Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 73 , Issue 2
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Takashi Haji, Hideaki Yaegaki, Masami Yamaguchi
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 97-104
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The time courses of fruit weight, ground color of skin (a value), flesh firmness, sugar content, titratable acidity and amount of ethylene produced were measured during growth, maturation and senescence of four peach cultivars (Prunus persica Batsch) with different keeping qualities. Special emphasis was placed on the relationships and differences among individual indices of maturation and the characteristics of ethylene production. In the melting-type cultivars 'Akatsuki', 'Kushigatahakuto' and 'Nagasawahakuho', increase in fruit size, changes in ground color, rise in sugar content and reduction in titratable acidity gradually proceeded after full bloom. After a cultivar-dependent period, postharvest ethylene production and softening were clearly accelerated. On-tree ethylene production occurred later. However, there were large varietal differences in the relationship between ethylene production and changes in the indices of maturation. In 'Kushigatahakuto', ethylene production and softening proceeded fruit enlargement, completion of changes in ground color, and the rapid rise in sugar content. In contrast, in 'Nagasawahakuho', which showed a slow and late softening, ethylene production started after attaining full size, accumulating near maximum sugar level and loss of ground color. In the stony hard-type cultivar 'Yumyeong', ethylene production and postharvest softening did not occur; the on-tree flesh firmness decreased to about 4.0 kg. However, the trends in increase in fruit size, change in ground color, sugar accumulation and decreased in titratable acidity, were similar to those of the melting-type cultivars. From these results, we conclude that there are large varietal differences in the softening and maturation characteristics of peach fruit and that the genetics is determinant of these differences.
    Download PDF (858K)
  • Nobuaki Tsuchiya, Masashi Fujinaga, Hideki Ogiso, Tomita Usui, Motohis ...
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 105-113
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Using a method for testing a varietal resistance of lettuce to fusarium root rot, we evaluated the resistance of genetic resources of lettuce gathered from Japan and abroad as an aid to our breeding progrom. Seeds were sown in a mixture of nursery soil of pathogenic fungus-cultured bran and vermiculite (bran:vermiculite = 1:1.5, v/v) and commercial horticultural nursery soil (mixing ratio: 1/10∼1/40, w/w), that included more than 108 cells per ml of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae. The seeded plug trays with the inoculated soil were kept for 30 to 40 days at 15 °C to 35 °C (mean of 25 °C ) in a glasshouse under natural daylength. At the end of incubation period, seeding were indexed for resistance to fusarium root rot. Resistance tests were conducted on 78 accessions of genotypes from Japan, and 77 accessions which were mainly crisp-type lettuce gathered from abroad between 1999 and 2000. Regardless of the sources of these genotypes, large differences were seen in disease severity among the genotypes. Among those from Japan, many of the 'Vanguard' type varieties possessed more resistance to isolate SB1-1 (Race 1) and 'V Lettuce' were highly resistance to isolate SB1-1, whereas 'Empire' types, 'Kikugawa 102' and 'Blizzard'were highly susceptible. However, many 'Vanguard' type varieties, 'V Lettuce' were highly susceptible to isolate F9501 (Race 2). while 'Kikugawa 102' and 'Blizzard' possessed highly resistance to isolate F9501. Compared to those genetic resources gathered from Japan, a larger number of materials from abroad showed resistance. 'Batavia Tezier' and 'Batavia Blonde de Paris' tested to be resistant to both SB1- 1 and F9501.
    Download PDF (877K)
  • Takayuki Mizutani, Takayuki Tanaka
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 114-118
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Interspecific hybrids between Lactuca saligna and L. sativa cv. Bronze were obtained only when L. saligna was used as a seed parent. The seed set ratio of the Fj hybrid was very low (12.0%), however, their seed germination rate was 87.5%. In pollen mother cells of the Ft hybrids, univalent chromosomes were observed at metaphase I and the number of chiasma at diakinesis was fewer than their parental species. At pollen tetrad stage, the number of microspores of FI hybrids varied between 2 and 6. In some F2 hybrids, distorted staining intensities showed a 4:4:1 ratio in all or some of the 5 isozyme loci, suggesting that they were triploids or aneuploids, respectively. The triploids in F2 progeny were screened by flow cytometric analysis at the 2- week-old seedling stage. Microscopic observation of chromosome revealed that 14 of 103 F2 plants were found to be triploid, 2n=3x=27; no aneuploid plants were observed indicating that aneuploids do not survive until the 3- to 4-week-old seedling stage.
    Download PDF (1005K)
  • Takashi Suzuki, Shigemasa Nakamura, Masaru Akiyama, Katsuji Oosawa
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 119-127
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To understand the production of fructo- oligosaccharides in asparagus storage roots, the accumulation of exogenous carbohydrates and changes in the amount of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization (DP) = 3 and 4) were examined in excised stem and root tissues of young asparagus plantlets that had been cultured on a carbohydrate-rich medium. Analyses of the carbohydrates and water content of cultured segments showed that exogenous carbohydrates from the medium gradually penetrated each tissue, regardless of the type of carbohydrate. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides accumulated in segments that had been cultured for more than 12 hr on a medium that contained glucose, fructose or sucrose but not mannitol or sorbitol. Furthermore, not only root tissue but also stem tissue synthesized short- chain fructo-oligosaccharides in vitro. No increase in starch occurred in any segments with or without a carbohydrate in the medium. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides in cultured tissues started to increase at a lower concentration of exogenous carbohydrate in root segments than in stem segments, accumulated to a greater level in the former than they did in the latter after 96 hr- of culture. The threshold level for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis triggered by the accumulated fructose, glucose and sucrose may be lower in root tissue than in stem tissue, that accounts for the difference in fructo-oligosaccharide content between stems and storage roots of intact plantlets.
    Download PDF (1115K)
  • Kenji Yamane, Yoshikazu Yamaki, Nobuaki Fujishige
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 128-133
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Pretreatment of cut florets of Laeliocattleya (Lc.) Irene Finney 'York' with 0.1 //I'liter'1 ethylene for 24 hr promoted ACC oxidase activity in petals and ethylene production by florets 3 days after harvest (DAH), and shortened the vase life from 7.5 to 4.0 days. The ethylene treatment did not affect ACC concentration or ACC synthase activity in the petals. Pretreatments with 1- methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 fj, 1 liter"1 for 4 hr significantly prolonged the vase life of Cattleya alliances. In Brassolaeliocattleya Mem. Robert Hack 'Villa Park', ╲JJL 1 · liter'1 1-MCP application suppressed ACC oxidase activity and ethylene production until 2 DAH and doubled their vase life; ethylene production substantially increased after 4 DAH. There was no difference between single and repeated applications of 1-MCP in prolonging vase life in Lc. Sweet Meringue 'Puriavera'. A 5% sucrose vase solution prolonged the vase life of 'Villa Park' and Lc. Irene Finney 'Rachel'. A combined treatment of 1-MCP and BA had synergistic effects on the vase life of 'Villa Park'. A combined treatment of 1-MCP, sucrose and BA was most effective in prolonging vase life. These results indicate that optimum application of 1-MCP with or without sucrose and BA is feasible to prolong vase life of Cattleya alliances.
    Download PDF (837K)
  • Takuya Tetsumura, Yoshiro Koyanagi, Sosuke Ito, Tsuyoshi Habu, Koshiro ...
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 134-136
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The growth of micropropagated (M) Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kakl Thunb. cv. Nishimura wase) trees from the 8th to llth year after planting was compared with that of trees grafted on seedlings (G) in the orchard. The M trees grew more vigorously than did the G trees; the differences in tree canopy and trunk cross-sectional area between the M and G trees increased annually. The percentage of shoots with male flowers in the total number of shoots in the M trees was lower than that in the G trees., although the difference was not significant. The percentage of shoots with female flowers in the total number of shoots in the M trees was the same as that in the G trees. Although the yield per tree of M trees was larger than that of G trees, there was no significant difference between the G and M trees in the yield efficiency (yield per canopy volume). These results suggest that micropropagation caused reinvigoration, but not true rejuvenation. M trees showed uniform growth, flowering and fruiting.
    Download PDF (513K)
  • Ikuo Miyajima, Diego Mata, Nobuo Kobayashi, Gabriela Facciuto, Silvina ...
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 137-139
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A simple and practical method of propagating Jacaranda mimosifolia by cuttings was investigated. More than 86% of the softwood cuttings from young shoots rooted without IBA treatment, but no rooting occurred in the hardwood cuttings. The roots, 5-10cm long, emerged from softwood cuttings two months after planting, indicating that this is a simple and practical method for vegetative propagation of J. mimosifolia.
    Download PDF (610K)
  • Akira Kuriyama, Tohru Kobayashi, Masuo Maeda
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 140-142
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Spores of Cyathea lepifera were cultured aseptically on half strength Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS medium) without sucrose. Germinated spores grew to form heart-shaped gametophytes after about 30 days of culture that initiated both antheridia and archegonia. Mature gametophytic tissues can be subcultured on the same medium. The addition of sucrose to the culture medium enhanced the growth rate significantly, but it did not induce the production of a sporophytic plant. When MS medium without sucrose was diluted to 1/10, 1/20, 1/40 or 1/80, sporophytic plants were produced. Sporophytic plants can be propagated on full strength of MS medium with or without sucrose by excising and culturing a part of a shoot tip.
    Download PDF (1138K)
  • Takenori Asada
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 143-149
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The influence of the proportion of terminal spurs originating mainly from short 2-year-old woods and lateral spurs originating from lateral buds of long 2-year-old woods to total 1-year-old woods on the vegetative and reproductive growth of 'Fuji' and 'Orin' apple trees (Mains domestica Borkh), was investigated. The ratio'of terminal spurs to the total 1-year-old woods varied from 1.4 to 62.8%, whereas that of lateral spurs ranged from 22.4 to 85.2%. In 'Fuji' trees, with the open center (OG) system, the proportion of terminal spurs was 24.7% and that of lateral spurs was 56.9%; in the central leader (CL) type, it was 24.6 and 56.7%. In 'Orin', however, the proportion was 30.2 and 46.5% for terminal spurs and lateral spurs, respectively. Hense, the proportion of terminal spurs was inversely related to that of lateral spurs in both varieties and training systems. The ratio of these two kinds of spurs, characterizes the vegetative and reproductive growth of lateral branches, indicating that on branches with a higher percentage of lateral spurs, there are more shoots per 1-year-old wood . There was a negative relationship between the percentage of flower bearing 1-year-old woods and the percentage of terminal spurs in 'Fuji'-CL (R2=0.58). The percentage of terminal spurs and fruit set of lateral spurs accounted significantly for the variation in number of fruit per leaf area. These results suggest that the ratio of lateral to terminal spurs can be utilized as an indicator to control the vegetative and reproductive growth.
    Download PDF (873K)
  • Sunao Tachibana, Shigeki Yahata
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 150-156
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Using early ripening satsuma mandarin 'Miyagawa Wase' trees, yearly fluctuations in yields of each of three trees grown under four different conditions were examined for 20 years: 4-23 years old. The trees were planted at a density of 1, 250 trees/ha (2.8 m × 2.8 m) in volcanic ash soil. The cultural treatments adopted were (A) no pruning + no fruit thinning; (B) pruning + fruit thinning under no plowing + less fertilization condition; (C) no pruning + no fruit thinning and (D) pruning + fruit thinning under deep plowing + standard fertilization condition. The yields in no pruning + no fruit thinning plots (A and C) and in pruning + fruit thinning plots (B and D) increased while the trees were young although there were some yearly fluctuations. However, marked alternate bearing habits started at the 12th year in A and C plots, and at the 15th year in B and D plots. Using the data obtained from the year when alternate bearing started until the year the experiment finished when the trees were 23 years old, relationships between the number of fruits harvested per unit total leaf area on the tree in a given year and that in the following year were determined for each plot. The regression equation revealed that the number of leaves per fruit (leaf: fruit ratio) to attain the same yield the following year (no alternate bearing) was approximately 35 under the no plowing + less fertilization condition; the leaf :fruit ratio was 50 under the deep plowing + standard fertilization condition. Consequently it was concluded that to ameliorate or prevent the alternate bearing tendency of mature trees in plot B, the crop needs severe fruit thinning to reduce the leaf: fruit ratio to 35. Under plot D, the crop load needs to be decreased by fruit thinning to the leaf: fruit ratio 50. One solution to prevent alternate bearing would be to improve light interception by decreasing the tree density by tree removal. Further more, under plot B, fruit thinning to attain the leaf: fruit ratio of 35, the number of new leaves on spring shoots must be adjusted to the number of flower buds in the following year within a range essential for a high sustained yield.
    Download PDF (825K)
  • Ichiro Nishiyama, Tetsuo Fukuda, Tadachika Oota
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 157-162
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Actinidin, a cysteine protease in kiwifruit, affects the taste, allergenic properties, and characteristics for processing the fruit. The actinidin concentration and the protease activity in the fruit juice of six Actinidia arguta and two A. rufa cultivars were determined by quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometric assay, using L-pyroglutamyl-L-phenyl-alanyl-L-leucinep-nitroanilide as a substrate. In 'Shinzan', 'Hirano', 'Gassan', and 'Mitsuko', both actinidin concentration and protease activity in the juice were much higher than those of 'Hayward', the most common kiwifruit cultivar, whereas protease activities in 'Kosui', 'Awaji', and 'Nagano' were significantly lower. These results indicate that there are varietal differences in actinidin content in the fruit ofActinidia species.
    Download PDF (1498K)
  • Masamichi Okada
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 163-170
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Relationships between the non-structural carbohydrate (C) and nitrogen (N) content of the leaves and roots and the productivity in consecutive seasons of 16-year-old satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu, Marc. cv. Aoshima) trees were investigated. Flower formation in the following season had the highest positive correlations with both leaf and root C content in November (maturation period). The correlations with root C in February (dormant period) in each season were also high, but they became slightly lower when the data for the two seasons were combined. Nitrogen content did not appear to be important for flower formation. Fruit set after June drop in the following season had the highest positive correlation with root C content in February. Multiple regression analysis showed that the root N content in February contributed greatly to fruit set. These nutritional factors were somewhat less effective than productive factors in the current season for estimating flower formation in the following season, but they were much more effective for evaluating fruit set after June drop. These results show that reserved nutrients can be effective predictors of fruit productivity in satsuma mandarin trees.
    Download PDF (967K)
  • Yasufumi Fukumoto, Yasuyo Nishimura, Kazuhiko Shimasaki
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 171-177
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of the fruit load (stress caused by cropping) on sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plant on fruit set and bearing habit were examined. The number of flowers and fruit set were found to affec the number of fruits produced, but this effect became weaker as the fruit bearing period becam> shorter. As the fruit bearing period became extended, the photosynthetic products were partitionei preferentially to the thickening fruits rather than to the roots, resulting in a high shoot to root weigh ratio. Increase or decrease in yield was attributable to differences in the fruit load, e. g., minimizinj crop load stress promoted a stable yield. Hence, it is advisable to take measures that allow a constan growth of fruits. The utilization of 1) primary scaffold branches for fruiting, 2) optimum manuring ani 3) pruning and training similar to a hedge-row planting, to maintain plant vigor are desirable.
    Download PDF (821K)
  • Motoaki Doi, Nobuyuki Ishikawa, Katsuhiko Inamoto
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 178-183
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Corms of Freesia hybrida hort. 'Aladdin' (semi-late flowering cultivar) were exposed to 3°C for 0-4 weeks from August 7, and then to 9°C for 6 weeks, and finally grown at 21°C. Exposing corms to 3°C stopped leaf initiation, and it had no influence on the flower-bud initiation which occurred during the subsequent exposure to 9°C. However, the 3°C treatment hastened flower bud development at 21°C and decreased the number of days at 21°C to flowering by a maximum 10 days. This promotive after- effect of 3°C was not obvious in the early flowering cultivar, 'Rapid Yellow'. Small corms (3.5g) of 'Aladdin' were less responsive to 3°C than were the larger corms (6g). The sensitivity to chilling was gradually increased with time after the corm dormancy broke, indicating that juvenility governs it. Both wet and dry corms responded to the chilling treatment, but the response disappeared when the corms were chilled under controlled atmosphere (CA) at 3% O2, 3% CO2 and 94% N2 or modified atmosphere (MA) in 0.04mm in thick polyethylene bags.
    Download PDF (864K)
  • Chang-Guo Xu, Akira Nakatsuka, Hiroyuki Itamura
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 184-188
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP) treatment on flesh firmness, ethylene production and the activities of cell wall degrading enzymes in 'Saijo' persimmon after removal of astringency with dry ice (CO2) were investigated. In the control fruit, rapid flesh softening and increase of α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF-ase) activity coincided with ethylene production after removal of astringency. These processes were retarded by the MCP treatment. The activities of polygalacturonase, β-D-galactosidase and β-D-xylosidase did not parallel ethylene production during flesh softening after removal of astringency. These results suggest that the increase in AF-ase activity was induced by endogenous ethylene, leading to rapid fruit softening in 'Saijo' persimmon after the CO2 treatment.
    Download PDF (686K)
  • Shin-ichi Nishimoto, Fumio Hashimoto, Keiichi Shimizu, Yusuke Sakata
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages 189-191
    Published: March 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Flowers of interspecific hybrids derived from a cross between Camellia chrysantha and white colored C. japonica have a pale yellow color. Hue-angles on petals of interspecific hybrids are quite similar to those of C. chrysantha, but the C-values of petal hues are intermediate between those of the parents. Almost the entire content of flavone-flavonol pigments but a low level of carotenoid pigments were transmitted to the F1 progenies. Among the parent camellias and interspecific hybrids, a relatively high correlation was observed between carotenoid contents and C-values. Because adequate yellow color was not transmitted from C. chrysantha, the seed parent, backcrossing of interspecific hybrids to C. chrysantha may be a possible means to increase the carotenoid content in the petals.
    Download PDF (549K)
feedback
Top