Universities has been expected to be an institute which a variety of regional problems are solved utilizing collaboration with regions. However, the issues of university's regional engagement had not been clear because of insufficient discussion about it until now. Therefore, this paper unveils the current situation and the distilled issues of university's regional engagement by means of questionnaire survey. The result indicates that one of the most serious problems are shortage of staff and finance. To encourage the regional engagement of university much more, it is necessary to secure human and financial resources. At the same time, university's regional engagement is captured not as the single action but as system combined with education and research. In additon, the government should support it accommodating to the characteristics of university, regional situation and needs.
Over the past two decades, the engagement of higher education to the regional development has been high in the UK national policy agenda. This paper reviews the development of government policies, institutional strategies and management practices at the local level. The diversity of the practices at the institutional level and challenges in sustaining relationships at the regional/local level are discussed.
Kochi University, after transformed into the national university corporation, specified on the 3rd mid-term plan that acted as a hub of knowledge, interaction, and human resource development in local areas, in order to establish the foundation of a higher educational institution as a "local oriented university". Since 2013, the national reform project for universities named "Center of Community; COC" have been implemented by Ministry of Education, Cultural, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. Four University Block Coordinators in Kochi University being assigned and stationed in each zoned area of Kochi Prefecture, in line with this project, have made efforts in the frontline as a key player who should backup the development of organizational collaboration between the university and local communities. This paper will introduce the recent case studies of collaborative activities with University Block Coordinators, Kochi University and local stakeholders and present the challenges and prospects facing higher educational institutions.
Iwate University is a medium-sized national university in local area, and has been promoting Iwate Network System (INS) which is free and informal industry-academia-government collaboration activities. After incorporation in 2004 the university has strategically expanded the regional cooperation with local governments. From 2011 we are working united up to the reconstruction of the Sanriku-area, which suffered devastating damage by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Furthermore, from 2015, we are working on "regional revitalization promotion business as the Center of Community (COC +)" to work in the regional revitalization strategy in the region.
There are lots of companies concerning to surface finishing, metal processing, machining and chemicals for texstile products and glasses frames in Fukui prefecture. The cooperative research with some of these companies have been carried out since 70's, while the cooperative research between the private company and the national university was considered as one kind of taboo in those days. The majority of the companies in Fukui area are middle or small sizes and private holding. Those small/middle size companies don't have the financial strength and the human resource compared to the large company, but the technological development may be planed in longer range in them because the owner stay at CTO like position in longer duration in small/middle size companies. So, in order to challenge to grobal new market based on their unique skills quickly, they would like to corabolate with the academia now. Considering this situation, the approaches in University of Fukui to activate the industries in Fukui are summarized here.
Place Brands have penetrated the market and get high reputation. "Brand Ranking and Brand Authorization System" which the market developed have produced new bland value. But the new brand value demands to manage globalization, reinforcement of evidence, and industry-university- public-private sectors co-operation etc., to each brand provider. The correspondence to those social demands is a duty of the brand provider. However, the provider of place brand is often small organization, it is difficult to manage the harder demands. So, they expect the participation of university, as a local member, as expert, as a third mission of University. On the other hand, it is important for university to regard this participation as a good opportunity for research and education.
This study is the research about these 5 years change regarding the collaboration between universities and financial institutions in Japan. In these years, the financial institutions are expected to play the bridge role in the collaboration between industry and academia. But the environment around regional financial institutions in Japan has been changing greatly in these 5 years, and we can be thinking this big change has influenced the collaboration between universities and financial institutions. So we had gathered information by the questionnaires survey in 2014 and compared with the survey in 2009. Our findings as follows; We could confirm that most of national universities with the liaison sectors, just like collaborative research centers, and regional financial institutions in Japan were making close relationship each other in 2009, and the high percentage of relationship was still keeping in 2014. And national universities showed the tendency that they focused their interest to liaison activity in these 5 years. And the change of the environment around regional financial institutions had especially influenced the regional bank's attitude. Regional banks showed the tendency that they wanted some concrete results from the collaborations, for example "customer satisfaction", "the contribution for getting deposit and lending" and "bankers skill up".
Risk management for technology transfer is getting important for universities and researchers in accordance with appearance of legal cases in which issues are relating to liabilities of universities in university-industry collaboration projects. In this paper, we provide a method for separating business risks from universities by using legal entities having juridical personalities different from universities, taken the leading roles by universities or researchers, under constraint of human and expenditure resource. Specifically, we point out risks tended to be ignored in university-industry collaboration projects and indicate the criteria for selecting the form of legal entity to be used. Furthermore, a case study will be introduced which shows one method of legal entity establishment performed by Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology.
Receiving foreign students is one of the key strategies to obtain international talent. A scholarship is essential to attract talented foreign students. However, the scholarship system, which had previously provided assistance to 100,000 international students, was not changed accordingly. Delays in reforming the system have led to its gradual obsolescence. Not only has the government failed to reach its policy goals, it has also put at risk Japan's ability to attract top international talent in a competitive environment for global human resources. In this paper the author first examine the existing scholarship system for international students, highlighting the role of the system plays and its flaws. Next we discuss the development of scholarship programs for acquiring human resources. Further, based on a model from the health and welfare sector, we consider the international student scholarship system as one of the measures to ensure foreign human resources.
In this paper, we discussed "Joint Research Chair", which is one type of organizational industry-university collaborations. We have been involved in the operation of the Joint Research Chair of Osaka University since the early period. Based on the approach to it, we analyzed its features and achievements from the corporate side. Characteristic features of Joint Research Chair were classified into three functions; "the field for validation of the social implementation of university seeds", "the field of human resource development and exchange with the aid of human networks" and "the field in the university where fundamental technologies are maintained and developed". The first and second functions have been implemented in our previous joint research, and further advanced in the Joint Research Chair. The third function has been regarded important but not realized. We found, if industry-university collaborations share the same place, advanced achievements contributing to industries arise and activities become vigorous even in traditional technology areas.
This paper abstracted success factors of "bridging" between the gaps of industries and a national research laboratory, and developed it into a model, based on examples including a manufacturing method of the Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube, which is a research result by AIST and going to be put to practical use. We used indexes including "Patent scores" concerning the degree of attention received by the successful filing of patents (a popular index developed by an enterprise) in appraisal of technical quality, and in the conclusion, successful factors of "bridging" exist in close, long, frequent and intensive application activities of joint patents between one or two particular enterprises and a research institution. The activities are able to be estimated quantitatively and more generally using the products of three indexes the authors promote: (1) the share of top (and second) enterprise(s) which possesses patents co-shared by a research institution, (2) the degree of long-term and frequent joint-application activities by a particular enterprise and the research institution, (3) the degree of concentration of periods in the joint application activities.
The promotion of effective and efficient Universities- Industries Collaborations is wanted recently. In response to these voices, many performance measurements and validation studies with quantitative analyses concerning Universities-Industries Collaborations are tried in Japan. This study reviewed previous studies with quantitative analyses concerning Universities-Industries Collaborations in Japan, and tried to clear time-series variation of studies, typification with each study's background and effect factors. From this study we could confirm following three factors. 1) Japanese Universities- Industries Collaborations have unique historical background and various collaboration styles deferent from Europe and United States of America. 2) Collaborations with small and medium size companies in Japan are increasing in another sense of Silicon Valley. 3) Japanese Universities- Industries Collaborations are the systems much influenced by regional factors.
We analyzed collaborative research contract information of 2004-2013 financial years, in order to clarify the situation of University-Industry research collaborations and the geographical distribution of the partners in Ehime University. We obtained following results. 1)In case of partners of large enterprises, the partners that are located in Kanto, Kinki, Tokai, Chugoku and Shikoku area and Ehime Pref. occupy 97%. After 2009FY, the cooperative researches with large enterprises that are located in Kanto, Kinki, and Tokai area are increasing. 2)In case of partners of small and medium-sized enterprises, the partners that are located in Ehime Pref., Kinki, Shikoku and Kanto area occupy 92%. The cooperative researches with small and medium-sized enterprises have a tendency to decrease. 3)Partners of the majority of the cooperative researches with non-companies organization are located in Ehime prefecture. The tendency of decreasing of cooperative researches between Ehime University and companies in Ehime prefecture is thought a big problem for promoting of the local innovation. It is necessary to clarify and compare the situation of other areas, and to examine measures in future.
Yamaguchi University has been introduced the intellectual property (IP) education as a compulsory subject into the common curriculum of a freshman course for all departments (approximately 2,000 students) in April 2013, which is the first initiative among all the universities in Japan. The actions to improve the IP subject for the next year were the equalization of the learning contents for every class and the introduction of the homework reports, etc. As the result, the voluntary learning time and a rate of the correct answers to the regular examination were getting increased, and the level of understanding of the students on the basic IP knowledge has been enhanced. Moreover the understanding of the lecture contents, the achievement level of the learning objective, and the satisfaction rate for the class were ameliorated. It was also confirmed that interest in IP of the students were changed much better than before they attended this subject.
The 5th Science and Technology Basic Plan requested Japan to be the most innovative country by gathering and bring up the power of various talents. Upon the request, the projects to rally various talents in National Research Agencies as the "Innovation Hub" and to establish the basis of innovation drive have been proceeding as one example. In these projects, the Organizational Management is more important for development of innovative solution. But we are thinking this problem is not discussed deeply in the field of R&D in Japan. I want to make following suggestion from a viewpoint of Organizational Behavior Management and Diversity Management to overcome the challenges in the talents rallying organization and to get more fruitful results. 1) It should be inspected whether the purpose of diversity organization is stated clearly with words to person in the organization. 2) It should be inspected whether fair treatment and cares for the minority are both completed in the organization. 3) It should be inspected whether the unconscious discrimination against the minority, Glass Ceiling, is in the organization.