Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 69 , Issue 6
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Shinya Kanzaki, Keizo Yonemori, Akihiko Sato, Masahiko Yamada, Akira S ...
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 665-670
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The genetic relationships among 19 pollination-constant and non-astringent (PCNA) cultivars and 14 non-PCNA cultivars of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.), including one Chinese PCNA cultivar 'Luo Tian Tian Shi', were analyzed by comparing 138 AFLP markers. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on the similarity indices of these AFLP markers indicated a close relationship among Japanese PCNA cultivars, but a more distant relationship with the Chinese PCNA cultivar 'Luo Tian Tian Shi'. The close relationship between PCNA cultivars native to Gifu prefecture was distinct, indicating that these cultivars developed from crosses among restricted sources in this region. The cultivars 'Gosho', 'Hana-gosho', 'Oo-gosho', and 'Yamato-gosho' showed a close relationship with some non-PCNA cultivars.
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  • Koji Tanase, Shohei Yamaki
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 671-676
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relationship between sucrose metabolizing enzymes, especially sucrose synthase (SS) isozymes and sucrose accumulation was investigated throughout fruit development of the Japanese pear. The sucrose content in the fruit which was very low at the young stage, drastically increased with maturation, as did the sucrose phosphate synthase activity. The activities of soluble and cell wall-bound acid invertases, which were high in the young fruit, decreased rapidly during fruit maturation. SS activity was, likewise, high in young fruit but decreased with fruit enlargement ; however, it rose again concomitant with sucrose accumulation during maturation. The fluctuation in SS activity was caused by two SS isozymes (SSI and SSII) ; SSI activity was high in young fruit and decreased with fruit development, while SSII activity, which was very low in young fruit, increased with fruit development. These results indicate that these two isozymes differ in their functions. SSII catalyzes sucrose synthesis which contributes to sucrose accumulation during fruit maturation, whereas SSI facilitates sucrose cleavage together with acid invertases and supplies substrates for growth in young fruits.
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  • Yuelin Zhu, Tadashi Ito
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 677-683
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of nutrient stress by the split root system on the growth and major cation (K, Ca and Mg) contents were investigated at three stages of hydroponically grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. House Momotaro) in spring and autumn. Nutrient stress was applied to tomato plant seedlings by halving their roots ; one part was cultured in 1/2 strength Enshi standard nutrient solution (ESNS), whereas the other was immersed in tap water. Seedlings with intact roots, cultured in 1/2 strength ESNS, were used as non-stressed control. No significant difference was observed in major growth parameters between the stressed and non-stressed plants at three stages. Nutrient stress significantly increased the percentage of dry weight of the split roots cultured in 1/2 strength ESNS at three stages, and that of the shoot 10 days after treatment. The dry weight of the split roots, immersed in tap water, was significantly reduced at three stages. Nutrient stress significantly reduced K contents in leaves and roots at three stages, and also in stems except 20 days after the treatment. Nutrient stress significantly increased Ca content of the split roots, cultured in 1/2 strength ESNS, 10 and 20 days after treatment. A significantly high Mg content was found in the split roots, immersed in tap water, at three stages. Under nutrient stress, leaf and stem Mg contents were increased at three stages. Nutrient stress significantly decreased the EC value of the nutrient solution, and significantly increased the total amount of water absorbed.
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  • Keita Sugiyama, Masami Morishita
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 684-689
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We compared the differences in number of seeds, size of normal and empty seeds, and fruit quality of seedless fruit induced by soft-X-irradiated pollen to determine which cultivars are best suited for breeding and producing high quality seedless watermelon. Two wild types, eleven Japanese, one Chinese, and three American watermelon cultivars were studied. We also observed the effect of soft-X-rays on pollen germination and elongation of the pollen tube. The germination rates of pollen treated with 1000 to 2000 Gy of soft-X-ray were almost the same as those of the control, whereas the rate was significantly reduced at 3000 Gy. Soft-X-irradiated pollen germinated on a stigma, and the pollen tube elongated in the embryo sac. Watermelon fruit pollinated with pollen irradiated with 800 Gy of soft-X-ray had no normal seeds but only empty ones. To delineate the varietal differences by the number of empty seeds and seed size in seedless fruit, wild types, Japanese, Chinese, and American watermelon cultivars were investigated. The number and size of empty seeds varied among cultivars. A low correlation (r=0.272) existed between the total number of seeds in the control fruit and the number of empty seeds in the seedless fruit. Whereas, a high correlation (seed length : r=0.943, P<0.001, seed width : r=0.883, P<0.001) was found between the size of normal seeds in control fruit and empty seeds in seedless fruit. Diploid seedless fruit was similar to control fruit in size, shape, color, rind thickness, sugar content, and days from pollination to maturity.
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  • Yoshihiro Imahori, Yasuhiko Kanetsune, Yoshinori Ueda, Kazuo Chachin
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 690-695
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The chlorophyll content during the maturation of the sweet pepper fruit decreased steadily from the Green to the Yellow/Green stage ; subsequently, there was a significant decrease to the Yellow stage. Conversely, carotenoid content increased steadily. Hydrogen peroxide increased 2.5 fold between the Green and the Green/Yellow stage ; it then declined slowly from the Yellow/Green to the Yellow stages. Yet the final level was higher than that in the Green stage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased from the Green to Yellow/Green stage, as did the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. The trends in SOD and APX activities during the maturation of the sweet pepper fruit paralleled that of hydrogen peroxide. Glutathione reductase activity also increased from the Green to the Green/Yellow stage. However, catalase activity remained nearly constant during the maturation. These results indicate that the activity of antioxidative enzymes could be enhanced because of the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide during the maturation of the sweet pepper fruit.
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  • Xue Jun Liu, Ryohei Nakano, Yasutaka Kubo, Akitsugu Inaba
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 696-701
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The determination of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase activity is essential in understanding its role in the ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. Because of the high level of soluble tannins, to date, there has been no report on successful determination of banana ACC synthase activity. In this study, we examined the method of Badran and Jones (1965) for the extraction of ACC synthase from banana fruit. The extraction procedure consists of homogenizing the pulp in polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-added buffer, and then washing the homogenate with acetone. This PEG-acetone method gave a high ACC synthase activity. The common extraction method using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) yielded a much lower or no ACC synthase activity. The changes in ACC synthase activity determined by the PEG-acetone method correlated with changes in ethylene production during ripening. The optimum pH, Km value for substrate S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and half-life in the presence of SAM for banana ACC synthase were 9.0, 88μM, and 18 min respectively. These values were within the range previously reported for ACC synthase in various plant tissues. From these results, we recommend the following extraction method to determine banana ACC synthase activity : freeze the flesh tissue in liquid nitrogen, store it at -80°C until use, homogenize the frozen sample in a Waring blender with PEG-added extraction buffer, and later precipitate the enzyme mixture with acetone.
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  • Shinya Kanzaki, Keizo Yonemori, Akihiko Sato, Masahiko Yamada, Akira S ...
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 702-704
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The cultivation of the PCNA (pollination-constant and non-astringent)-type persimmon is advantageous because of its natural loss of astringency on the tree. We previously found RFLP markers linked to the dominant alleles controlling the PCNA/non-PCNA trait and showed that the PCNA genotype could be distinguished from non-PCNA genotype by these markers in the breeding populations. In this study, RFLP markers were investigated with 33 persimmon cultivars. All PCNA cultivars except for Chinese 'Luo Tian Tian Shi', had identical banding pattern, whereas the non-PCNA cultivars exhibited many polymorphic bands. Thus, we could distinguish PCNA cultivars of Japanese origin from non-PCNA cultivars by the RFLP analysis, although 'Luo Tian Tian Shi' was mistakenly classified as a non-PCNA type. These results suggest that this marker system could be applied to distinguish PCNA cultivars of Japanese origin from non-PCNA ones.
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  • Toshihito Tabuchi, Shinji Ito, Noriko Arai
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 705-707
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Structural changes in abscission zones on tomato pedicels were anatomically and histochemically investigated. One week after the onset of the fully ripe stage of fruit development, cells of the xylem parenchymatous region in the primary abscission zone which formed at the flower bud stage elongated longitudinally more than those of the adjacent cells. Ten days later, the elongated cells formed in the primary abscission zone, but their walls hydrolyzed in two weeks, leaving large intercellular cavities. Fruit abscission then occurred. Simultaneously, cells became lignified in the secondary cell division zone, on the proximal side of the abscission zone. No further development occurred until the fruit abscised. These results indicate that the primary abscission zone acts as the separation layer, whereas the lignified secondary cells act as the protective layer.
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  • Yasuyoshi Hayata, Yukiko Imaizumi
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 708-710
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of photoperiod on flower bud development in four ornamental sunflowers in Japan was investigated in an effort to shorten the growing period and to improve commercial cultivation techniques. The number of days from sowing to flower bud development for all cultivars was shortened in the short-day treatment ; the same treatment shortened the period between flower bud differentiation to anthesis (FDF) for 'Big Smile' and 'Sunrich Orange', whereas, a long-day treatment hastened FDF for 'Taiyo'. A combination of short/long-day, or day-neutral treatments advanced FDF in 'Valentine'. There were no significant differences in plant height among the cultivars after the onset of flower bud differentiation. The long-day treatment yielded taller plants compared to the other treatments. There was no difference in the flower diameter between the photoperiodic treatments for all cultivars except 'Big Smile'. These results indicate that some cultivars require different day-lengths, depending on their growth stage, i.e., from sowing to flower bud initiation and from flower bud differentiation and development to anthesis. Hence, we recommend that the proper photoperiodic treatment for each growth stage be established for each cultiver.
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  • Takashi Yano, Shiho Shinkai, Hisao Inoue, Kazushi Moriguchi
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 711-717
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    'Kawanakajima Hakuto' peach trees often show a greater incidence of tree decline than do 'Akatsuki' trees when grafted onto Prunus tomentosa rootstock. To seek the cause of the decline, seasonal changes in carbohydrate status of root, shoots, and leaves of the two cultivars grafted on P. tomentosa and P. persica were analyzed. There were no significant differences in the starch and soluble sugar contents between 'Akatsuki' and 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' grafted on either rootstock during the dormant period but at the pre-bloom period, the root starch content in both cultivars grafted on P. tomentosa was only half that of trees grafted on P. persica. The starch content in roots and shoots of 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' on P. tomentosa continued to be lower than that on P. persica during the growing period, whereas it differed little on 'Akatsuki' on two rootstock. Similar trends were found in total sugar and sorbitol contents of the roots. No conspicuous difference between the cultivars was found in other parameters, such as sugar contents of shoots and leaves, in relation to tree decline. Therefore, the cause of decline for 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' trees grafted on P. tomentosa is attributed partly to the depletion of starch and sorbitol in the roots and starch in the shoots during the growing season.
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  • Tatsuya Kubo, Shin Hiratsuka
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 718-723
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Satsuma mandarin fruit (Citrus unshiu Marc.), treated with gibberellic acid (GA3) and benzyladenine (BA) in late June, resulted in a significantly rough rind at harvest, whereas the mid-July treatment did not. Hence, earlier and higher concentrations of GA3 had a greater effect on causing rough rind and subsequent fruit growth than the late, low concentrations. Application of GA3 in early July to a part of the fruit caused a rough rind only where the growth regulator was applied. Dwarf rice assay of the rind of upward fruit in late June, which bears the rough surface, revealed that the GA content was significantly higher than the rind of sideward fruit which is smooth. However, no significant difference in GA contents existed in the rind between upward and sideward fruit in mid-July and early August.
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  • Masahiko Fumuro
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 724-731
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Five-year-old 'Kousui' Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) trees (n=27), which were growing in restricted root beds (160 liters/tree) under a transparent film, were thinning to various leaf/fruit (LN/FN, N=numbers) ratios ; the subsequent accumulation of dry matter (DM) and the assimilate partitioning ratio (APR) into different parts of trees were investigated. 1. As F/L (on dry wt. basis) ratio increased, fruit yield increased but the average fruit size decreased. 2. DW of the each woody portion of the tree which includes current shoot (CS), old branch (OB), scion wood (SW ; CS+OB), thick root (TR) and rootstock (R ; TR+fine root) but excluding F and L, decreased as the F/L ratio increased. DW of CS, OB, SW, scion (S ; SW+F+L), TR, R and total tree (TT ; S+R) increased as the parameters which contribute to L, such as current shoot number (CSN), total current shoot length (TCSL), leaf number (LN), leaf area (LA), and leaf area index (LAI) proportionately increased. 3. Annual DM gains into OB, SW, TR and R decreased as F/L ratio increased ; a significant correlation existed between F/L ratio and the annual DM gains per unit LA and per unit L DW indicating that photosynthetic activity increased as F/L ratio increased. Annual DM gains per unit LA and unit L DW was, respectively, 0.542kg/m2·year and 6.332 kg/kg·year in the tree with F/L ratio, 1.85 ; LN/FN ratio was 35. Annual DM gains into OB, SW, S, TR, R and TT increased as CSN, TCSL, CS DW, LN, LA, LAI and L DW increased. 4. There were negative correlations between the APR into F and those into CS, OB, TR, and R. A highly negative correlation existed between the APR into S and that into R.
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  • Masakazu Kasumi, Kazutoshi Yashiro, Mikio Hayashi
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 732-735
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Stigmas of East Indian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) is receptive to pollen only one or two days during anthesis. Pollen were stored to examine the effective crossing period for seed formation. The seed formation rate was markedly decreased when the pollen was kept at 29±3 °C for 7 days. No significant difference was observed in the seed formation percentage between fresh pollen and those stored at -20±1 °C for 14 days with silica gel as a desiccant. Similar results were obtained in several crossing combinations. Seed formation was possible with pollen stored for about one year under these conditions but the success rate greatly diminished. Our results indicate that East Indian lotus pollen can be stored dry at -20±1 °C for long durations so that the pollination period can be prolonged.
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  • Kazuyoshi Sone, Tatsuya Mochizuki, Yuji Noguchi
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 736-743
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    In 1995-1996, the eating quality based on sugar and organic acid content of 43 strawberry cultivars grown in the forcing and open cultures, were evaluated and the relationships among these characters and eating qualities and their stabilities were investigated. 1. The cultivars with excellent eating quality had significantly higher total sugar content, total sugar/organic acid ratio, sucrose/organic acid ratio, and lower total organic acid content than those with poor eating quality. 2. The cultivars which retained their eating quality throughout the harvest season had significantly lower coefficient of variation (c.v.) of total sugar content, sucrose/total sugar ratio, glucose/total sugar ratio and citric acid/organic acid ratio compared to the cultivars with variable eating quality. There was no significant difference in the sugar and organic acid contents between cultivars with stable and unstable eating quality. 3. Eating quality was highly correlated with sucrose/organic acid ratio, and c.v. of citric acid/organic acid ratio, whereas its stalility was highly correlated with c.v. of glucose/total sugar ratio, c.v. of total sugar content, and c.v. of citric acid/organic acid ratio. Therefore, it is possible to select the cultivars with excellent and stable eating quality by detarmining the high stable, total sugar/organic acid ratio, especially high sucrose/total sugar ratio.
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  • Yukio Higuchi, Akiyosi Kitajima, Isao Ogiwara, Naotosi Hakoda, Isao Sh ...
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 744-748
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Primula obconica Hance secrets primin which causes allergic-dermatitis, and seedling test of primin is important for breeding primin-free cultivars. To be able to select primin-free Primula obconica at their seedling stage, plants grown under different temperature were observed. 1. Primin secretion began in the cotyledonary stage in 'Crystal Apricot' seedlings. 2. When 'Crystal Apricot' seedlings were grown under either low (20/13 °C) or high (30/23 °C) (day/night) temperature, all seedlings secreted primin at the 1st leaf expanding stage under 20/13 °C. Furthermore, the primin secreting percentege of the leaves at lower nodes were consistently high under 20/13 °C. However, the onset of primin secretion was delayed at 30/23 °C, and it ceased earlier at 30/23 °C than it did at 20/13 °C. The percentage of primin-secreting leaves directly below the expanding apical leaf was higher than those of leaves at lower nodes independent of the ambient temperature. 3. The percentage of primin-secreting leaves directly below the expanding apical one in four 'Crystal' cultivars revealed difference among cultivars as to when the secretion began. Primin secreting percentage of all cultivars reached 100% in cotyledon as the first leaf was expanding at 20/13 °C, whereas it was the 4th leaf as the 5th-leaf was expanding at 30/23 °C. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that primin-free plants can be selected at the cotyledon as the first leaf was expanding by growing them at 20/13 °C or at the 4th leaf as the 5th-leaf was expanding at 30/23 °C.
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  • Tanjuro Goto, Yoshihiro Kageyama, Kuniyoshi Konishi
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 749-757
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of cell (root zone) volume during rooting and transplanting age in two cut flower species. Cuttings of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L. 'Nora' and Gypsophila paniculata L. 'Bristol Fairy', were grown in trays, comprised of 406 and 128 cells pre-filled with 6 and 20 ml potting medium/cell, respectively. 'Nora' cuttings were transplanted when 20 to 50 days old at 10-days intervals, whereas 'Bristol Fairy' cuttings were transplanted when 22 to 52 days old. 'Nora' was less affected of cell volume in respect of rootball formation, i.e., 30-day old transplants with 6 and 20 ml volume capacities, the rootballs occupied 13.5 and 6.3% of the cell, respectively ; whereas in 40-day old transplants, the rootballs occupied 93.8% of the cell. Contrarily, 'Bristol Fairy' was profoundly affected that 52-day old transplants with 6 ml and 12 ml volume capacities occupied 100 and 85% of the cell, respectively. Older plants with rootballs were easier to transplant than the younger ones. However, the older ones grew slower after transplanting than the younger ones. Younger transplants had more succulent roots per plant than the older ones. The number of days from pinching to cut flower harvest in 'Nora' increased with delayed transplanting. The older transplants had longer stems, heavier flowers, and more nodes per plant than younger ones. Flower quality varied less among plants raised from the different cell volumes. Older transplants of 'Bristol Fairy' not only had longer harvesting periods, but they also had weaker shoot growth following pinching which resulted in low flower production. Younger transplants had fewer nodes per stem. Cuttings grown from 6 ml cell volume capacities required fewer days from pinching to flower harvest than those grown in 20 ml ones. Our study indicates that transplanting 'Nora' cuttings is optimal if done before rootballs are formed for production in trays. Transplants with full rootballs are sufficiently suitable in commercial production for 'Nora', whereas transplanting of 'Bristol Fairy' cuttings should be done before rootball formation occurs on account of their slow growth rate.
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  • Hiromi Hanada, Masashi Hirai
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 758-763
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fifteen cultivars of sweet pea (Larthyrus odoratus L.) and one of everlasting pea (Lathyrus latifolium L.) were analysed using 12-mer Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers (RAPD). UPGMA clustering analysis indicated that individuals of Lathyrus odoratus L. from various collections belonged to the same cluster at 0.925 level of similarity coefficient. Lathyrus latifolium L. is supposedly an ancestor of Lathyrus odoratus but the similarity coefficient between the two is 0.352, indicating a very distant relationship. These results indicate that the sweet pea cultivars are closely related with a few polymorphic DNA patterns. However, to create new cultivars of sweet pea by crossing, one should use linkage markers for heritable characters.
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  • Masakazu Tokumoto, Yuichi Tamashiro, Kazuhiko Tarora, Naoya Urasaki, T ...
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 764-766
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Morphologies of eight papaya (Carica papaya L) plants regenerated from unpollinated ovules and their fruits were investigated. After growing 6 months in the field, three plants were short, compared with the parental line. Two of these short plants had small trunks and tiny fruits, whereas the third short trees had a large trunk with the first flowers at the lowest position (48cm from the ground level), which developed into the largest and sweetest fruits. One of the dwarfish trees retained its low flowering habits, but the characteristics of the large and sweet fruit were the same as those of the parental line. The morphologies of the five other plants were almost the same as those of the parental line.
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  • Kazushi Ohishi, Yoshihide Okumura, Koichi Morioka
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 767-769
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To propagate and maintain the pathogen, Puccinia horiana P. H. as the inoculum of white rust, sterile chrysanthemum plants cultured in vitro were infected. 1. Chrysanthemum plants, growing in vitro, were infected with spores of Puccinia horiana without cross contamination by fixing the sporulated leaf from an infected plant grown in a greenhouse above leaves of sterile receptor plants. 2. Puccinia horiana was subcultured by placing leaves with telia to the backside of the cap of glass culture box containing sterile chrysanthemum plants. 3. Puccinia horiana incubated on the plants can be preserved at low temperature for 4 months. 4. The pathogenicity of Puccinia horiana, subcultured on the plants grown in vitro onto plants in a greenhouse, was maintained for at least 14 months after the primary incubation.
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  • Yasuhiko Koike, Tomoaki Inoue, Shigetoshi Suzuki, Haruzo Higuchi
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 6 Pages 770-772
    Published: November 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of photoperiod on the flowering of Lathyrus latifolius L. was studied by using 'Pink Pearl', 'Red Pearl' and 'White pearl'. Plants were exposed to an 8-hr photoperiod under natural daylight. The photoperiod was extended with 60W incandescent lamps to give an 8- to 24-hrs day. Under photoperiods at and above 14-hr, flower buds were initiated ; the days from bud formation to flowering were shortened in plants grown under a 16-hr photoperiod or if the night was interrupted for 2 hr beginning at midnight. Earlier sowing resulted in earlier flowering, if the plants were subjected to a 16-hr photoperiod.
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