblets grew better under light at 25°C than at 15°C and the light stimulated the formation of scaly leaves from bulblets of all species and cultivars, except in L. nobilissimum. In L. nobilissimum, bulblets failed to form scaly leaves under any cultural conditions. Growth of bulblets of L. formosanum, L. longiflorum 'Hinomoto', and L. maculatum was promoted in darkness, whereas the bulblets of L. rubellum and L. nobilissimum grew best under light at 25°C. 3. Bulblets regenerated at 15°C tended to rot during cold treatments compared with those regenerated at 25°C, and the latter bulblets sprouted more frequently than the former ones after transplantation in a greenhouse.
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  • Kouei Fujii, Michio Kawano, Shunji Kako
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 35-40
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Explants of outer tissue (OT) excised from protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Cymbidium produced PLBs on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium without any hormone, or those containing benzyladenine (BA) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The combination of 0.5 or 5.0 μM NAA and 2.5 or 5.0 μM BA yielded PLBs by 77.5% OT explants in Cym. Thanksgiving 'Nativity'. In Cym. Lucky Rainbow 'Lapine Dancer' a treatment with 2.5 μM BA yielded PLBs from 73.7% OT explants and faster on a medium with BA or BA+NAA than on a hormone-free medium. An addition of NAA alone inhibited PLB formation significantly. Thus, PLB formed from OT faster on MS media supplemented with BA or a combination of BA and NAA than on a hormone-free medium. In media supplemented with NAA or BA, there was a high negative correlation between PLB size and yield from an outer tissue (r=-0.893, r=-0.843). BA promoted formation of small sized PLBs, whereas NAA suppressed PLB formation. However, once the PLBs were formed, NAA tended to increase their sizes.
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  • Kouei Fujii, Michio Kawano, Shunji Kako
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 41-48
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Differentiation of a protocorm-like body (PLB) in vitro from the outer tissue (OT) of Cymbidium PLBs was studied. Cell division frequency was high in the first to third layers of OT explants. The frequency of anticlinal cell division was dominant in outer cell layers, whereas both periclinal and anticlinal cell divisions occurred in the inner cell layers. Cell division frequency in a group of dividing cells was activated in the center of a protuberance (PLB initials). These results trace the process of globular PLB formation. There were differences between NAA and BA effects on the cells of OT cultured tissue. Cell division activity was high in the BA treatment whereas dividing cells were not observed in most cultures of NAA treatment. The cell size was larger in NAA-treated explants ; it was smaller in BA-treated ones. These results show that BA stimulated cells division whereas NAA affected cell maturation. The nuclear DNA contents were stable and constant on both hormone-free and BA supplemented media. In NAA-treated explants the DNA contents changed gradually with time toward the levels of 8c and 16c. NAA did not inhibit DNA synthesis but inhibit mitosis. NAA may affect the cell cycle between the S and M phases. The data on the cell division activity and the cell size indicate that plant growth regulators also may affect the length of the G1 phase and induce somaclonal variations during plant culture distorting the cell cycle.
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  • Kou Koku, Noriaki Aoki, Makoto Dohi, Tateshi Fujiura, Kouichi Takeyama
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 49-54
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An automatic recognizing and evaluating method of double flowered stock seedlings was investigated as a basic research project to develop an automatic transplanting system. Three basic characteristics (area, complexity degree and saturation of the cotyledon) of the seedling image were measured by a color image processing system to fix the membership function of fuzzy sets. We have made the algorithm of the discrimination between double and single flowering forms in the seedling stage of stock based on the fuzzy evaluation theory. The accuracy of discrimination was 90.8%, and the availability of the seedling was 39.4% in stock plant 'Sourei'.
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  • Takejiro Takamura, Ikuo Miyajima
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 55-60
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Varietal and individual differences in cross-compatibility in the 2x×4x crosses of cyclamen, particularly those of diploid pistillate parents, were investigated. A factor of tetraploid formation and efficient methods to obtain progenies in the crosses are discussed. Different cross-compatibilities, depending upon the pistillate parents, were observed in the 2x×4x crosses, whereas pollen parents scarcely affected fruiting and seed production. There were individual and varietal differences, and all progenies in the crosses showed tetraploidy. All the diploid pistillate parents producing tetraploid progenies through crossing had giant pollen grains. These results suggest the possibility that fertilization between a reduced male gamete from a tetraploid plant and an unreduced female gamete from a diploid plant results in tetraploid progenies. The individual and varietal differences of cross-compatibility among parents also suggest that the selection of diploid pistillate parents decides the formation of seeds. Thus, the selection of diploid pistillate cultivars and individuals, which can produce the tetraploid progenies, should be effective in the inter-ploidy cross breeding of cyclamen.
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  • Kazuo Ichimura, Tamotsu Hisamatsu
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 61-66
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Effects of continuous treatment with sucrose on floret opening, vase life, carbohydrate concentrations, and ethylene production in cut snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L. cv. Yellow Butterfly) flowers were investigated. Continuous treatment with sucrose at 25, 50, 75, or 100 g·liter-1 in combination with 200 mg·liter-1 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate markedly promoted floret opening and extended the vase life of flower spikes. The most effective sucrose concentration was 50 g·liter-1 so that this concentration was used for the following experiments. This treatment suppressed the decrease in fresh weight of florets. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and mannitol were detected in petals. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose concentrations of petals in control spikes decreased one day after the harvest and remained at low levels but the sucrose treatment suppressed the decrease in these sugars. Regardless of the sucrose treatment, mannitol concentration gradually decreased. The onset of climacteric ethylene production was delayed by the sucrose treatment which suggests that the effects of sucrose for promoting bud opening and inhibiting flower senescence is attributed to an increase in sugar concentrations and the inhibition of ethylene synthesis.
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  • Takehiko Shimada, Toshiya Yamamoto, Hideaki Yaegaki, Masami Yamaguchi, ...
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 67-69
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    AFLP analysis, using FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate) and biotin detection systems, was applied to molecular genetics to obtain the information on reproducibility, efficiency and frequency of polymorphisms, using the peach as the experimental subject. An almost identical band pattern was obtained from different methods of DNA extraction and between replications. FITC detection with DNA sequencer made AFLP analysis more accurate and efficient and biotin detection simplified the cloning of the target bands. AFLP analysis produced 2.5 polymorphic bands per primer between 'Akame' and Juseitou', which were almost 20 times more than those obtained by RAPD analysis. Thirty eight AFLPs were obtained out of 334 amplified fragments among 8 cultivars by 8 primer combinations, which could discriminate even closely related cultivars. In conclusion, we confirmed that AFLP analysis could provide useful genetic markers to execute the cultivar identification, the parentage, and mapping work in peach.
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  • Seibi Oka, Osamu Muraoka, Takayuki Abe, Satoshi Nakajima
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 70-72
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Primary leaves of garland chrysanthemum seedlings were cultured on MS medium supplemented with either 0.1 mg·liter-1 BA+0.1 mg·liter-1 NAA or 0.1 mg·liter-1 BA+1 mg·liter-1 NAA. Adventitious buds were mainly formed in the presence of 0.1 mg·liter-1 BA+0.1 mg·liter-1 NAA at the cut end of the explants 6-9 days after culture, whereas embryoids were mainly formed in the presence of 0.1 mg·liter-1 BA+1 mg·liter-1 NAA at the cut ends or in various areas of the explants 9-12 days after culture. The embryoids had cotyledon-and hypocotyl-like tissues, but lacked definite root structures. Histological observations revealed that these adventitious buds and embryoids were formed directly from meristematic tissues derived from epidermal and subepidermal tissues and did not originate from callus.
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  • Sadao Komori, Junichi Soejima, Kazunori Kudo, Hiromitsu Komatsu, Hidet ...
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 73-82
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The self-incompatibility (S) genotypes of 'Hatsuaki'(H), 'Redgold', 'Kinsei', the progenies from H×'Jonathan'(J), J×H, H×'Golden Delicious'(GD), GD×H, 'H×'Fuji'(F), F×H, H×'Starking Delicious'(SD), SD×H, 'Iwakami'(Iw)×GD, GD×Iw and 'Ralls Janet'×J were analyzed to classify the genotypes of cultivars and strains corresponding to (SJa, SJc), (SJa, SJe), (SJa, SJf), (SJb, SJc), (SJb, SJd), (SJb, SJe), (SJb, SJf), and (SJd, SJe) genotypes. With our results the genotypes of 36 cultivars and strains (underlined ones) were newly recognized and categorized into the following 15 S-genotypes : (SJa, SJb)='Golden Delicious' (SJa, SJc)=((4)-424)___-, ((4)-425)___- (SJa, SJd)='Toukou' (SJa, SJe)=('Redgold')___-, ('Kinsei')___-, (Karo Fumei)___-, (Rero 18)___- (SJa, SJf)=((4)-4186)___-, ((4)-4195)___- (SJb, SJc)=('Hatsuaki')___-, (Morioka 52)___-, ((4)-511)___- (SJb, SJd)=((4)-300)___-, ((4)-330)___-, ((4)-725)___-, ((4)-4189)___-, ((4)-4190)___- (SJb, SJe)=((4)-150)___-, ((4)-743)___- (SJb, SJf)=(Morioka 53)___-, ((4)-1)___-, ((4)-6)___-, ((4)-15)___-, ((4)-516)___-, ((4)-4187)___-, ((4)-4270)___-, ((4)-4271)___- (SJc, SJd)='Jonathan', 'Himekami' (SJc, SJe)='Delicious', ((4)-161)___-, ((4)-247)___-, ((4)-267)___- (SJc, SJf)='Fuji', ('Shinkou')___-, (I-661)___-, ((4)-69)___-, ((4)-104)___- (SJd, SJe)=(Touhoku 5)___-, (I-172)___- (SJd, SJf)='Senshu', 'Iwakami', (I-687)___- (SJe, SJf)='Ralls Janet'
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  • Satoshi Taira, Naoko Matsumoto, Miki Ono
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 83-88
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The solubility of persimmon tannins during six treatments for removing astringency was compared using HCL in methanol at different concentrations and temperatures. We also examined the relationships between the solubilities and the concentration of acetaldehyde in the flesh. The six treatments were : a) acetaldehyde vapor, b) carbon dioxide gas, c) ethanol vapor on intact fruit, d) ethanol vapor on postharvest fruit, e) peeled fruit for sun drying, and f) freezing and thawing. Treatments of fruits with acetaldehyde vapor, postharvest treatment with ethanol vapor, and freezing and thawing gave tannins with low, intermediate, and high solubility, respectively. The solubility of tannins decreased with time after the removal of astringency ; the residual tannins was highest in fruits with high acetaldehyde concentrations.
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  • Jun Song Liu, Shousaku Horiuchi, Tsuneo Ogata, Shuji Shiozaki, Ryosuke ...
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 89-94
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The relationship between the induction of embryo dormancy and berry maturation in 'Campbell Early' grape was investigated. In berries from untreated vines, the germinability of embryos excised one week before veraison was highest ; thereafter, it gradually declined until entering deep dormancy 2 weeks after veraison. Both stem ringing and treating a cluster with 10 ppm 2, 4-D 3 weeks before veraison had little influence on germinability of embryo. However, stem ringing hastened the onset of veraison by 5 days, whereas the 2, 4-D treatment delayed it by 40 days. Embryos excised from berries which had been stored at 10°C for 7 or 3 weeks from 10 days before veraison, germinated well, but those excised from berries which had been stored at 20°C did not. However, the 10°C and 20°C treatments had little influence on the total soluble solids contents of berries. The germinability of embryos excised from seeds, which had been stored at 10°C for 3 weeks starting 10 days before veraison, was significantly higher than that of embryos excised from seeds stored at 20°C. In all experiments browning and hardening of seed coat and ripening of the endosperm were observed in those seeds in which embryo dormancy had been induced. These results indicate that induction of embryo dormancy in grape seed is not related to berry maturation but with seed maturation.
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  • Kunihisa Morinaga, Hiroshi Yakushiji, Akiyoshi Miyata, Sukeyuki Ono, S ...
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 95-100
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The distribution characteristics of 13C-labeled photosynthate and sink strength of each organ in damaged satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) trees, caused by briny wind of Typhoon No.19, November 1991, were studied during the recovering stage using naturally and artificially damaged trees. The damaged trees were separated into 3 groups, according to the degree of defoliation after the storm, that is, severe (70-80% of defoliation rate), modest (30-50%) and light damage (10-20%). The more severe, briny wind-damage the trees experienced, the more defoliation and root decay occurred. The most severely damaged trees had the highest shoot/root ratio, 2.0 the following season. Nine months after the natural damage (July, 1992), about 60% of 13C-labeled photosynthate was partitioned into fine and small roots in the most severely damaged and fruit-thinned trees. It is supposed that the photosynthate was mostly consumed to accelerate rooting and for elongation of fine and small roots. Half a month after incurring artificial damage by fruit-thinned trees in October, spring flush leaves, 2- and 3-year-old twigs, roots, and old leaves accumulated most of the photosynthates, whereas in fruit-bearing trees, regardless of defoliation rate, the crop amassed 40-50% of the dry matter and absorbed much of the 13C administered. These results indicate that the fruit which has a very high sink strength diverted photosynthates necessary for growth and respiration of fine roots. Thus, fruit-bearing is an important factor in the recovery of damaged trees.
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  • Tatsuya Kubo, Shin Hiratsuka
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 101-107
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The rind roughness of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsu Wase) fruit from low and high crop load trees was investigated histologically ; the former bears rough rind, whereas the latter has smooth rind. Rind roughness seemed to be associated mainly with oil gland development. At the mature stage, the rough fruit contained various sizes of primary and secondary oil glands, whereas smooth fruit contained relatively uniform sizes. The vigorous development of oil glands from Aug. to Dec. was a main cause of rind roughness at harvest. In particular, convex protrusions formed just above the oil glands, which were frequently detected on mature fruit surface, appeared to be the result of marked development of secondary oil glands. Convex protrusions, independent of oil glands, were also frequently observed in immature fruit. Rind tissue consists the flavedo, a single layer of pigmented epidermal cells, several layers of hypodermal cells, and the albedo, a relatively thick, white parenchymatous tissue below the hypodermis. In a rough fruit, the hypodermal and parenchyma cells were smaller and the alignment of the hypodermal cells was more irregular than the smooth fruit. Cell division of hypodermal tissue ceased about Aug. 10 in smooth fruit, but it continued until Sept. 10 in a rough rind. Thus, rind roughness of satsuma mandarin fruit seems to be induced by vigorous and/or abnormal development of both oil glands and hypodermal tissues.
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  • Keita Sugiyama, Tsuguo Kanno, Masami Morishita, Yoshihiro Iwanaga
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 108-116
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was carried out to analyze the inheritance of watermelon rind hardness and the relationship between rind tissue structure and rind hardness for breeding crack resistant cultivars. For inheritance analysis, a crack-prone cultivar, 'Beni Kodama', was hybridized with a crack resistant cultivar, 'Africa 22857' which was introduced from western Africa ; their hybrid progenies were compared. 1. Hard rind cultivars and lines had thicker chlorenchyma cell layers and sclerenchyma cell layers, consisting of smaller, rounder compact cells in greater density than did the soft rind ones. We suppose that the rind tissue structure is correlated with the resistance to cracking following mechanical shocks. 2. Cell wall thickness is a relatively minor factor in rind hardness. 3. The rind hardness test of F1, F2 and BC1 progenies indicated that 'Africa 22857' has partially dominant genes for this characteristic. 4. Most characteristics associated with rind tissue structure are heritable because those in the F2 generation and back cross progenies are similar to that of 'Africa 22857'.
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  • Tadashi Fujioka, Masayoshi Fujita, Yoshiki Miyamoto
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 117-123
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To establish a method of accelerating generation turn-over in In vitro cultured pea (Pisum sativum L.), the effects of cultural conditions on the flowering and pod setting were investigated. 1. The percentage set of flower and pod (seed set) in early maturing, short internodal cultivars, such as 'Misasa', were 100%, whereas those of late maturing, long internodal cultivars, such as 'Kishu-usui', were lower. 2. The flowering and pod setting percentages were highest, when a φ 30×200mm test tube and cotton stopper were used, in both 'Misasa' and 'Kishu-usui'. 3. At 25°C, 'Misasa' flowered and set pods faster than it did at 20°C. Under 10, 000lx, the flowering and pod setting percentages were higher and the days to flowering were shorter than they were at 3, 000lx, in both cultivars. Under a 24-hr photoperiod, the flower and pod set in 'Kishu-usui' were higher and the days to flowering were fewer than those under a 16-hr photoperiod. 4. More pod set in 'Kishu-usui' in a hormone-free MS medium containing 3% sucrose or if the medium was supplemented with 0.5mg·liter-1 of NAA. 5. The addition of 10mg·liter-1 uniconazole to the medium reduced plant height, internode length and the number of nodes, but advanced flowering and increased pod set. Ancymidol, likewise, caused dwarfing of seedlings but did not increase flower or pod set.
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  • Yasunori Yoshida, Koki Kanahama
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 124-129
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The effects of photoperiod, air temperature, and root zone temperature (RZT) on the development of spikes and new tubers in Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb. cv. Ichoimo) were investigated. The development of the main shoot and spikes was promoted by both 16-hr and 24-hr photoperiods, 24/19°C and 30/25°C (day/night), and an RZT of 25°C. Shoot and spikes development was severely inhibited by an 8-hr photoperiod, 17/12°C, and an RZT of 10°C. These data indicate that the development of main shoot and spikes is promoted by the long-day photoperiods, 24/19°C and 30/25°C, and the 25°C RZT. Under these environmental conditions, spikes emerged relatively early. Development of new tubers was significantly promoted by an 8-hr photoperiod, 24/19°C, and the 25°C RZT. Moderate development occured at 30/25°C, and the 17°C RZT. In contrast, new tubers were severely inhibited by both 16-hr and 24-hr photoperiods, and 10°C RZT.
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  • Isao Ogiwara, Makoto Shiraishi, Naotoshi Hakoda, Isao Shimura
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 130-137
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The causes on the occurrence of fruits with low sugar levels in forcing culture were examined by analyzing for soluble sugars in 'Nyoho', 'Reiko' and 'Toyonoka' strawberry cultivars at various maturation stages. Specifically, this study was done on mature fruit over a four month period from January to April, 1994. 1. In the 'Nyoho' and the 'Reiko' fruits, the total sugar content (sucrose, glucose and fructose) in February was high, whereas in April it was low and fruits with low levels of sugar were not observed. The April fruit with ripened in a short period after flowering, had a small amount of sucrose. In the 'Toyonoka' fruits, the total sugar content during the four month harvest period fluctuated with high values as compared to the 'Reiko' and the 'Nyoho'. Fruits with low levels of sugar were not observed in 'Toyonoka'. The number of the harvested fruits from January to April in 'Nyoho' was more than that in Reiko' and Toyonoka'. 2. In the 'Nyoho' and the 'Reiko' fruits, sucrose rapidly accumulated with the advancement of maturation. Of the harvested fruits in April, those of 'Reiko' had low concentration of sucrose ; they became uniformly red before the total sugar began to accumulate. The 'Toyonoka' fruit contained the highest amount of total sugars at the full-ripe stage as compared to 'Nyoho' and 'Reiko'. 3. When first inflorescence of the 'Nyoho' plants were pruned on 16 December, the total sugar content increased while the yield of fruits with low sugar concentration decreased concomitantly compared with that of non-pruned plants. 4. When 'Reiko' plants were grown under 20°/13°C (day/night), there was no difference in the total sugar content of the fruits, between fully ripe (surface-colour is uniformly red) and the over-ripe (5 days beyond full-ripe stage). When 'Reiko' plants were grown under 25°/18°C, the sugar contents of fruits which were uniformly red was lower than the over ripe ones. 5. 'Nyoho' and 'Reiko' fruits harvested under forced culture in April had low levels of sugar. In the former, the lower sugar concentration was attributed to the lack of photosynthates because of a maximum yields, whereas with the latter, the fruit did not accumulate sugars although the surface of the fruit became uniformly red. This occurred because the red fruits were not physiologically mature.
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  • Naotaka Matsuzoe, Masaatsu Yamaguchi, Syuji Kawanobu, Yuka Watanabe, H ...
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 138-145
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruit of six Japanese cultivars and eight cultivars/lines from Bangladesh were covered with a dark, cloth, 3-5 or 10-20 days after anthesis, depending on the cultivar and kept covered until harvest. The purpose of the experiment was to study the effect of darkening on the production of anthocyanins in the skin. The composition of the anthocyanin was determined for the 14 cultivars. The fruit color of all Japanese cultivars and 'Shinghnath' is purplish black, whereas those of 'KL purple' and 'Bork' is dark reddish purple ; that of 'Uttara' is moderately reddish purple. The fruits of 'SL 28', 'SL 32', and 'SL 50' have a yellowish green stripe on green and partly red purple, whereas that of 'SL 65' is yellowish green and partly red purple. The major anthocyanin in fruit skin of all the cultivars/ lines, except 'Wase-Beikokuoomaru', was identified as delphinidin 3-p-coumarylrhamnosylglucoside-5-glucoside(Nasunin) ; the ratio of this anthocyanin to the total ranged from 69.1 to 87.7% in these cultivars/line. The major anthocyanin of 'Wase-Beikokuoomaru', delphinidin 3-glucosylrhamnoside, made up 79.5% of the total. The fruit color of 'Wase-Beikokuoomaru' changed into dark purplish red in the dark, however, the anthocyanin component was the same as that of control treatment. The fruit color of 'Senryou-2-gou', 'Syoyaoonaga', 'Borka' changed into yellowish white and partly moderate reddish purple, and that of 'SL 50' changed into yellowish white and partly pale yellowish pink in the dark but the percentage of major anthocyanin in fruit skin of these four cultivars/line remained unchanged. In the other seven cultivars/lines ; 'Kurumenaga', 'Toochi', 'Miyukisennari', 'KL purple', 'SL 28', 'SL 32', and 'SL 65', the epidermal cells failed to produce anthocyanin in the dark.
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  • Naoya Fukuda, Makoto Miyagi, Yoji Suzuki, Hideo Ikeda, Kenji Takayanag ...
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 146-151
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The effects of supplemental night lighting and nitrate exclusion in the nutrient solution on the growth, nitrate concentration, and nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in the leaf of spinach plants grown under NFT and natural light in the greenhouse were studied. When the plants became of marketable size, they were grown in a nutrient solution without nitrate and exposed to artificial lighting of different light intensities and qualities from 23 : 00 to 6 : 00 1. Two days after treatments, top fresh weight was not affected by nitrate exclusion, whereas 7 days after treatments, plant growth was markedly reduced by nitrate exclusion. However, supplemental night lighting after nitrate exclusion on the subsequent growth of spinach were ineffective. 2. After nitrate exclusion, sap nitrate concentrations of leaf blades and petioles under supplemental night lighting decreased more rapidly than that without the treatment. The decrease of sap nitrate concentrations was unaffected with light quality. However, light intensities affected markedly, and the sap nitrate concentrations of leaf blade at two days after treatment were 1, 059, 799, 612 and 531 ppm under 0 (without lighting), 50, 150 and 250 m mol m-2s-1 (PPFD), respectively. 3. NRA of the plants with supplemental night lighting was higher than that without lighting.
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  • Shi Rong Guo, Kazuyoshi Nada, Hitoshi Katoh, Shoji Tachibana
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 152-159
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Plant growth in nutrient solution with a low dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) of 1 ppm is greatly inhibited in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), but almost normal in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)(Guo·Tachibana, 1997). To elucidate the mechanisms for the high tolerance of cucumber to root-zone hypoxia, the metabolisms of ethanol, lactate and malate, and the cell sap pH in intact and excised roots under hypoxia were compared between tomato 'Hausu-Momotaro' and cucumber 'Sharp I'. In intact roots of tomato, concentrations of ethanol and lactate as well as the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were markedly increased on exposure to 1 ppm DO for 3 and 6 days compared to 4 ppm DO. Similar results were obtained with excised tomato roots incubated at 0, 1, and 4 ppm DOs for 24 and 48 hr. Concentrations of malate decreased at low DOs in both intact and excised tomato roots. Contrarily, in cucumber the increase in ethanol concentrations and ADH activity at low DOs was slight in intact roots and did not occur in excised roots. Lactate concentrations and LDH activity did not increase in both types of hypoxic roots, except that excised roots incubated at 0 ppm DO exhibited a slight increase in lactate concentrations but to a much lesser extent than tomato roots. On the other hand, malate concentrations were greatly increased in both intact and excised roots at 1 ppm DO ; excised roots, incubated at 0 ppm DO, showed no increase in malate concentrations. The cell sap pH of intact tomato roots grown 3 days at 1 ppm DO fell from 5.70 to 5.51 and that at 0 ppm DO to 5.22. However, in intact cucumber roots it did not change significantly at 1 ppm DO and arose markedly from 5.98 to 6.33 after 3 days at 0 ppm DO. The results strongly suggest that the metabolic properties of roots to stimulate synthesis of malate in response to low O2 in the root tissue and consequently prevent cytoplasmic acidosis because of lactate accumulation are responsible for the high tolerance of cucumber to root-zone hypoxia.
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  • Motoaki Doi, Zhongying Cheng, Kaori Saito, Emi Sumitomo, Katsuhiko Ina ...
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 160-167
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Effects of temperature treatments and soil-cooling methods were evaluated to improve the cut flower yield and quality of autumn flowering Alstroemeria. 1. 'Regina' and 'Carmen' (syn. 'Cana') plants, kept at a minimum of 10°C in winter, continually produced flowering shoots if they were planted by 21 May and 20 June, respectively, provided the chilled soil temperature at night was maintained at 14°C. These critical dates correspond with the time when it became nearly impossible to keep 'Regina' and 'Carmen', respectively, below 15°C and 17°C, which are the critical and threshold temperatures for flowering. Cut flower yield and quality obtained by this method were poor. 2. Potted 'Regina' plants which were previously exposed to chilling at 2°C for 10 weeks and then transplanted in a chilled soil bed on 10 June produced flowering shoots in autumn. The plants raised at a minimum of 20°C prior to the chilling treatment produced more vegetative shoots after transplanting as compared to the plants raised at a minimum of 10°C. The former produced a greater number of flowering shoots and high-quality cut flowers in early autumn. 3. 'Carmen' plants grown in a chilled soil bed, kept below 17°C for only 6 hr at night produced more vegetative shoots and high-quality cut flowers in autumn as compared to the plants grown in a bed cooled continuously. 4. Keeping the soil at 20°C for 8∿20 weeks prior to cooling to 17°C on 12 June produced an abundance of vegetative shoots in summer and autumn and improved the cut flower yield and quality of autumn-flowering two-year-old 'Carmen' plants.
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  • Masakazu Kasumi, Yasumasa Takatsu, Hidehiko Tomotsune, Fumio Sakuma
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 168-175
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Somatic embryogenesis from the stem tips of cormels resulted in flower color variations among regenerated plants from three Gladiolus cultivars. The highest frequency (51.1%) of somatic embryos was induced in MS medium supplemented with 5mg·liter-1 NAA. Varietal differences in the somatic embryogenesis occurred ; 'Topaz' and 'Traveler' formed more somatic embryos than did 'Hector'. Flower color variants originated among regenerated plants grown in the field. No chimeric change occured in the floret and in the flower, i.e. all florets of a given plant displayed one color. The frequency of flower color variation differed among the cultivars. The variations were induced in 'Traveler' and 'Hector', but not in 'Topaz'. The flower color of variants changed into pale to deep color from that of original cultivar. Variants were generally smaller in stature with a little shorter spike ; they had fewer, small florets compared with the original cultivar, 'Traveler'. The flower color of few variants reverted to the original cultivar when the plants were propagated vegetatively. These findings reveal that some variations in flower color induced through somatic embryogenesis are useful in developing new Gladiolus cultivars.
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  • Yoshiji Niimi, Tadashi Gondaira, Yoshitaka Kutsuwada, Hiro Tsuji
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 176-183
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    1. The viruses, LSV, TBV-L, and CMV were made in the scale-segments of Lilium X 'Enchantment' by both a dot immunobinding assay (DIBA) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of DIBA to detect viruses is about 10 to 100 times lower than that of ELISA, but it is an easy, reliable method to detect these viruses in routine surveys. 2. Absorbance values of LSV in leaves which were collected from the lower, middle, and upper parts of stem, perianths, and bracts were determined at 405 nm by ELISA. The most reliable value was obtained from the basal parts of leaves, located on the upper part of the stem. Based on this result, the absorbance of leaves collected at various times during the growth period was determined. The LSV level in the leaves increased gradually toward anthesis. Whereas the leaves excised from the upper part of the stem had a higher concentration of LSV than had those of the lower part in L. X 'Enchantment' and L. X 'Star Gazer', the reverse trend was found in L. formosanum. 3. Individual plants (550) of 18 Lilium spp. growing in the field were examined for three viruses by DIBA. Leaves of test plants were collected from the upper part of stems at anthesis and their basal parts were analyzed for three viruses. One or more viruses were detected in 73% of the 550 plants investigated. The frequency of LSV, TBV-L, and CMV occurring alone in the population was 52, 2, and 1%, respectively ; the remaining 18% was infected with two or three viruses. More than 80% of the plants in 10 Lilium spp. were infected with one or more viruses. 4. Lilium spp. infected with LSV were nearly symptomless. Plants of L. rubellum with the leaves which develop green stripe mosaic were infected with LSV and TBV-L. Stem elongation of plants of 'Casablanca', 'Hinomoto', 'Enchantment', and 'Star Gazer' multiple-infected with LSV and TBV-L or CMV was retarded compared with stem elongation of the same cultivars infected with LSV alone.
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  • Masanori Ohkawa, Jyunya Kitajima, Kei Nishino, Noriko Ohkawa
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 184-188
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Bulblets isolated from small globule-scale of Fritillaria camtschatcensis Ker-Gawl. were cultured on MS medium containing plant hormones under light of 1, 500 lx at 25°C for 8 weeks. NAA, kinetin and 24-epibrassinolide (EB) were tested for their effects on growth, leaf emergence, and rooting of bulblets. With individual plant hormones, EB at 0.01ppm enhanced bulblet growth and rooting, whereas 0.1ppm kinetin was optimum for advancing leaf emergence. With respect to combinations of plant hormones, that consisting of 1.0ppm NAA and 0.1ppm kinetin was optimum for bulblet growth and leaf emergence, whereas 1.0ppm NAA, 0.1ppm kinetin and 0.01ppm EB promoted rooting of bulblets.
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  • Takashi Ikeda, Kunihiko Okada, Hiroko Yamazaki, Ryu Oi, Shigeo Imada
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 189-191
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were subjected to altered red/far-red photon flux ratio to investigate how it affected their growth and water status. Stem elongation of seedlings was hastened when exposed to the 0.73 of red/far-red photon flux ratio but it was inhibited when the ratio was 1.88. The growth-induced water potential between the regions of elongation and maturation of the seedlings grown under the ratio of 0.73 was 0.09 MPa. However, the growth-induced water potential was 0.03 MPa when seedlings were grown under ratio 1.88.
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  • Manabu Nishiyama, Wataru Ohkawa, Koki Kanahama
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 192-194
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the development of inflorescences were investigated with one-year-old everbearing strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) 'Summerberry' plants. When plants were grown at 20/15°C and 25/20°C, more inflorescences developed under a 24-hr than under an 8-hr photoperiod. At 30/25°C, the development of inflorescences ceased under an 8-hr photo-period but the development of axillary inflorescences without a foliage leaf was promoted under a 24-hr photoperiod. The results indicate that 'Summerberry' plants are quantitative long-day plants at 20/15 and 25/20°C and qualitative long-day plants at 30/25°C.
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  • Masakazu Kasumi, Yasumasa Takatsu, Hidehiko Tomotsune, Fumio Sakuma, S ...
    1999 Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages 195-197
    Published: January 15, 1999
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    A mutated sectorial chimeric flower color variant was obtained by gamma-ray irradiation on cormels in Gladiolus cv. Traveler. The variant had two flower stalks in which the florets of one had pink perianths, whereas the florets of the other had pale pink perianths. Ovary culture was applied to the chimeric plant to isolate plants with a fixed flower color. Regenerated plants from ovaries of pink florets produced pink flowers ; 35 plants (67.3%) out of 52 regenerated plants from pale pink florets produced pale pink flowers, whereas 17 plants (32.7%) reverted to the original pink color. None of the pink or the pale pink plants regenerated had sectorial chimeras. No change in flower color occurred among 63 vegetatively propagated plants obtained from pale pink plants. In conclusion, shoot regeneration from callus tissue of ovaries was effective in isolating plants of fixed flower color from sectorial chimera of Gladiolus cv. Traveler.
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