Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 71 , Issue 6
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Yong Zhong Shi, Toshiya Yamamoto, Tateki Hayashi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 723-729
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fifty-one non-redundant fragments of copia-like retrotransposons were cloned and identified in pear. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the retroelements were classified into 15 distinct groups and were highly heterogeneous in the pear genome. However, most of the groups could be clustered with some registered copia-like retrotransposons. Several clones showed relatively low identities to the known sequences. A Southern blot analysis, using 8 representative clones as probes, demonstrated that these retroelements were distributed in Pyrus species. Polymorphisms were detected among as well as within the Pyrus species, suggesting that the transposition of retrotransposons took place during evolution leading to diversification. Based on the Southern blot analysis, the copy number of copia-like retrotransposons was estimated to be at least 1, 000 in pear genomes.
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  • Takashi Yano, Hisao Inoue, Yasuo Shimizu, Shiho Shinkai, Masakatsu Och ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 730-737
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To investigate various dwarfing characters in peach trees grafted onto Prunus tomentosa, yield, fruit quality, dry matter distribution and trunk cross-sectional areas were compared among six peach cultivars ('Hikawa Hakuho', 'Hakuho', 'Akatsuki', 'Yoshihime', 'Masahime' and 'Kawanakajima Hakuto') grafted on P. tomentosa Thunb. (PT) and P. persica Batsch (PP). The estimated annual yield per unit area was consistently higher in PT than PP in 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' during five years of experiment, but there was little difference between PT and PP in the other cultivars. The PT trees had higher total phenolic contents in 'Hakuho', 'Yoshihime', 'Masahime' and 'Kawanakajima Hakuto'. Their whole tree dry matter weight was only 34.5-45.4% of PP. 'Hikawa Hakuho', 'Masahime' and 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' trees grafted on PT had a lower percentage of dry matter distribution to the frame, e.g., the current shoot and old wood, but a greater distribution to the fruit, especially in 'Kawanakajima Hakuto'. The percentage of bark area in the trunk cross-section in PT was significantly higher than that in PP except for 'Hikawa Hakuho'. Therefore, a preferential dry matter partitioning readily occurs in peach trees grafted on PT, especially for 'Kawanakajima Hakuto'.
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  • Masami Yamaguchi, Isao Sato, Makoto Ishiguro
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 738-746
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Susceptibility of cherry cultivars using water immersion method was investigated to determine the degree and rate of cracking, water absorption rate, fruit weight, flesh firmness, vertical and lateral lengths of the epidermal cells at the fruit apex, cheek, stalk cavity and suture. Thirty nine samples consisting of 37 sweet cherries, one sour cherry and one hybrid between sour cherry and Prunus pennsylvanica were used. The degree and rate of cracked fruit increased with time after immersion varied among cultivars : 'Turkey Black Heart', 'Jumbonishiki, ' 'Okitama-6, ' 'Ebony, ' 'Venus' and 'Valera' were small, whereas 'Napoleon, ' 'Van, ' 'Compact Lambert' and 'Vic' were high. A huge variance occurred among cultivars with respect to fruit weight, flesh firmness, and vertical and lateral lengths of skin cells. After 12 hours of immersion, the following significant positive correlation coefficients were established between degree of cracking and fruit weight, flesh firmness, vertical and lateral lengths of skin cells at apex respectively ; 0.664, 0.515, 0.649 and 0.515. Likewise, the rate of cracked fruit had significant positive correlations with fruit weight, flesh firmness, vertical and lateral lengths of skin cells at apex, respectively ; 0.718, 0.503, 0.763 and 0.669. Thus, cracking susceptibility is strongly related to fruit weight, flesh firmness and skin cell size, especially at the fruit apex. Significant positive relationships were also obtained between the water absorption rate, and flesh firmness and vertical length of the skin cells of the fruit apex. The contribution rates of cracked fruit rate and degree of cracking to all other parameters were 78.8 and 69.0%, respectively. Likewise, high contribution rates of 70.7 and 57.3% were obtained between fruit weight and flesh firmness to vertical length of the fruit apex. Hence, the possibility of estimating cracking susceptibility based on these three parameters is considered. Having obtained significantly high yearly correlation coefficients of 0.885, 0.880, 0.706 between degree of cracking, rate of cracked fruit and water absorption rate using 28 cultivars over a 2-year period, the water immersion method to determine the degree of cracking was validated.
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  • Yasutaka Kano, Keiichiro Mano
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 747-751
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Poir.) were field-grown or grown in boxes in which the soil temperature was kept at 20°C (cool), 30°C (heat), or ambient (control). Field-grown plants were dug at 5 : 00, 11 : 00, 17 : 00 and 23 : 00, weighed, then dried and then re-weighed. The total fresh weights per plant, sampled at the respective times, were : 7250g, 7800g, 10650g, 7666g. The dry samples of stems and roots were analyzed for soluble sugars and starch. Sucrose content in the stem that was 44.5mg·g-1 DW at 5 : 00 increased gradually to 72.0mg·g-1 DW by 23 : 00, whereas that in the roots increased from 60mg·g-1 DW at 5 : 00 and 11 : 00 to 70.5mg·g-1 DW and 82.2mg·g-1 DW at 17 : 00 and 23 : 00, respectively. Sucrose content in stems of plants grown at the cool plot at night was lower than that in the heat plot. The skin of the root was brilliant red in the control and cool plots, whereas it was almost pink in the heat plot. Root sucrose content was higher in the heat plot than in the cool plot ; the starch level was inverse of that of sucrose. These results indicate that sucrose transported into the root is converted to starch mainly at night. As the conversion of sucrose to starch by low night soil-temperature is not suppressed, the excess is diverted to root growth and/or metabolized into anthocyanin resulting in highly colored red roots with high sugar and starch contents.
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  • Yasunori Yoshida, Harumi Takahashi, Hiroomi Kanda, Koki Kanahama
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 752-757
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The interaction between an 8- and 24-hr photoperiods and plant growth regulators (PGR) [gibberellin A3 100ppm (GA) and uniconazole-P 25ppm (Uni)] on the development of the main shoots, aerial and new tubers, and spikes (inflorescences) in Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb. cv. Nagaimo) plants was examined. The GA-treated plants yielded main shoots that were the same size as the shoots in the untreated (control) plants. However, the Uni-treated plants yielded shoots that were much shorter than those in the control plants. The GA treatment, irrespective of the photoperiod, severely inhibited the formation of aerial tubers, but significantly promoted the growth of new tubers compared with the control plants. The GA treatment in combination with the 24-hr photoperiod (constant light, LD) increased new tubers growth. The Uni treatment suppressed the development of new tubers, as compared with those in the control and GA-treated plants. Within the same treatments, the total fresh weight of the aerial and new tubers in the control and PGR-treated plants grown under the 8-hr photoperiod (SD) and harvested early were heavier than those grown under LD, but by final harvest in December, those tubers grown under LD were equally heavy as those exposed to SD. A small percentage of plants grown under both photoperiods developed spikes, especially when treated with GA. The interactive effects of the photoperiods and PGR on the nodal position of the first spike and on the number of spikes per plant were inconclusive.
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  • Shermarl Wongchaochant, Motoaki Doi, Hideo Imanishi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 758-764
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Morphological and physiological characteristics and RAPD makers were used to analyze the relationships among 35 accessions of Freesia, representing nine species. Cluster analysis, based on nine morphological and physiological characteristics, discriminated individual species into subgroups, that agreed with previous morphological groupings. RAPD analysis, by using 30 primers, produced 86 polymorphic bands. The phylogenetic tree, generated by UPGMA of the RAPD data, separated the accessions into eight subgroups at a genetic distance of 0.9, although two sections of Freesia could not be separated into different clusters. Accessions of F. corymbosa were clearly distinguished from F. occidentallis and F. refracta by using a RAPD marker, indicating that both analytical methods could be used for discriminating Freesia species.
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  • Hiro Shimai
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 765-769
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Petunia×hybrida Vilm. plants were exposed to different photoperiodic cycles and light qualities to investigate their shoot development and flowering responses. Plants were reciprocally transferred from long-day (LD), extended by day-extension light by using either far-red rich tungsten light (TL) or red rich cool fluorescent light to short-day or vice versa. To produce commercially a high quality petunia having a compact shape and a number of flowers under insufficient light conditions, the initial 15 LD cycles (8-hr daylight followed by 8-hr TL) was most effective. The 30 LD cycles extended by TL resulted in excessive shoot elongation with poor quality. The results indicate that it is possible to improve the shape of petunia plants by using an optimum photoperiodic cycle and light quality.
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  • Kazuhiro Sugimoto, Jonathan Lidbetter
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 770-776
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    A water soluble part of smoke derived from leaves of an endemic Australian tree, Forest oak (Allocasuarina torulosa) is effective in stimulating seeds of a native Australian plant, Goodenia scaevolina F. Muell. to germinate. The smoke solution was made by burning 25g of dried senescent or fresh leaves and dissolving the smoke in a liter of distilled water. The highest seed germination rate occurred on a 1/50 dilution of a saturated smoke solution on Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium. The components of smoke and heat are two factors considered to be involved in the smoke effects. The heat treatment of seeds at 80°C for 1 to 10min, combined with a smoke solution, was significantly effective on seed germination. However, the effect of heat treatment did not last long as germination rates became even lower than that of the untreated control seeds 8 weeks after the treatment. The smoke solution showed a similar effect to treatment with 1000ppm gibberellic acid (GA3) on seed germination at the start. The germination rate in 100 days on smoke medium was equivalent to those between 100 and 10ppm GA3. The germination rate on 1/50 smoke medium increased in the 8 months after the smoke solution was made, indicating that some changes might have occurred in the smoke solutions during their storage.
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  • Kenichiro Yamashita, Yuka Takatori, Yosuke Tashiro
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 777-779
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To develop sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers linked to the fertility restoring gene (Rf) for cytoplasmic male sterility in Allium fistulosum possessing the cytoplasm of A. galanthum, RAPDs were analyzed in the male fertile and male sterile plants of backcross generations between A. galanthum and A. fistulosum. Twenty random decamer primers generated 128 RAPDs between A. galanthum and A. fistulosum. One of them (OPJ15700) showed close linkage with the Rf locus ; all the male fertile plants had the OPJ15700, whereas almost all male sterile plants did not have this fragment. The RAPD marker OPJ15700 was converted into a SCAR marker by molecular cloning and sequence analysis. The SCAR marker OPJ15700 is reliable for identifying male fertile and male sterile plants of the backcross generations.
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  • Biao Ma, Isao Tarumoto
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 780-782
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Cytological studies in selfed progenies were carried out to clarify the speciation processes of polyploid Lycoris species. For diploid species, most selfed plants were diploid with the same karyotype as the corresponding parents. However, S1 progenies from L. sprengeri (2n=22A) included two triploids with 2n=33A and one aneuploid with 2n=32(31A+1M) ; and one S1 from L. aurea (2n=14=8A+6T) was tetraploid with 2n=28(16M+12T). For triploid species, L. radiata (2n=33A), all the S1 plants were aneuploid with chromosome number near to its diploid taxon, L. radiata var. pumila (2n=22A). The results suggest that unreduced gametes occasionally formed through self-pollination in fertile diploid species would be a factor inducing polyploid species in the genus Lycoris.
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  • Kojiro Hasegawa, Norio Takayama, Akira Kitajima
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 783-788
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Lateral branches on 15-yr old Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Saijo) trees were partially strapped with wires (2 mm diam) 20 days before (BFB) and at full bloom (FB) to test their effects on fruit growth and carbohydrate accumulation by the leaves, stems, and fruit. The wires were not removed during the experiment. Fruit size and weight, peel coloration and Brix value at harvest were promoted by the treatments. Treatment at BFB significantly improved fruit weight and quality. During Stage I, fruit growth was promoted by the treatment. Specific leaf weight and carbohydrate contents of leaves were increased significantly 1 or 2 weeks after treatments. These results are attributed to the strapping which limited downward transport of the photosynthates in the lateral branches. During Stage III, fruit growth was significantly promoted by the strapping treatment at BFB. In this stage, the wires were imbedded in callus tissue and there was no difference in carbohydrate accumulations by leaves and shoots among the treatments. These results indicated that the mechanism of rapid fruit growth in Stage III by strapping lateral branch at BFB would be different from that in Stage I.
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  • Akiyoshi Miyata, Kazumitsu Hashimoto
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 789-795
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To improve the fruit quality and alternate bearing behavior of young 'Aoshima unshiu' trees, they were subjected the following four bearing methods : (1) alternate whole tree bearing (AWB), (2) unilateral bearing within the crown (UBC), (3) alternate branch unit bearing (ABB), (4) whole tree annual bearing (WAB). The cumulative yield per tree during the 12 years in UBC was 8 to 13% higher than those in other bearing methods. The yield in AWB was almost the same as that in WAB plot. In WAB and ABB plots, more than 40% of fruits were classified as size 2L or larger, whereas 26% was ranked in the same category in AWB. In AWB, as much as 70% of the marketable was graded M or L size with high Brix value. Alternate bearing indices of WAB and ABB were, higher than those of AWB and UBC, that of UBC ranked last. Brix values of UBC and AWB were higher than those of WAB, while fruit coloring was significantly advanced in AWB. Volume of the tree crown was the largest in AWB, followed by UBC. The crown volume of the 15-year-old AWB trees was 1.6 times larger than that of the WAB trees. Although UBC and AWB methods produced high marketable fruits of young 'Aoshima unshiu' every year. AWB was judged to be the most suitable based on the ease of labor management.
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  • Takahiro Fujiwara, Masayoshi Nakayama, Sunao Kikuchi, Hiroshi Yoshioka ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 796-804
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Three tenths percent NaCl added to the 1/5 strength Enshi standard solution to which cabbage plug seedlings were subirrigated once (1 minute) a day for 5 days of the end of nursery term (NaCl treatment). As a result, the seedlings underwent a moderate water stress without drying the rootballs. The effect of NaCl treatment on quality of seedlings and its practical uses are as follows : (1) Shoot water potential of seedlings was lowered without limiting irrigation by NaCl treatment due to reducing the water potential of the rootball. (2) Shoot length and leaf area were restricted without decreasing shoot dry weight and increased the dry matter ratio of seedlings. Their leaf area equaled that of control seedlings a week after transplanting. The NaCl treatment did not decrease cabbage yield. (3) The Na content of seedlings increased but it decreased after transplanting, whereas the K, Ca and Mg contents decreased but recovered a week after transplanting. (4) The amount of epicuticular wax increased by about 20% which improved the ability of seedlings to maintain their moisture content by suppressing the loss of moisture after transplanting. (5) Two days after the start of the NaCl treatment, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased and water use efficiency increased. These results show that the NaCl treatment of cabbage plug seedlings suppressed succulent growth without drying the rootball. We conclude that the NaCl treatment promotes the establishment of seedlings after transplanting by improving their drought resistance and ensuring early growth.
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  • Kazuhiro Dan, Shigeo Imada
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 805-811
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To induce thermotolerance in cucumber seedlings, the effect of pre-treatment conditions were investigated by measuring the 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining intensity and subsequent elongation of radicles at 30°C for 2 days. When seedlings were incubated at 30, 35, 37.5, 40, 42.5 or 45°C for 2 hr, the TTC staining and subsequent elongation of radicles at 30°C for 2 days were severely inhibited after incubation at 45°C for 2 hr, indicating that radicles were damaged severely by incubation at 45°C for 2 hr. Then, we examined the pre-incubation temperature conditions to reduce the damage of radicles induced by incubation at 45°C for 2 hr. When seedlings were pre-incubated at 30, 35, 37.5, 40, 42.5 or 45°C for 2 hr prior to incubation at 45°C for 2 hr, those pre-incubated at 37.5 or 40°C incurred significantly low damage of radicles by the 2-hr 45°C treatment. The pre-incubation for more than 30 min at 37.5 or 40°C prevented the damage of radicles induced by the 2-hr 45°C treatment. These results indicate that the pre-incubation for more than 30 min at 37.5 or 40°C provides thermotolerance in cucumber radicles to subsequent high temperature stress. The degree of TTC staining and the subsequent elongation of cucumber radicles after high temperature treatments are useful indicators of high temperature damage.
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  • Masato Katori, Keiichi Watanabe, Kazunari Nomura, Kazuo Yoneda
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 812-817
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Anthocyanin and carotenoid pigments in the petals of the flowering lotus, including Asian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), American lotus (N. lutea) and their interspecific hybrids were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The data were used to classify lotus cultivars by petal color. The chromatogram of red petals showed a typical major peak that corresponded to malvidin 3-glucoside and minor ones that represented malvidin 3-galactoside, delphinidin 3-galactoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-arabinoside. Anthocyanin pigments were not detected in cultivars having light yellow, greenish-yellow and white petals. In the greenish-yellow petals, small amounts of xanthophylls and β-carotene were detected. The cultivars of flowering lotus were classified into four groups according to anthocyanin composition : 1) malvidin 3-glucoside, 2) malvidin 3-galactoside, malvidin 3-glucoside, and 4) no anthocyanin pigments. Their colors were red, pink, nail-red, and white or yellow, respectively. The determination of the flower color of each cultivar was carried out 2 days after flowering by using by a colorimeter. The amount of anthocyanin correlated negatively with the values of L*, and positively with a* values, while b* values correlated negatively with malvidin 3-galactoside and malvidin 3-glucoside concentrations in the CIE L*a*b* color system. These results suggest that cultivars of flowering lotus can be classified by composition and concentration of anthocyanin pigments.
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  • Zhengan Liu, Noriaki Aoki, Norihiro Ito, Yusuke Sakata
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 818-825
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    In this study, flower-bud differentiation in nine Chinese tree peony cultivars from Zhongyuan Province, China, growing in the open field and then under protected cover (forcing) was investigated. Flower-bud differentiation of Chinese tree peony cultivars began during the last 10 days of June. Depending on when flower-bud differentiation began and when developmental process ceased, cultivars can be divided into following three groups : (1) cultivars in which flower-bud differentiation progressed rapidly and smoothly to flower formation under high summer temperature ; the gynoecium completely formed in early October, such as in 'Bai He Wo Xue', (2) cultivars in which flower-bud differentiation progressed at a moderate pace ; the gynoecium completely differentiated by mid-October, such as in 'Shan Hu Tai', and (3) cultivars in which flower-bud differentiation was slow ; the gynoecium was not completely differentiated even in early November, such as in 'Jin Xiu Qiu'. The percentage budbreak in a Japanese tree peony cultivar was quite low, even after being chilled at 4°C for 4 weeks, whereas almost 100% of the Chinese tree peonies sprouted after 4 weeks of chilling. Percentage of flowering of the Chinese 'Bai He Wo Xue' was sufficiently high before the end of the year so that the blooms could be marketed. Over 80% of 'Bai He Wo Xue', 'Feng Dan' and 'Shu Nu Zhuang' flowered for December shipping.
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  • Shinji Fukuda, Jun Nagato, Toshiya Yamamoto, Naofumi Hiehata, Osamu Te ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 826-828
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Sixty-nine loquat accessions, including 27 Japanese varieties, 23 from China, 7 from Israel, 4 from Greece, 3 from Mexico, 3 from USA and the other 2 Eriobotrya species, were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Of the 60 primers screened, 28 primers yielded a total of 135 fragments that were reproducibly amplified. Polymorphism was observed in 108 of the 135 bands. All varieties were successfully distinguished by at least 1 band. RAPD analysis could be efficiently applied to distinguish loquat cultivars.
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  • Hiroko Yamazaki, Megumi Hamano, Yoichi Yamato, Hiroyuki Miura
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 6 Pages 829-831
    Published: November 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The interception of far-red (FR) light obviously inhibits the bulb formation of Allium × wakegi Araki plants grown in summer, but only slightly in those planted in autumn and grown until the following spring. The exposure to low temperature during winter is presumed to impair the effect of the FR-deficient light. To verify this hypothesis, bulbs of A. × wakegi 'Kiharabansei No.1', exposed to 5 or 25°C for 70 days, were grown under FR-deficient (-FR) and natural daylight (NDL). After exposure to 25°C, the plants grown under NDL formed bulbs, whereas those under -FR did not. Exposure to 5°C promoted the bulb formation in the plants grown under both light conditions. The inhibition of the bulb formation by -FR was incomplete after exposure to 5°C. The difference in the extent of the bulb formation between the plants grown under -FR and NDL was less remarkable after exposure to 5°C than to 25°C. Thus, A. × wakegi plants, exposed to 5°C, reversed the inhibitory effect of FR-deficient light on the bulb formation.
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