Throughfall at an experimental Cryptomeria japonica stands in Nagasaka, Akita prefecture in a snowy region of Japan was measured using large bucket rain-snow gauges during the snow cover season from December 24, 2008 through March 17, 2009: 83 days. The canopy openness above the gauges was also calculated from hemispherical photographs. The order of canopy openness values (mean ± SD) from least open to most open was unthinned (15.1 % ± 6.5), thinned (34.3 % ± 8.2), and spur road (61.4 % ± 11.7). Multiple comparisons for canopy openness revealed significant differences among all combinations of the unthinned, thinned and spur road plots. During the season, the order of ratio of throughfall to gross precipitation from lowest to highest was unthinned plot (83.7 % ± 12.1), thinned plot (85.9 % ± 8.3), and spur road plot (89.6 % ± 5.8). Positive correlation was found between canopy openness and the ratio of throughfall to gross precipitation (r = 0.783, p < 0.001). Additionally, a significant logarithmic relation was found between canopy openness and the ratio of throughfall to gross precipitation (r = 0.884, p < 0.001). Winter precipitation during the season was categorized into solid and liquid precipitations based on the air temperature. The ratio of throughfall to gross precipitation tended to increase with the ratio of snowfall to gross precipitation.
Globally, the biological treatment of various types of wastewater is sustainable, cost-effective, and energy producing way to overcome the water quality as well as scarcity problems. Through the last ten years, I studied as master and doctoral student, and taught as assistant professor about this topic. Currently, I am working in this topic as a postdoctoral fellow. The most interesting sights in my research about this topic are its multidisciplinary and applicability. Doing research is like an endless journey, the long you spend, the much you learn and add.