Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 71 , Issue 2
Showing 1-27 articles out of 27 articles from the selected issue
  • Masami Yamaguchi, Takashi Haji, Masanori Miyake, Hideaki Yaegaki
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 155-163
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fruit growth and increases in the flesh cell number and size from blossom to maturity were investigated on early-ripening 'Saotome', mid-season 'Akatsuki', late-season 'Yuzora' and wild 'Ohatsumomo' peach cultivars. The duration of each growth stage differed with the cultivar, especially Stage II ; three stages were short in 'Saotome'. It was confirmed that the fruit growth after the cessation of cell division was dependent on cell enlargement. Mesocarp cells did not grow uniformly during Stage III ; rather, the radial cell length near the stone was greater than those of outer portions. Flesh cells continued to divide for four to five weeks after full bloom, and increased in size thereafter. The time when cell division ceased showed varietal differences ; 'Saotome', in which cell division ceased early, had a small number of flesh cells and produced small fruit. The wild peach 'Ohatsumomo', whose cells divided more slowly than the commercial cultivars had the fewest and the smallest cells, resulting in very small fruit.
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  • Takashi Yano, Hisao Inoue, Yasuo Shimizu, Shiho Shinkai
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 164-170
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    'Kawanakajima Hakuto' peach trees grafted onto Prunus tomentosa often show graft-incompatible symptoms. In relation to the tree decline, dry matter partitioning and carbohydrate status of various tree parts at pre-bloom period were investigated in 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' grafted on P. persica (PP), P. tomentosa (PT), and a compatible interstock/P. tomentosa (IS). Under non-bearing conditions of three-year-old trees, the total whole tree dry matter amount of PT was only half of PP, whereas IS was greater than PT. However, the ratio of scion to rootstock (S/R ratio) in dry matter levels was similar (0.57-0.59) in all combinations. The starch content, the major carbohydrate in various parts, was higher in the rootstock than in scion parts, that in the roots being highest in PP among the combinations. The total amount of non-structural carbohydrate (starch+simple sugars) per tree in IS and PT was half and one-third of PP, respectively. The greatest amount of non-structural carbohydrate was found in φ<2mm roots, regardless of combinations. The S/R ratio in non-structural carbohydrate levels was 0.18 for PP, 0.31 for IS, and 0.30 for PT. On bearing four-year-old trees, the S/R ratio in dry matter levels was reduced in PP (0.47) but increased in IS (0.63) and PT (0.66). The S/R ratio in non-structural carbohydrate levels was 0.16, 0.65, and 0.80 for PP, IS, and PT, respectively. These results suggest that the tree decline in PT is partially promoted by the depletion of non-structural carbohydrate reserve at the pre-bloom period. Furthermore, the use of compatible interstock improves dry matter and non-structural carbohydrate status especially in the rootstock.
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  • Akihiro Hosomi, Masayuki Dan, Akihiro Kato
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 171-176
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Several fig varieties (Ficus carica L.) were tested as rootstocks for resistance to soil sickness. Exp. 1. Scions of 'Masui Dauphine' ('San Piero' sensu Condit, 1955) were grafted on potted rooted cuttings of 21 fig varieties grown for 3 years in a soil with a history of soil sickness. The trees grew poorly and formed root galls induced by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid et White). Scion growth on 'King' and 'Conadrid' stocks was uniformly vigorous, and had less growth inhibition than those on 'Masui Dauphine' (control stock). The root gall indices, which varied with rootstock variety, with 30% on 'King' as minimum, did not correlate with shoot growth. Therefore, the index fails as an indicator of susceptibility to soil sickness. Exp. 2. Twenty fig varieties were grown for 1 year in an experimental field with soil sickness and then for 2 more years after grafting with scion of 'Masui Dauphine'.'Zidi' and 'Biter Abiod' stocks promoted more vigorous scion growth than 'Masui Dauphine' (control stock) did. 'King' was initially weak but became relatively vigorous. Exp. 3. 'Masui Dauphine' grafted on 'Zidi', 'Biter Abiod', 'King', and own-rooted 'Masui Dauphine' were grown in 6 different farms. The trees grafted on 'Zidi' were vigorous in every field, even those with soil sickness, and with 3-year-old trees, 'Zidi' had no influence on fruit quality, such as Brix and skin color. Thus, we conclude that 'Zidi' is a suitable rootstock for its tolerance to soil sickness.
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  • Masahiro Kawamata, Etsuko Nishida, Hitoshi Ohara, Katsuya Ohkawa, Hiro ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 177-182
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To estimate the intensity of bud dormancy in fig (Ficus carica L.) 'Masui Dauphine', current shoots in the field were collected monthly from July 1999 to March 2000 and cut at the 5th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th and 20th nodes. The cutting were kept in water at 25°C under fluorescent light (5klx) continuously. The percentage of budbreak within 20 days and the days to 80% budbreak were recorded. The water, carbohydrate, and abscisic acid (ABA) contents of each shoot were also measured. The percentage of budbreak within 20 days at 25°C on all nodal position was 40%, in late November; the basal nodes tended to have lower % budbreak than the upper ones. Water content increased with the growth of the current shoots, reaching over 60% during the introductory phase of endodormancy. The starch accumulated during this period; it was hydrolyzed to sugar at the onset of budbreak or the awaking phase. The ABA content increased only during the introductory phase of endodormancy. The endodormancy of the fig bud was classified into three phases, i.e., 1) introductory (early October to early November), 2) deepest (late November) and 3) awaking phases (middle December to late January). The fig shoot can be heated or headed back at any season to get fruitbearing shoots for double cropping or year-round production. These treatments force most buds to sprout within a short period, even when they are in the deepest phase of endodormancy.
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  • Masashi Yamamoto, Shigeto Tominaga
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 183-186
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    We characterized the mechanism of seedlessness of Keraji (Citrus keraji hort. ex Tanaka), cultivar grown in Kikaijima island, Kagoshima. This cultivar is a diploid (2n=18) that produces a medium amount of fertile pollen which readily fertilizes other citrus cultivars. It is highly parthenocarpic, setting 30-50% of unpollinated flowers. When Keraji flowers are hand-pollinated with 'Hassaku' pollen, these fruits produce only 2 to 3 seeds. However, 19-20% of these hand-pollinated flowers set seedless fruits, whereas 30-38% of open-pollinated flowers set parthenocarpically. Self-pollinated flowers resulted in 91-93% parthenocarpic fruits ; the remaining 7-9% of the fruits had only one seed. Six days after pollination, the self-pollinated flowers had 1.4 pollen tubes at the base of the style, a figure that is much lower than that in cross-pollinated flowers with 'Hassaku' pollen (61±7.4). These observation demonstrated that seedlessness of Keraji results from strong female sterility, self-incompatibility and parthenocarpy.
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  • Kazuhiro Sugimoto
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 187-191
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    F1 hybrids were produced by using doubled haploid radishes, which were derived from microspore culture and maintained their homozygosity by selfing through bud-pollination three days before anthesis. The bud-pollination of doubled haploid was also undertaken to obtain seeds of F1 hybrids. The regenerants developed weak roots with small diameters and small leaves. However, good growth was restored in F1 hybrids that were crossed among the doubled haploid progenies of the regenerants. They grew uniformly and showed hybrid vigour. It was proven that haploid breeding was effective to establish a genetically fixed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plant and a new type of 'Moriguchi' radish with a red, long, slender root.
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  • Susumu Yui, Kenichi Hida
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 192-196
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Bolting characteristics of a late bolting breeding line 'Leafy Green Parental line No.2' (PL-No.2, previously known as Ano No.3 or FNC31·63) of Brassica rapa L. pekinensis group, syn. B. campestris L. pekinensis group, or Chinese cabbage, were examined with regard to its plant stages. Seedling sensitivity to low temperatures was very low, irrespective of plant stages ; differentiation of flower buds occurred very late. Bolting and flowering were induced by a 16-hr photoperiod. However, a long-day with supplementary lighting was ineffective in initiating bolting and subsequent flowering. Seedlings grown under 16-hr photoperiod required nearly 70 days to anthesis. As the plants grew, the time from the onset of the long-day treatment to flowering became less than 50 days. The long-day sensitivity of 'PL-No.2' increased as the plants grew.
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  • Shuichi Hata, Yorinori Sumi, Michio Ohi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 197-202
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The germination of spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae was stimulated by the treatment with the dry powder and extract of Posidonia australis, a species of Seagrass, collected from the coast of southern Australia. The formation of clubroots in Chinese cabbage was prevented by a treatment with the dry powder and extract, attributed to the stimulation of the germination of Plasmodiophora spores, indicating that the preparations are useful to control clubroot.
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  • Yohichi Matsubara, Eiko Suzumura, Hirokazu Fukui
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 203-207
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The means of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for the production of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L., cv. Choetsu) as plug seedlings was investigated. AM fungal infection occurred in all the inoculated seedlings but the infection level in a root system differed with AM species, growth medium, phosphorus concentration in liquid fertilizer, and number of plants in a cell. Growth promotion (increase in dry weight) of shoots and roots occurred as the result of AM fungal symbiosis. The effect and enhancement of root ball formation depended on the following conditions : growth medium consisting of brown peat and vermiculite (9 : 1, v/v), the presence of the AM fungus, Gigaspora margarita, 3 or 4 plants per cell in a 200-cell tray, and 5ppm KH2PO4 in the liquid fertilizer. Welsh onion seedlings, infected with Gigaspora margarita, continued to grow rapidly after being transplanted to a new bed soil. These results reveal that AM fungus inoculation is essential for obtaining vigorous Welsh onion seedlings in a short period and for enhancing the initial growth of transplants in a plug seedling system.
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  • Yuji Noguchi, Tatsuya Mochizuki, Kazuyoshi Sone
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 208-213
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The wild, Asian diploid strawberry, Fragaria nilgerrensis has not been exploited as breeding material until now, although interspecific cross compatibility has been investigated with the cultivated strawberry. Breeding to introduce a new aroma from a diploid wild strawberry, F. nilgerrensis, was tried to expand the genetic variation in the cultivated strawberry, F. x ananassa. All lines, derived from interspecific hybridization between F. nilgerrensis var. Yunnan and F. x ananassa cv. Toyonoka, were completely sterile. By doubling the chromosome by in vitro colchicine treatment of the sterile lines, some superior fertile lines were obtained. From the results of RAPD analysis, 'TN13-125', one of these derived from the interspecific hybridization, had fragments specific to both parents. The morphological characters of 'TN13-125' almost resembled 'Toyonoka', but it had some characters from F. nilgerrensis such as numerous hairs on the petioles and peduncles. The fruits have almost the same size, brix and acidity levels as the cultivated strawberry, but they are very soft and pale pink in skin color. The interspecific hybrid resembles F. nilgerrensis in aroma components, with enriched ethyl acetate. The characteristic fragrance of the interspecific hybrid is peach-like. Moreover, it was possible to introduce the aroma from wild strawberry to cultivated types by back-crossing. We are using this hybrid line as the parental material to breed a cultivar with a special flavor.
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  • Kenji Ureshino, Ikuo Miyajima
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 214-219
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The relationship between leaf color and plastid/nuclear genome construction of 45 seedlings from two crosses of R. kiusianum (2n=2x=26)×R. japonicum f. flavum (2n=2x=26) was examined to resolve the frequent appearances of albino progenies among crosses involving Rhododendron species. Leaf color of seedlings segregated into green, pale green, and albino at a ratio, ca. 1 : 2 : 7. An unexpected triploid green plant with 2x and 1x nuclear genome from R. kiusianum and R. japonicum f. flavum, respectively, was detected among the hybrids through isozyme analysis and chromosome observation. PCR-RFLP analysis of matK region revealed that plastid DNA (ptDNA) of all albino hybrids was inherited from R. kiusianum, whereas that of six of seven green hybrids inherited it from R. japonicum f. flavum. The triploid green progeny had ptDNA of R. kiusianum.
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  • Saneyuki Kawabata, Yuhua Li, Megumi Adachi, Hirobumi Maruyama, Eriko O ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 220-225
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Low light intensity causes poor flower pigmentation possibly by two mechanisms : 1) the reaction mediated by photoreceptors located in the petal, 2) the reaction mediated by the sugar supply from leaves or stems. We investigated which mechanism is more important in the pigmentation of the oriental hybrid lily, 'Acapulco' and stock, 'Pigmy Rose'. Shading flowers by cheesecloth (PPFD<17μmol·m-2·sec-1) or by aluminum foil (0μmol·m-2·sec-1) reduced anthocyanin concentration in both species, suggesting that anthocyanin production is a photoreceptor-mediated reaction. When whole plants were shaded by cheesecloth (<17μmol·m-2·sec-1) in lily, anthocyanin concentration became lower than that of flower-shaded plants. This treatment reduced total sugar concentration from 3% to 1.6%, suggesting that limited sugar supply caused poor anthocyanin production in lily. In contrast, in stock, whole plant shading did not reduce anthocyanin concentration as compared with flower-shaded plants, suggesting that the amount of available sugar is not a limiting factor for anthocyanin production. Although this treatment reduced total sugar concentration from 4.7% to 3.7%, it was still higher than that of the control lily plants. When detached florets of stock were placed on sucrose solutions, the anthocyanin concentration declined as hexose concentration in the petal decreased, especially under 2%. These results indicate that, although soluble sugars in petals affected anthocyanin production, their high concentration prevented fading of flower color, even under low light conditions in stock.
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  • Kazuo Ichimura, Rie Goto
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 226-230
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The effects of pulse treatment with gibberellin A3 (GA3), silver thiosulfate complex (STS), and with or without sucrose on chlorophyll degradation and vase life of cut flowers of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis were investigated. The 20-hr pulsing treatment with STS extended the vase life of cut flowers of N. tazetta var. chinensis. Pulse treatments with GA3 delayed degradation of chlorophyll, but extended the vase life only slightly, whereas that with sucrose was ineffective, probably because the concentration of soluble carbohydrates in the stems and floral organs other than the petals was already high. Pulse treatments with STS at 0.1mM in combination with GA3 at 0.5 or 1mM were optimum for extending the vase life and preservation of leaf chlorophyll of N. tazetta var. chinensis.
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  • Hyun Jung Kim, Yoshiji Niimi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 231-235
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To study the influences of the floral stage at the time of pollination on the production of viable seeds in Lilium spp., flower buds and flowers were cross-pollinated 1 and 3 days before anthesis (D -1 and D -3), at anthesis (D 0) and 1, 3 and 5 days after anthesis (D +1, D +3, and D +5). The optimum times of pollination for maximum seed production of each cross-combination were D -1, D 0 and D +1 in 'Enchantment'×L. maculatum, 'Enchantment'×'Connecticut King' and 'Georgia'×'Hinomoto', respectively. It was D 0, D +1 and D +3, respectively, for 'Connecticut King'× L. maculatum and 'Connecticut King'×'Enchantment'. In L. rubellum × L. speciosum 'Uchida' a few seeds were produced only when they were pollinated at D -3 and D +5. The viability of seeds obtained in four cross-combinations was estimated by a pattern of cumulative percentage germination of seeds for 30 days, cumulative percentage germination 30 days after sowing (PG), and mean days to germination (MDG). The results varied among cross-combinations and floral stages at pollination. Seeds, produced from pistils pollinated after anthesis, germinated more rapidly at the higher cumulative percentage than did those from pistils pollinated at and before anthesis. On the basis of these results on the yield of viable seeds and seed germination, we conclude that a large number of high quality seeds can be produced consistently between compatible cross-combinations of Lilium spp. when pistils are pollinated within a few day after anthesis
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  • Tohru Murayama, Hiroshi Yada, Masuko Kobori, Hiroshi Shinmoto, Tojiro ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 236-242
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of four edible chrysanthemum cultivars were assayed. Both components showed marked activities, but the difference among them was not significant. The active compounds were isolated by gel permeation chromatography and HPLC, and their antioxidant activity was characterized by a coulometric detection system. Chlorogenic acid, 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were identified as antioxidants in edible chrysanthemums.
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  • Naoki Yamauchi, Kuniyasu Eguchi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 243-248
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Effects of flavonoid radical formed by a chlorophyll (Chl)-degrading peroxidase in the flavedo extract of the green sour citrus, Nagato-yuzukichi (Citrus nagato-yuzukichi hort. ex Y. Tanaka) fruit on in vitro Chl degradation were determined. Adding hydrogen peroxide accelerated the Chl breakdown by the flavedo extract which included flavonoids and a Chl-degrading peroxidase. During Chl degradation, naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were rapidly oxidized, but only naringin was involved in Chl degradation by Chl-degrading peroxidase. This enzymatic degradation in the flavedo extract was suppressed by the addition of scavengers of radical and superoxide anions. The superoxide formed by a xanthine-xanthine oxidase system and a superoxide dismutase, however, had little effect on Chl degradation. MnCl2, which is a superoxide anion scavenger, also inhibited the flavonoid oxidation. These findings indicate that the naringin radical formed by a Chl-degrading peroxidase in the flavedo could be related to Chl degradation.
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  • Tsuyoshi Tanikawa, Masatoshi Takagi, Masahiko Ichii
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 249-251
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Twenty-two onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars were examined by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Seventeen of the 100 primers screened produced clear, reproducible, polymorphic banding profiles. A total of 88 fragments were produced by 17 primers, of which 35 were polymorphic among the cultivars. All 22 cultivars could be distinguished by the combinations of polymorphic bands generated by various primers. The similarity values which range from 0.836 to 0.979 indicate that genetic diversity is low among onion cultivars. The dendrogram generated by the unweighted paired group method with an arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis reveals six clusters, only 'Super Hi Gold' in cluster F is comparatively separated from the other cultivars. Comparison between clusters and various characteristics, did not demonstrate any relationship. The RAPD marker OPD-03-850 tends to be absent in cultivars which have a high regeneration capacity.
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  • Ran Wang, Masaya Kato, Tomoko Kamo, Fumie Nishikawa, Hiroshi Hyodo, Yo ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 252-254
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ethylene is involved in the premature senescence of broccoli after harvest. In an effort to understand the regulation of ethylene responses, we isolated three partial cDNAs from broccoli, BO-ETR1, BO-ERS, and BO-ETR2 as putative ethylene receptors. BO-ETR2 is a novel cDNA and it shared 77%, 68%, and 58% nucleotide identities with Arabidopsis ETR2 and tomato LeETR4, and BO-ETR1, respectively, in the corresponding regions of 479 bp long. Northern-blot analysis revealed that BO-ETR1 and BO-ERS mRNA were expressed in all examined parts of stem tissue and florets, but the transcription levels were higher in the stem tissue than in florets. During the broccoli senescence no significant change occurred in the expression of BO-ETR1 gene in either the stem or floret tissue. BO-ERS transcripts increased during the first 12 hr after harvest in the first layer of stem cutting, but decreased in the basal portion of curds. BO-ETR2 mRNA, which was maximum at harvest (0 hr), was detected only in the stem tissue. A significant reduction of BO-ETR2 transcripts was observed 36 hr after harvest. The results indicate that the gene expression for the above putative ethylene receptors in broccoli is regulated in a tissue specific manner.
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  • Naofumi Hiehata, Yoshihiko Sato, Shinji Fukuda, Osamu Terai
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 255-261
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To investigate the inheritance of resistance to loquat canker caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. eriobotryae, Group A, 1307 and 1189 loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) progenies from 31 (Exp.1) and 15 (Exp.2) crosses, respectively, were studied. F1 seedlings were inoculated with the bacterial suspension and classified as either resistant (R) or susceptible (S) based on the appearance of black-brown canker 1-2 months after inoculation. Crosses between resistant cultivars resulted in two types of segregation : one cross combination produced only resistant seedlings, whereas another combination yielded progenies with the segregation ratio of 3R : 1S. Progenies derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible cultivars segregated into 1R : 1S, except for five crosses derived from 'Champagne' or 'Fukujuin', in which all seedlings were resistant. All seedlings in the crosses between susceptible cultivars were rated susceptible, except for selfed 'Hondawase', which produced some resistant plants. These results indicate that the resistance to loquat canker is controlled by a single dominant gene. Except for 'Champagne' and 'Fukujuin' which are dominant homozygous plants, the genotype of resistant cultivars in this experiment is heterozygous, whereas that of susceptible cultivars is recessive-homozygous.
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  • Takao Kurahashi, Keisuke Mochida, Masashi Kobatake
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 262-266
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To delay harvest of Japanese persimmon 'Saijo' (Diospyros kaki Thumb.) grown under a greenhouse, the effects of a long-day photoperiod at different light intensities on tree growth and fruit quality were tested. Exposure of 'Saijo' trees to intensive light from August 27 to December 8 under 17±1 hr photoperiod with white fluorescent lamps increased leaf color (SPAD value), secondary shoot growth, and the flesh firmness of the fruit while delaying leaf abscission, fruit color development and decreasing soluble solids content (Brix). These results indicate that the long-day treatment somehow caused delay in fruit maturation and enhances vegetative growth in 'Saijo'. The optimum value of photon flux density (PFD) on the canopy surface was estimated to be 1.5 μmol·m-2·sec-1 to delay harvest of 'Saijo' by approximately 25 days.
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  • Toshiki Mori
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 267-271
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    We developed an evaluation method and the inheritance mode of earliness in strawberry seedlings grown under forcing culture. 1. A bimodal frequency distribution with respect to the date of flower bud occurred in a clonally propagated population of 'Nyoho' which should have been genetically uniform. Therefore, it is difficult to clarify the existence of genetic segregation of earliness in a seedling population with respected to the date of flower bud emergence. 2. The dates of flower bud initiation of clonal lines could be estimated by observing the transplanting date of the first flower bud emergence. The data were derived by planting two plants of each clone every three or four days from Sept. 4 to 28. The resulting frequency distribution of the date of the first flower bud to be initiated was unimodal in 37 clones derived from a cross, indicating that there is no one single major gene for earliness. 3. A significant correlationship was found between the date of flower bud emergence of seedlings raised in the first year and the estimated date of flower bud initiation of clonal plants propagated from each seedling. These results indicate that the selection of the earliness in the seedling stage is possible by establishing the emergence date of the first flower bud, a simple, convenient method.
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  • Noritoshi Katsutani, Shinji Kajihara, Hirokazu Hara
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 272-276
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To determine environmental factors involved in rosette formation of Elatum hybrids of Delphinium, bolting behavior in response to temperatures, photoperiods, and light intensities was investigated. Seedlings rosetted under a natural 10-12 hr photoperiod during winter at 22°C. Seedlings subjected to 25/20°C (day/night) for 40 days just after germination formed rosettes after they were transferred to below 20/15°C, whereas they bolted quickly when they were kept at the continuously high temperature. A high percentage of seedlings bolted when they were transferred to a greenhouse kept above 18°C in early October, but those kept at a minimum temperature of 10°C formed rosettes. This rosette formation was also accelerated by exposing seedlings to 50% shading. We conclude that short days induce rosette formation in Elatum hybrids of Delphinium and that cool temperature accelerated it. Exposure of seedlings to high temperatures during the early seedling stage and/or low light intensity after planting also enhanced rosette formation.
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  • Tanjuro Goto, Taiki Matsuno, Yuichi Yoshida, Yoshihiro Kageyama
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 277-287
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    This experiment was conducted to clarify the effect of fertigation frequency (once or 8 times per day) on the growth, evapotranspiration rate, and photosynthetic and leaf morphological properties of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura cv. Pinky) grown under different restricted root zone volumes (30, 100, and 300 ml). Shoot growth was reduced with decreased root zone volume, but, the growth reduction was smaller when the plants were fertigated 8 times per day rather than once per day. Although the evapotranspiration rate did not decrease when the plants were fertigated frequently, the rate decreased significantly when the total water consumption nearly equaled the water-holding capacity of the medium (50% of the volume), especially in 30-ml or 100-ml containers. Stomata size decreased with a decrease in fertigation frequency and container size. The percentage of open stomata (open/total stomata × 100) and consequently, transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate, and leaf CO2 concentration were significantly lower in the plants grown in 30-ml and 100-ml containers, and fertigated once per day, compared to the four other treatments. The rates of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration of the plants fertigated 8 times per day remained faster than those fertigated only once per day. Consequently, vegetative growth of the plants fertigated frequently was equal to or more vigorous than those grown with three fold greater root zone volume but fertigated only once per day.
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  • Shinji Harima, Ryohei Nakano, Susumu Yamauchi, Yoshinobu Kitano, Yasut ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 284-291
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To establish an optimum postharvest handling technique to reduce loss during transportation and marketing due to softening of CTSD (Constant Temperature and Short Duration)-treated forcing-cultured 'Tonewase' Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.), the effect of packaging in polyethylene bags was studied. 1. Whether perforated or not, packaging of 'Tonewase' persimmons in polyethylene bags significantly suppressed fruit softening and weight loss. Fruit maintained their firmness longest in non-perforated bag with 0.1 mm thick film. The difference in the shelf-life between perforated and non-perforated bags was within several days. 2. A slight induction of ethylene production was observed at the end of the CO2 treatment. The rate of ethylene production in unpackaged (control) fruit increased immediately after the end of the CO2 treatment, and resulted in rapid softening ; fruit packaged in perforated or pin-holed polyethylene bags evolved a trace level of ethylene without a significant change in softening for 10 days. 3. Astringency in the fruit packaged in perforated or pin-holed polyethylene bags was completely removed within 3 days after CO2 treatment, whereas a significant level of soluble tannin remained in the fruit sealed in the non-perforated polyethylene bag 7 days after CO2 treatment. 4. Because a 6-hr delay in packaging in perforated polyethylene bag after harvest eliminated the beneficial effects of the packaging, we recommend that fruit be packaged immediately after harvest to maximize the shelf-life of 'Tonewase' fruit.
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  • Kazutaka Nishikawa, Hidenori Okabayashi, Solomon Bassore Mitiku, Masay ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 292-296
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    'Suisho-buntan' (Citrus grandis [L.] Osbeck) fruits were treated with 0, 20 and 40 ppm ethylene for 72 hr in the dark. After the treatment, the coloring and the secondary metabolites (naringin and volatile compounds) of 'Suisho-buntan' fruits were investigated. The 20 and 40 ppm ethylene-treated fruits advanced degreening of the fruit, compared with the untreated fruits. Analyses for naringin and volatile compounds by HPLC and capillary GC and GC-MS, respectively, revealed that ethylene treatment or the exposure period had no effect on the amount of naringin and the flavoring compounds of cold-pressed oils (CPO) in the fruits. These results suggest that exposure of 'Suisho-buntan' to 20 and 40 ppm ethylene for 72 hr is useful for degreening of fruit for shipment to the market.
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  • Toshiki Asao, Kouhei Tomita, Kumiko Taniguchi, Kazuyori Ushio, Takuya ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 297-299
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The occurrence of deformed leaves in cucumber by the treatment of cold water and its reduction in TNZ303 (mixture of jasmonic acid derivative and brassinosteroids derivative) seed treatment were studied. Treating shoot apices of cucumber seedlings with 4°C water induced the development of deformed leaves and suppressed vegetative growth, whereas treatment with 25°C water had a slight effect on leaf deformity. Immersion of seed in 1000 × dilution of TNZ303 for 24 hr decreased the occurrence of deformed leaves and mitigated the suppression of vegetative growth of seedlings whose apices were treated with 4°C water. These results indicate that seed treatment with TNZ303 can overcome the occurrence of deformed leaves by elevating plant's cold tolerance.
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  • Masahiko Fumuro, Hidemi Gamo
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 300-302
    Published: March 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) 'Hiratanenashi' fruit were treated with carbon dioxide (above 95%) at 25°C for 48 hr just after harvest, held at 25°C for 6 hr, and sealed individually in polyethylene (PE) bags of 0.03 to 0.08 mm thickness. They were stored at 5°C for one day and then at 0°C for 93-day. All fruit were marketable whether packed PE bags or not. No significant differences in flesh firmness and total soluble solids (TSS) content between before and after of storage were found, but fruit colour deepened during storage. Thickness of PE film had no significant effects on storage life and keeping quality. As the storage duration (30 to 120 days) increased, the percentages of marketable fruit decreased slightly but no significant differences occurred in flesh firmness and TSS. Packing in PE bags slowed the rate of softening during a 7-day holding period at room temperature, irrespective of the initial cold storage period. We recommend that CO2-treated 'Hiratanenashi' persimmons are stored in 0.05 mm thickness at 0°C for no more than 4 months to maintain their flavor and texture.
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