Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 70 , Issue 2
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Naohiro Kubota, Hiroko Yakushiji, Noriko Nishiyama, Hiromi Mimura, Kaz ...
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 151-156
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Phenolic contents in ripe fruit of six peach cultivars (Prunus persica Batsch) grafted on P. persica ('Juseito' or 'Nagano-yaseito'), P. tomentosa (Nanking cherry) or P. japonica (Japanese bush cherry) rootstocks were evaluated. In all cultivars, fruit from trees grafted on Nanking cherry contained more total phenolic compounds than did those on 'Juseito' or 'Nagano-yaseito'. However, there were wide variations in total phenolic contents among the cultivars ; being low in 'Saotome', 'Yahata-hakuho', and 'Chikuma' but high in 'Sanyo-suimitsu', 'Setouchi-hakuto', and 'Golden Peach'. 'Sanyo-suimitsu'/Japanese bush cherry combination had the highest total phenolic content, compared with the same cultivar grafted on Nanking cherry or 'Juseito'. The level of higher molecular fraction of phenolic compounds was positively correlated with the total phenolic concentration. In addition, phenolic contents, L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and L-phenylalanine content in fruit of 'Sanyo-suimitsu' trees, grafted on 'Juseito' and Nanking cherry, were investigated during fruit growth. Although the seasonal trends of total and higher molecular phenolic contents in 'Sanyo-suimitsu' grafted on 'Juseito' and Nanking cherry were similar, they were higher in Nanking cherry throughout fruit development, especially during Stage 2. PAL activity was high during Stage 1 and the first half of Stage 2, followed by a decrease to undetectable levels by harvest. During the early growth stages, higher PAL activity and lower L-phenylalanine content were found in fruit from trees on Nanking cherry than 'Juseito'.
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  • Kenji Beppu, Toshiyuki Suehara, Ikuo Kataoka
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 157-162
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Effects of temperature and endogenous and exogenous gibberellins (GA) on embryo sac development and fruit set of 'Satohnishiki' sweet cherry were studied. Trees were grown in sunlit growth chambers kept at 15°C and 25°C from one month before anthesis to petal fall. At 25°C, the nucelli and embryo sacs degenerated more rapidly than at 15°C. When flowers were handpollinated with pollens of 'Takasago', fruit set was significantly lower at 25°C than at 15°C. Flowers which developed at 25°C had a higher endogenous gibberellin level than had those at 15°C. When bursting buds were sprayed with 10 and 100 ppm GA3, the percentage of ovules with degenerated embryo sac or nucellus increased considerably by 2 days after anthesis. But an application of paclobutrazol (PBZ) to bursting buds prolonged embryo sac longevity and increased fruit set. These results indicate that the endogenous GA may : 1) regulate the development of the nucellus and embryo sac in sweet cherry flowers, and 2) induce early embryo sac degeneration, which results in the low fruit set during periods of high temperature.
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  • Takuya Tetsumura, Ryutaro Tao, Akira Sugiura
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 163-169
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The factors influencing rooting of hardwood cuttings from two cvs. of Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.), Jiro and Nishimurawase, were studied. After the tops of micropropagated trees were removed, suckers sprouted from the roots. A quarter of the cuttings made from these basal suckers rooted. Half of the cuttings, whose basal part had been etiolated by mounding with rice husks, initiated roots. Some of the etiolated suckers which had already rooted within the mounds were easily established in a bottom-heated medium after being separated from the mother plants. Cuttings from the one-year-old shoots of micropropagated or conventionally grafted trees did not root. There was no significant difference in the rooting percentage between 'Jiro' and 'Nishimurawase' cuttings. In comparison with the control, soaking the base in 25 ppm IBA for 24 hr or dipping in 3000 ppm IBA for 5 sec did not improve the rooting percentage. Imbedding the cuttings in a rooting mixture from late-January to late-March had no effect on the rooting percentage. Almost all rooted cuttings grew well and became established. Before the rooting treatment, adventitious root primordia at various differentiation stages were found in the basal region of mounded suckers, in which a well-developed periderm and few sclerenchymatous cells were present. Root primordia were not observed in the bases of unmounded suckers or their mid-sections. The unmounded suckers had a discontinuous sclerenchymatous ring and their cuttings rooted to some degree, whereas the mid-sections of suckers had a well-developed, continuous sclerenchymatous ring and their cuttings scarcely rooted.
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  • Takanori Yamamoto
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 170-177
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of photosynthates translocated from a 2-year-old branch to adjacent branches within a 3-year-old branch on a mature tree during the rapid growth stage of cherry, pear, apple and persimmon fruit. Eight 3-year-old branches of various sizes and compositions of their internal organs were combined at random with two light conditions and two positions (basal or terminal) of the branch fed with 13CO2 on each cultivar. The treated branches were given six pulses of 13CO2 within a chamber for two days. The proportion of total 13C translocated from the treated branch to adjacent branches within a 3-year-old branch unit was recorded 72 hr after the first pulse application (about 44 hr after the sixth one). The proportion (%) of total 13C exported from the treated units varied ; 2.5 to 27% in the cherry ; 5 to 29% in the pear ; 0.5 to 16% in the apple, and 0 to 31% in the persimmon. Positive correlations existed between the proportion (%) of 13C translocated to ward the individual 2-year-old branch (PT2B) and the number of fruits on the same branch under natural light condition in all species. The same was found on all species except the apple when basal branches were treated. No correlation was found between PT2B and the number of fruits on the same branch when 1) same branches were shaded and 2) terminal branches were treated in most species, whereas a positive, high correlation existed between PT2B and the proportion of 13C translocated to fruits on the same branch (PTF) in the cherry, the pear and the apple. A similar situation was found between PT2B and the proportion of 13C translocated to leaves on the same branch in apple and persimmon. No correlation was found between the PT2B and the PTF in the persimmon.
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  • Satoru Kondo, Chizuru Danjo
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 178-184
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Cell wall polysaccharide metabolism during fruit development in 'Satohnishiki' sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) and the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) treatment on the fruit were investigated. Fruit firmness decreased dramatically, and sugar concentration increased rapidly from 30 to 36 days after full bloom (DAFB), accompanied by increases in abscisic acid (ABA) and water-soluble pectic substances (WSP) fraction and decreases in sodium hexametaphosphate-soluble pectic substances (HMP) fraction, HCl-soluble pectic substances (HP) fraction, and cell wall bound neutral sugars. Therefore, the period from 30 to 36 DAFB is considered the onset of fruit ripening. Pectinesterase (PE) activity decreased from 30 to 42 DAFB ; endo-polygalacturonase (PG) activity was not detectable. Contrarily, cell wall bound neutral sugars decreased greatly as fruit ripened which demonstrates that the softening of sweet cherries may cause, not a dissolution of homogalacturonan, but a decrease of cell wall bound neutral sugars, leading to lower molecular weight by the cleavage of the neutral sugar region. An application of 0.289 mM (100 ppm) GA3 solution to whole branches at 23 DAFB inhibited the solubilization of polysaccharides until 56 DAFB and the accumulation of anthocyanins in the skin. The effect of GA3 treatment on endogenous ABA concentration which plays an important role in the cherry fruit ripening was also examined. Although ABA concentration in GA3-treated fruit was lower than that in untreated control fruit 36 DAFB, its concentration was, contrarily, higher at 56 DAFB. These results suggest that GA3 treatment delayed fruit ripening by blocking ABA activity.
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  • Hiroshi Yakushiji, Kunihisa Morinaga, Shozo Kobayashi
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 185-190
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    We studied the effects of 2, 3, 5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) on berry ripening of 'Kyoho' grapes (Vitis vinifera L.×V. labrusca L.). Compared with the untreated control, application of 200 mg·liter-1 TIBA 30 days after full bloom (DAF) reduced berry weight and delayed ripening, increased the titratable acidity in the berry, and decreased the anthocyanin content in the peel. TIBA applied 45 DAF, at the beginning of veraison, resulted in higher soluble solids concentration (SSC) in the juice and a higher anthocyanin content in the peel, compared with the control. In a dosage experiment, grape clusters, sprayed with TIBA at 200 mg·liter-1, had higher SSC and anthocyanin levels than those than sprayed with 20 or 400 mg·liter-1. The auxin naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) clearly delayed berry ripening. Abscisic acid (ABA) enhanced peel coloration, but the SSC was equal to that of the control at harvest. When the effects of the antiauxins : N-(1-naphthyl) phthalamic acid (NPA) and maleic hydrazide (MH) were compared with those of TIBA on gibberellin-induced seedless berries, NPA-and MH-treated berries had lower SSC and higher acidity but no effect on peel coloration. TIBA-treated berries had a significantly higher anthocyanin content and SSC than did those of the control. Thus, TIBA application at the beginning of veraison promotes the ripening of seeded and seedless 'Kyoho' grapes.
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  • Akira Kitajima, Mayumi Befu, Yoshiko Hidaka, Tomoko Hotta, Kojiro Hase ...
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 191-194
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A useful method of preparing chromosomes for identification was developed by using young citrus leaves. The preparatory procedures are as follows : 3-5 mm long young leaves were enzymatically macerated ; the cell suspension in a hypotonic solution was dropped onto a glass slide from about 30 cm height. The preparations were stained with Giemsa. For the enzymatic maceration, incubating young, finely minced leaves of 'Tosa-Buntan' pummelo (C. grandis [L.] Osb.) in a mixture of 0.3% cellulase and 0.2% pectolyase for 120 to 180 min at 37°C was optimum for chromosome preparation because it allowed morphological characteristics to become visible. The present method using young leaves was considered as a useful chromosome preparation method for chromosome identification in citrus.
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  • Kenichiro Yamashita, Tomohiro Oyama, Rumi Noda, Tomoya Miyazaki, Shiro ...
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 195-201
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Phylogenetic relationships among two cultivated species, Allium fistulosum and A. cepa, and four wild species, A. altaicum, A. galanthum, A. oschaninii, and A. vavilovii, in section Cepa were investigated based on RFLPs of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA). Using the group average method, cluster analysis was performed in the six species and dendrograms of mt and cpDNAs were constructed. A. cepa formed a subcluster with A. vavilovii at small distance value in the dendrogram of mtDNA. Furthermore, these two species had no distance value each other in dendrograms of cpDNA. A. fistulosum formed subclusters with A. altaicum at small distance value in both dendrograms of mt and cpDNAs. These results represent the close relationships of A. cepa with A. vavilovii and of A. fistulosum with A. altaicum. Because of large distance value of A. oschaninii with other five species in dendrograms of mt and cpDNAs, A. oschaninii is considered to have a long genetic distance from others. This study demonstrates that phylogenetic relationships among the species on RFLPs of mtDNA closely correspond to those of cpDNA in section Cepa.
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  • Yohichi Matsubara, Naoko Ohba, Hirokazu Fukui
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 202-206
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The incidence of fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi (Foa), was investigated in seedlings of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L., cv. Mary Washington 500W) by inoculation with three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi ; Gigaspora margarita (GM), Glomus fasciculatum (GF), and Glomus sp. R10 (GR). Ten weeks after AM fungal inoculation, the inoculated plants were taller ; they produced more shoots and roots and accumulated more dry matter in the shoots and roots than noninoculated ones. The infection levels in a root system differed with fungal species. Six weeks after Foa inoculation, 90% of the noninoculated plants exhibited symptoms of fusarium root rot, whereas 20-50% of the inoculated plants did. The effect was more pronounced in GR, GM, and GF, in that order. As for the disease indices, it was lower in the inoculated plants than in the noninoculated ones. The indices differed among the AM fungal species ; it was significantly low in GR. The number of Foa hyphae invading feeder roots decreased in the inoculated plants, compared with the noninoculated ones. In addition, AM fungal hyphae preferentially elongated into short cells in the exodermis of feeder roots, while the Foa hyphae also elongated into short cells as well as AM fungus. However, no short cells became infected with both AM fungus and Foa. These results reveal that tolerance to fusarium root rot was conditioned by AM fungal infection in asparagus seedlings, although the effect differed with the AM fungal species. It seems that the tolerance to fusarium root rot was partially caused by AM fungal pre-infection in short cells which suppressed invasion by Foa in feeder roots.
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  • Katsuhiko Inamoto, Sumiya Sakoda, Takanori Hase, Motoaki Doi, Hideo Im ...
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 207-214
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    A dynamic simulation model applicable to the production of cut tulips in a plant factory was developed. This model can predict the forcing days and the cut flower quality from the period of bulb chilling at 2°C and the forcing temperatures. Data for calibration were collected from the hydroponic forcing experiments in 1996 and 1997 using 'Gander', in which the period of bulb chilling at 2°C and the forcing temperatures were varied. In the model, translocation of dry matter from the mother bulb scales to newly developing component parts, i.e., shoot, floral organs, and daughter bulbs was simulated via the effects of the periods of bulb chilling and the forcing temperatures on dry weights at planting and relative growth rates of component parts, and days from planting to anthesis. Shoot fresh weight and perianth length were calculated from shoot dry and perianth dry weights, respectively. The agreement in verification between the simulated days from planting to anthesis, shoot fresh weight and perianth length and those observed in the forcing experiment was favorable.
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  • Tadaharu Hibi, Makoto Takano, Toshihito Yoshioka, Teruyoshi Hashiba, S ...
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 215-222
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A genomic DNA clone, DC-ACO1, encoding ACC oxidase was cloned from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Nora) plants. DC-ACO1 encodes an amino acid sequence which, except for one amino acid, is identical to that of pSR120 obtained previously as a senescencerelated ACC oxidase cDNA from carnation petals (Wang and Woodson, 1991). DC-ACO1 contains 3 exons which are interrupted with 2 introns. Promoter activity of the 5′-flanking region up to -1170 bp, relative to the A (+1) of the translation start codon ATG, of DC-ACO1 was analyzed by transient expression of the 5′-flanking sequence-β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene fusion after delivery by particle bombardment into carnation petals. Expression of the chimeric gene increased depending on the progress of senescence of petals, which was measured by their ethylene production rates. Truncation of the 5′-upstream sequence of -1170 bp to -247 bp increased the promoter activity by 6.5 fold, indicating that the -247 bp-long 5′-flanking sequence was sufficient for promoter activity.
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  • Huijuan Jia, Goro Okamoto
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 223-225
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Volatile compounds emitted from the skin, flesh, and whole fruit of 'Hakuho' peaches (Prunus persica Batsch) as influenced by fertilizer levels were determined by a head-space method. Lactones, the main volatiles contributing to the "fruity aroma" of peaches, existed at higher concentrations in the flesh than in the skin ; they were highest in moderately fertilized trees. However, other volatiles such as aldehyde, alcohol, and ester, which produce "green aroma", were more abundant in the skin, especially in highly fertilized trees. Less volatiles were emitted from the whole fruit than from the flesh and skin. Within a fruit, volatile compounds were distributed mainly in the flesh, with approximately 97-98% of lactones and 86-89% of other volatile compounds.
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  • Sunao Tachibana, Shigeki Yahata
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 226-228
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The relationships between % leaf N and changes in fruit quality of satsuma mandarin before and after storage were studied. The data for this study were obtained from a differential N fertilization trial for a high density planting of 13-year-old satsuma mandarin trees that began in 1982. TSS (total soluble solids), TSS/TA (total soluble solids-titratable acidity ratio), PP (pulp percentage), and 'L' and 'b' values (indices of a color difference meter) were negatively correlated to % leaf N before and after storage. However 'a' value which negatively correlated with % leaf N before storage was lacking after storage. In contrast, TA positively correlated with % leaf N before and after storage. TSS and TSS/TA increased while TA, PP, and 'L' and 'b' values decreased after storage ; the regression lines among these parameters tend to be parallel.
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  • Satoru Kondo, Naoko Tsukada, Yoshiyuki Niimi
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 229-231
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The role of jasmonic acid (JA) in callus formation was investigated on discs taken from the pulp of apple (Malus pumila Mill. var. domestica Schneid.), sampled on 15, 25, and 35 days after full bloom (DAFB), and cultured on B5 medium, containing combinations of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), benzyladenine (BA), and JA. On the 15 DAFB sample, 0.45μM, 1.0μM, and 4.5μM JA in the presence of 10.7μM NAA induced greater callus formation than did the sample without JA. However, this effect of JA at 15 DAFB was not observed except when it was combined with only NAA ; 4.5μM JA inhibited the callus formation. The presence of JA inhibited callus formation on discs taken 25 and 35 DAFB. Endogenous JA concentration of apple pulp at 15 DAFB was lower than that at 25 and 35 DAFB. These results indicate that the low endogenous JA concentration early in fruit development promotes callus formation ; whereas, increasing JA concentration inhibits it.
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  • Kenichiro Yamashita, Yosuke Tashiro
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 232-234
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Wakegi onion is a natural hybrid between Japanese bunching onion and shallot. To reveal the donor of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in wakegi onion, RFLPs of mtDNA using probes and PCR-RFLPs of V7 region of srRNA gene were analyzed in the three species. In both methods, interspecific polymorphisms were detected between Japanese bunching onion and shallot. All the clones of wakegi onion had the same RFLP patterns as Japanese bunching onion. These results insist that many clones of wakegi onion originated from the natural hybridization between Japanese bunching onion as the maternal parent and shallot as the paternal parent, which supports the previous results based on cpDNA analyses in wakegi onion.
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  • Akihide Okamoto, Kenichi Suto, Mizuo Nonaka
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 235-237
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Five evergreen azalea species (Rhododendron macrosepalum, R. mucronatum var. ripense, R. scabrum, R. indicum, and R. eriocarpum) and 3 groups of cultivars (Ryukyu, Mochi, and Ookirishima azaleas) were examined for aspartate aminotransferase isozyme bands, "112" and "104", which were detected in Kurume azalea cultivars but not in their known original species, R. kiusianum, R. kiusianum var. sataense, and R. kaempferi. "112" band is peculiar to R. mucronatum var. ripense, whereas "104" band is limited to R. macrosepalum and R. scabrum among the species related to the breeding of the principal domestic evergreen azalea groups. In addition, Ryukyu, Mochi, and Ookirishima azaleas, whose original species are R. macrosepalum, R. mucronatum var. ripense, and R. scabrum, possess either "112" or "104" band. Therefore, "112" and "104" bands detected in Kurume azalea cultivars may be duly derived from these three species.
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  • Hiroo Mukai, Toshihiko Takagi, Masakazu Iwatani, Hisashi Harada
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 238-243
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Juice vesicle explants including albedo and segment membrane tissue excised from young satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa wase) fruit were cultured in vitro on MS solid medium with various sucrose concentrations and water potentials in the dark conditions at 25°C. The juice vesicles became swollen and accumulated sugar, similar to those of fruit grown in the field, when cultured on 10% sucrose medium for 70 days, whereas those cultured on 5% sucrose medium grew but absorbed less sugar. There is a close positive relationship between sugar accumulated by the vesicles and sucrose content in the medium with or without adjusting water potential. When cultured under different water potentials on 10% sucrose concentration, the juice vesicles grew less but accumulated more sugar accumulation as the water potential decreased. However, the effect of water potential had no effect on the sugar composition in the vesicles.
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  • Takahiro Sonoda, Astuko Uragami, Kimio Itoh, Hiroyuki Kohmura, Masayuk ...
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 244-250
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Nine taxa of Asparagus species and 34 A. officinalis L. cultivars and lines were evaluated for resistance to stem blight (Phomopsis asparagi S.) under controlled environmental conditions. The plants were inoculated by the vinyl tube and cotton inoculation method (VC inoculation method). Disease susceptivity assessments, based on the percentage of infected plants, were made 4 weeks after inoculation. There were differences in disease resistance among the Asparagus species. A. densiflorus, A. virgatus, A. asparagoides, and A. macowanii were highly resistant. Although none of the cultivars and lines of A. officinalis were completely resistant, there were significant differences in disease susceptibility among them. In addition, the disease incidence in both sexes of A. officinalis cultivars inoculated as above and under a natural environment revealed that there were no significant differences in percentages of the infected stems between male and female plants of A. officinalis cultivars.
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  • Shinji Harima, Ryohei Nakano, Takashi Yamamoto, Hideo Komatsu, Kinji F ...
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 251-257
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Postharvest fruit softening after removal of astringency was studied in forcing-cultured Japanese persimmon 'Tonewase' (Diospyros kaki Thunb.). 1. No significant difference in the fruit softening rate was observed among the fruits in which astringency was removed by on-tree ethanol application or by the constant temperature of short duration (CTSD) method after harvest and the control fruit. 2. The rate of fruit softening after removal of astringency varied with each greenhouse. The structure and respiration rate in the root system, mineral composition, and water potential in leaf had no relationship with the rate of postharvest fruit softening. 3. Irrespective of forcing-cultured or open field, the days of treatment, and early harvest resulted in rapid fruit softening after removal of astringency by CTSD method. Harvesting later than 120 days after anthesis when fruit growth phase shift from phase II to phase III delayed the fruit ripening rate. 4. High temperature treatment during fruit growth from July to October accelerated postharvest fruit softening after removal of astringency by CTSD method. In conclusion, postharvest fruit softening is closely dependent on fruit maturity at harvest. Exposure to high temperature during the maturation stage affects maturity indices and physiological activity in fruit, resulting in rapid fruit softening.
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  • Katsuji Noda, Hitoshi Okuda, Isao Iwagaki
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 258-260
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    IAA and ABA levels in three citrus rootstock seedlings ('Flying Dragon', trifoliate orange and 'Citrumelo') were investigated in relation to the growth characteristics. 'Citrumelo' made the most growth ; 'Flying Dragon' the least ; top/root ratio (T/R ratio) exhibited a similar tendency. Ten-mm and 50-mm shoots from two-year-old seedlings and whole above-ground parts of four-week-old seedlings were analyzed for IAA and ABA contents. There were no significant differences in IAA levels among rootstock seedlings. ABA levels in ten-mm shoots and above-ground parts of 'Flying Dragon' were higher than those from 'Citrumelo.' The T/R ratio and ABA level in the rootstock seedlings seem to affect the performance of grafted trees.
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  • Masahiko Fumuro, Hidemi Gamo
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 261-263
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The effects of bagging on the occurrence of black stain (BS) on fruit skin of 'Shinsyu' persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) grown under a transparent film were investigated. All fruits of each tree were covered with paper bags on 17 September (the beginning stage of coloration), and all fruits of bagged and non-bagged trees were harvested on 22 and 27 October, respectively. The time required for bagging one fruit was about 21 seconds. Bagging significantly decreased the occurrence of BS and increased the ratios of BS-free fruit in two harvest dates by 4 to 7 times over the non-bagged ones. Bagging did not affect yield per tree, average fruit weight, fruit colour, flesh firmness, and total soluble solid content in two harvest dates. Suitable bagging dates for the prevention of BS are from 50 to 35 days before harvest.
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  • Tamotsu Hisamatsu, Yoshitake Sugiyama, Satoshi Kubota, Masaji Koshioka
    2001 Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 264-266
    Published: March 15, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Delaying anthesis by dark treatment in Phalaenopsis 'Yukimai No.24' was investigated. Plants kept at 20°C in the dark survived for 80 days, whereas most of plants kept at 10°C in the dark did not survive for 20 days. Plants exposed to light bloomed on Feb. 16, 1999, whereas the plants which kept at 20°C in the dark during 20, 40, 60, and 80 days bloomed on Mar. 15, Apr. 3, Apr. 28, and May 15, respectively. Although the length of stalk and flower size were unaffected by the 20°C dark treatments, the number of flowers in the 80-day treatment was reduced slightly. These results indicate that delaying anthesis in Phalaenopsis is possible by the dark treatment.
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