The purpose of the present study was to investigate the judgment-specific brain activity during audio-visual temporal order judgment task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (functional MRI). Twenty healthy volunteers were asked to judge whether visual and auditory stimuli were presented synchronously or not in a MRI. As the result, the frontal and parietal cortex, cerebellum and thalamus were significantly activated during audio-visual synchronization task. More importantly, the right ventral posterior parietal cortex was significantly activated only when subjects judged that the two stimuli were not synchronized. Therefore, activity in the right ventral posterior parietal cortex might be useful to estimate subjective judgments in audio-visual temporal order judgment task.
We present an interactive grid layout generation system using Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC). A grid layout is a basic and simple layout, but making it becomes tedious work as the number of grids increases. Our grid layout generation system allows users to easily and quickly obtain a favorite grid layout with just a few operations. We have implemented a collage image generating application using our grid layout generation system. Through several experimental evaluations utilizing our implemented application, we affirmed that our proposed grid layout generation system enables novice users to easily and quickly produce their desired grid layouts in less than 40 seconds. This proposed system is useful for not only Japanese but also foreigners. In addition, we believe that the fitness function based on the visual features is effective for the proposed system.
Design management methods have recently become crucial not only for corporations but also for Vocational Aid Centers(VACs)for attractive product development. Because of the recent enactment of the Services and Support for Persons with Disabilities Act, VACs now have a need to support their workers to be financially independent. In order to achieve this goal, VACs are expected to have managerial perspectives to develop competitive products in the market. We interviewed seven successful VACs to analyze the conditions for success as well as effective design management methods. In this report, we focus on three cases, which have developed attractive non-food products and have been making stable profits. The outcome of our analysis led us to add five more factors for success to the five written in the previous research  . They include: “Customer centered product development,” and “Solution for technical shortcomings through collaborations with corporations and universities”.
In this study, we developed four tests to estimate the ability to discriminate the design style of MUJI, which is a well-known retail brand. These tests are designed to measure a participant's ability to discriminate unknown designs by using prior knowledge of the design style. There were four steps used to develop the tests. First, one hundred and one items were developed. Second, a survey with three hundred and seven participants was conducted to examine effectiveness of the items. Third, after conducting an item analysis and verification of unidimensionality, seventy-three items were excluded. Next, an item response theory analysis was performed to the remaining twenty-eight items and their parameters of slope (discrimination) and location (difficulty) were calculated. As a result, we constructed four tests. The first two tests have similar characteristics and performances. The other two tests were for participants that had high or low ability using the twenty-eight items.
In this study, we are intended to clarify the factors that affect the sustainable management of the NPO Corporation from the affective side. We captured the possibility of sustainability from the sustained hope and sustained confidence of corporate subject and explored the factors that affect it using the Classification and Regression Trees method. In conclusion, we found that the key to the sustainability of the NPO Corporation is not to rely on the “donation”, and owning the consciousness of “emphasizing the ability to respond to external change.” When the value of factor “the continuity support from the members” is low, the effort to get a “subvention from the company” becomes important. Besides that, the low publicity is the impact factor to the NPO Corporation that owns no confidence to sustainable management.
This research aims to verify the influence of EOAE (essential oil aroma environment) through a behavioral and ERP(event related potential) study. By this we hope to undercover the brain activity which assists sense, learning and knowledge of aroma. EFL (English as a foreign language) class was performed with an EOAE blend of rosemary cineole 1,8 and lemon. As a result, the target group which learned under EOAE did not have significant difference in result. The survey followed with an ERP evaluation using an odd ball task to measure the degree of attention. As a result, a possible P3a and MMN (Mismatch negativity) amplitude was found to differ between the target and control group. P3a is a subcomponent of P300 which is an attention related component, and MMN is a component that detects auditory deviance in an even sequence of tones. Two other unknown EOAE components that assist only with EOAE were also found.
This study is to clarify the factor of “Kansei” in operation of human interface systems. “Kansei” includes conscious aspect and unconscious aspect. Physiological responses are necessary to evaluate unconscious aspect. In this paper, “sakusaku” feeling at car navigation operation is measured. Relationship between subjective evaluation and, Electrocardiograph measurement and Near Infra- Red Spectroscopy measurement is investigated. Experimental data shows that physiological responses are effective to evaluate unconscious aspect.
In this research, a novel type of interface by seat surface inclination for electric wheelchair is developed in order to improve the current Joystick one. The sensibility evaluation experiments based on low and high velocities are carried out. By using the tilt sensor in this study, the data of cushion's inclinations are recorded to manipulate the wheelchair. The reformed wheelchair is evaluated by the SD method. 20 students are participated in the experiment which is executed in a room with 5m×5m size. The respondents answer the surveys after operating. First, the experiment results indicate that the interface form is feasible. The comments on the low velocity mode are relatively well among the two velocities. Compared with taking fully automatic ones, when the user is taking our developed wheelchair, the low velocity mode is preferred.
This study investigated the basis of a right-side dominance in aesthetic arrangement. In experiment 1, in order to examine the effect of attended position in pictures on aesthetic arrangement, we manipulated the positions of the fixation points, which attract observer's attention, and centroids of triangle arrangement for three objects. Participants rated preference, balance, beauty and harmony by the use of seven points scale for each of the pictures. We found that participants evaluated highly aesthetic in viewing the pictures whose arrangement centroids were near to the fixated position. In experiment 2, in order to examine the effect of participant's dominant hand on aesthetic arrangement we presented the objects which the participants are willing to manually manipulate, or the object which they should avoid to manually touch for right-handed or left-handed participants. We found that right-handed participants evaluated highly aesthetic in viewing the pictures whose arrangement centroid was at right side, but left-handed participant did not.
We are researching remote communication systems that use the eyes and their peripheral areas as visual information. In this paper, we investigated the impressions Subject Group A and Subject Group B receive from photos of the eyes and their peripheral areas and the whole face as stimuli and analyzed the results. In the experiment, we asked two male and two female models to cooperate and photographed their eyes, the peripheral areas, and the whole face. We then prepared Subject Group A and Subject Group B. In the test procedure, we asked Subject Group A to look at the photos that cover the eyes and peripheral areas of female models and answer the questionnaire. We then asked the groups to look at the photos that cover the whole face and answer the same questionnaire. We subsequently asked Subject Group B to look at only the photos that cover the whole face of female models and to answer the same questionnaire. The same test was also conducted with photos of male models. Factor analysis extracted three factors: funny, cool-headed, and quiet. We examined whether the first impression changes depending on the method for showing photos of faces or whether the impression formed later changes depending on that method. Finally, we considered the relationships between selection of visual information for Videophone and the quality of communication.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the Kansei (sensibility) of the architect Le Corbusier (1887-1965), concerning the process of change of the architectural concept on ‘Window’ from the viewpoint of Kansei-philosophy. Through the analysis of the architectural works, the author pointed out to Le Corbusier's 9 types of windows, ‘fenêtre en longueur (strip window)’, ‘pan de verre (glass wall)’, ‘pan de verre irrégulière (irregular glass wall)’, ‘pan de verre ondulatoire (wave glass wall)’, ‘aérateur (ventilator)’, ‘fenêtre (conventional window)’, ‘briques de verre (glass block)’, ‘claustras’ and ‘canon (gun)’. Through the analysis of the design process, the author concluded that Le Corbusier purified the physiological and multiple functions of the window by adapting each type of window.
In order to discuss the risk involved in purchasing products that cannot be tried when shopping online, this study investigated the difference in tactual sensations between fabrics and pictures, with a precondition that participants should not touch them. Sixteen participants were presented with 24 different textures (4 cm × 4 cm, 12 fabrics, 12 pictures) and were evaluated for tactual sensation. The result shows that two factors, “material sense” and “touch sense” could be extracted from the tactual sensation values. By interchanging the pictures and fabrics, much of the detailed information of the two factors was lost. The results also showed that fabric colors had psychological effects, which had a high possibility of giving a false impression to consumers. Therefore, if the psychological effect of colors giving a misleading impression is taken into considerations, it can be expected to mitigate the consumers' risk.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the Kansei (sensibility) of ‘window’ through the journey of Le Corbusier (1887-1965) in 1911 and his architectural works from the viewpoint of Kansei-philosophy. At first, the author analyzed Le Corbusier's descriptions concerning Le Corbusier's journey (Voyage d'Orient carnets (1911) and Le Voyage d'Orient (1965)), and his work (Le Corbusier & Pierre Jeanneret OEuvres complètes, vols.8 (1910-1969)). Using the KJ method, the author extracted from his journey, 5 themes concerning ‘window’ (‘material’, ‘color’, ‘form’, ‘light’ and ‘view’), and it was found that Le Corbusier modernized these 6 themes (the said themes and ‘ventilation’) in the stage of his architectural activity. Through the comparison of these themes, the author discussed the importance of natural landscape through the window as the reflection of Le Corbusier's architectural Kansei (sensibility).
Recently, the word “kawaii” is getting familiar to many people. They have greater opportunities to use “kawaii” in their conversations, and so, the meaning contained in “kawaii” have become diverse with confusion. In despite of this situation, it seems like there are a lot of cases that pink is the typical color representative of “kawaii” on product planning. In this study, it is intended to classify the test subjects and clarify the taste characteristic of each cluster from the aspect of “kawaii”. We conducted the survey to 360 women in their students to 30's by using the panel of 48 colors. As a result, six clusters of “kawaii” color were obtained. We found out that there are variations of “kawaii”, and the point where people feel “kawaii”, including colors, images and values differs from one type to another.
E-learning is the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. In e-learning systems, even though few researches on such systems have investigated learner emotions. Research has proposed systems that provide functions to analyze such learner emotions as boredom, interest, or sadness. Unlike previous work, we propose a new e-learning system that considers attention, motivation, satisfaction, enjoyment, interest, anxiety, frustration, scare and tiring. We designed and implemented a prototype experimentally evaluated it, and confirmed that emotional aspects are important in e-learning.
This study aims to clarify the transition of a “roof garden” before the World War II from the viewpoint of Kansei philosophy. We discuss the import of the European roof garden in Japanese Modern architecture and its transition. In this study, we adopt the following five indexes: “use,” “building types,” “material,” “structure,” and “location” using several architectural journals, which were issued before the war. As a result, the import of the roof garden in Japanese Modern architecture is a transition process from a commercial to a domestic garden. Such a process indicates the continuity of Kansei concerning the “view” in the traditional Japanese garden.
The purpose of this study was to see whether fashion image terminology in general use is objective as indicator terms having the same effects on consumers in general and to verify its usefulness as a shared language tool. We found variation in the image terms chosen for fashion styles that combine multiple taste elements. Particularly, clear classification proved difficult as multiple terms were chosen for one style, such as “romantic/feminine,” “country,” “girly,” or “elegant.” This may be connected to the terms themselves having lost objectivity as their distinguishing properties have grown ambiguous through widespread use. However, to some degree limited images were accepted for styles having clear distinguishing features such as texture and color. Clearly, sufficient consideration needs to be given to their selection when using objective sensory categories and image terms in fashion as a communication language.
The objective of this research is to clarify the relationship between the practice of the human-centered design (HCD) and the obstacles for applying its approach, based on the research on several factors in the HCD processes in the development of hardware devices with the embedded software such as office equipment, home electronics and information equipment. Also discussed are the structure of the obstacles factors in applying the HCD processes in real settings and the way to make better use of the HCD processes to avoid such obstacles.
The sign board (Kanban) is an important presence in order to let people know the existence of the object. Currently, the production of signs is done by experts with specific skills. What is the element of the sign to be found in many people? What factors of lurking on the sign? Many factors have been encapsulated in the sign board. We proposed a new method of the sign evaluation by using the concept of deviation regarded as an object the sign in the previous paper. In this paper, we show that the power set of attributes of the sign constitutes a fuzzy measure. From the results, by using fuzzy integrals, we propose a fundamental methodology for obtaining an overall rating of the sign board. Also, we have shown practical examples in order to show the effectiveness of the method proposed here.
Information other than object appraisal is not presented in kansei evaluation experiments. However, in actual consumer activities, consumers are also influenced by external information (stimuli) other than the image that the product itself holds, and finally arrive at the decision to purchase the item. In this study, for the purpose of analyzing the influence that the presentation of price has on kansei evaluation, we conducted kansei evaluation experiments with accessories that use Kanazawa gold leaf, one of the traditional crafts of Ishikawa prefecture, and compared the data on the kansei evaluation of the object on which the price was displayed to that of objects on which the cost was not displayed. On average, we was able to observe the relation of price in the kansei word of “expensive-looking ⇔ accessible” and that the presentation of value may partially influence the kansei evaluation. In the correspondence analysis, the compared results showed a change in the relationship between kansei words and object appraisal (accessories).
Yuki-Tsumugi has very long history and was registered with intangible cultural heritage promoted by UNESCO in 2010. The purpose of this study is to investigate texture characteristic to describe Kansei values of Yuki-tsumugi. We carried out two experiments; one was sensory inspection to evaluate tactile sensation by the method of paired comparisons, the other was to measure mechanical properties by KES-F (Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabric). As results, it was clarified that a Honba Yuki-tsumugi was superior in bending and shear recovery. Its surface had small coefficient of friction and it was bulky. Furthermore, a high correlation between “flexibility” and shear rigidity (G) was shown.
In the research on emotion, films have been used widely as a means for eliciting emotions in a laboratory because they affect psychological states of human beings. The studies by Philippot (1993), Gross & Levenson (1995) and Noguchi (2005) showed that specific emotion states, i.e., amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, happiness, neutral, sadness and surprise, should be reliably elicited by films. In the media society we are living, the use of films as an effective representation for communicating information among ourselves has been increasing. As the previous studies showed, films should elicit emotions, and therefore the films used in the media society should affect the emotional nature of the media society. In order to establish a sound media society, it is required for those who produce films to understand appropriately the psychological states of the people who watch them. The purpose of this study was to develop producers' media literacy by the knowledge how specific films used in the media society should elicit specific emotional states of the viewers. We investigated psychological states of viewers in terms of their Kansei reaction, which is, in this experiment, the ability to induce the preference evaluation, i.e., like or dislike, when watching the films. We used four films associated with different types of information having the same playback time. Forty-nine participants carried out preference evaluations after watching the four films. We measured the Kansei reactions of the participants using 16 emotions proposed by Gross & Levenson (1995) and impression evaluations for 14 adjective pairs proposed by Gwasaki (2002). The result showed the way how the emotions and the impressions affected “like” and “dislike”. In particular, it was found that the emotion of “tension” is the key of the preference evaluation.
Even though much recent research has proposed systems that provide assistance and services to people, these systems emphasize the support of the physical aspects at the expense of emotional aspects. However, emotional health is as important as physical health. Moreover, negative emotional health can lead to social or mental health problems. People with good emotional health can control themselves and can address their negative emotions. However, people with bad emotional health feel difficult to control and decrease their negative emotions. Therefore the negative emotional health can lead to social and mental health problems. To cope with negative emotional health in their daily life, we proposed a new healthcare system that focuses on emotional aspects. The system integrates augmented reality to display virtual objects in real environments and Kinect, which allows users to freely interact with them. We also employ biological sensors to measure and detect user emotions, and provide three services based on expected emotions: relaxation, amusement and excitement services. We designed and implemented a small prototype for our relaxation service called: a breathing control application. This application applies deep breathing techniques of stress management to supports users when they experience stress from society or work as well as other negative emotions. This application displays a virtual music box to assist them breathe deeply because virtual objects and music might increase user relaxation and decrease their stress. We also evaluated this application by performing the experiment. The stress and relaxation of the participants are measured using salivary amylase test. As the result, the application can decrease their stress.
In our super-aging society we are faced with an ever-increasing problem that needs to be resolved, namely accommodation for the elderly. To solve this problem we must first clarify its nature. We know that, by 2030, 10% of the elderly will have dementia and another 40% will be living alone. Therefore, it is important that, right now, we think about the emergency measures we will need to implement on a national scale to solve these problems in 2025, when the baby boomers reach the age of 75. The elderly face not only a rising incidence of diseases such as dementia and the biological factors associated with aging, but also social factors such as lack of communication. In particular, we have found that the incidence of dementia differs significantly between those with the presence or absence of a social network. Also, the number of people moving into care facilities for the elderly has been increasing in recent years, and this trend is an important social phenomenon. Here, we performed a basic study of the process used to select facilities for the elderly. First, as a basic structure, we focused on the attributes of facilities for the elderly. Next, we examined the basic attributes of the elderly as institutional tenants. We then computed a power set by using these basic attributes as elements. From the partially ordered set (poset) we derived a possible combination of elements to use in selecting facilities for the elderly. We found that the elements of the power set obtained by using the attributes of elderly people as institutional tenants constituted fuzzy measures. We showed clearly that comprehensive evaluation by using fuzzy integration was possible.
This study analyzed the information accumulated through the five senses along the Kumano Kodo. Five groups of participants explored the pilgrimage routes, each group directed to use one of the five senses (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory and gustatory) intensively in their perceptions. Then the participants wrote the sensory information thus obtained into their cognitive maps (the five senses maps). The information recorded in these maps allowed a landscape analysis centered on the senses. Compare information of the Kumano Kodo five senses and senses of visually handicapped. Illuminating the features and structures of the scenes captured by the senses.
In this thesis, the relationship between sound and colour has been analysed with two different methods. First, colours are applied to sounds using the psychological technique that is based on a study on synaesthesia. In the second approach, the ideal tones are linked to hues that are referring to adjectives. However, both methods have their disadvantages. This study investigates the relationship between timbres and colours with quantitative data from tonal structures. In the first step, the relationship between timbres and colours is aggregated by conducting an experiment with subjects. The results are compared with the quantitative structure of the tone colours. From the result, four basic laws that define the causal relationship between timbre and cool or warm colours have been defined: overtone, fundamental frequency, length of sound and decay of sound.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of context on coloring activities. Subjects and coloring tasks were selected by considering factors that affect the processing of emotional information. The results of the coloring activities were measured by setting the use of colors as an index derived from the use of contour images. In particular, as factors related to subjects, differences in meaning among coloring subjects were highlighted, and differences in coloring activities based on differences in the context of contour images (abstractness and concreteness) were reviewed. The study also allowed us to interpret information that influenced emotions through coloring activities based on the differences in the contexts of target subjects, which is an important experiential factor of design education for coloring activities. Additionally, we were able to understand the behavioral characteristics that appear in coloring.
Oshibori is a small wet towel to wipe hands before meal in Japan. Most of researches on oshibori have investigated the towels from the perspective of cleaning and sanitation. Few studies have assessed the qualitative and sensory characteristics associated with oshibori. In this paper, subjective evaluation experiments were carried out using cotton oshibori of different temperatures such as 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 °C in the laboratory temperature at 20, 25 and 30 °C over four seasons. 29 males and 33 females evaluated oshibori on following properties such as “favorite,” “rare,” “hot,” “feel-smooth,” “high-grade,” “comfortable,” “soft,” and “moist,” according to five point grading. As results, the oshibori at the temperature of 5, 15, 45 and 60 °C were evaluated to be comfortable. Contrary, those of 30 and 75 °C were evaluated uncomfortable. Moreover, sexual specificity of the evaluation was observed.
In the moist confectioneries like puddings, “melting” is important in Kansei evaluation, have influence “comfort” and “relief”. The purpose of this research is to make clear the influence “melting” and “relief” on the structure of the complex interaction by analyzing the results of Kansei evaluation in branding puddings. The sample is four kinds of puddings on moist confectioneries. Because the complex interaction with evaluations on Eating Quality is influenced by the characteristic to custard, it is necessary to analyze the interaction with Graphical Modeling and Category analysis of conversation. By the results of Kansei evaluation, common evaluation item is exists on Eating Quality in branding custard puddings. The results suggest that the structural analysis with Graphical Modeling and category analysis of conversation is useful in branding.
Visual attractiveness has significant effects on our social life. People make up one's appearance by clothing, wearing accessories, applying cosmetics, hair-style and hair-color, etc., to convey certain impressions including attractiveness to others. In this study, we examined (a) how the suitability between face and hair color (i.e., hair-color matching) would be evaluated by oneself and by others and (b) how the hair-color matching would interact with perceived attractiveness. We found that 1) different criteria were used for hair-color matching between self-evaluation and evaluation by others, and 2) a wider range of hair-colors matched to the face, when the face was evaluated as more attractive and/or the perceived facial makeup was more. These results suggest that the evaluation of hair-color suitability might differ in self-evaluation and in evaluation by others, and suitability of hair-color has a certain interaction with perceived facial attractiveness. Possible implications are also discussed.
Available investigations in haptic evaluation can be divided into two groups according to whether they have used a reference sample or not. Accordingly, this study has focused on the clarification of the effects of using a reference sample on evaluation. Thirty human volunteers participated, and 20 types of test samples (objects) were used for the evaluations. All samples were spherical in shape but were of different sizes and different material properties. The eighteen onomatopoetic expressions were utilized in the answering form to evaluate haptic sense in all evaluations, and the human volunteers answered a seven level scale questionnaire with the 18 onomatopoetic items. The fitting goodness test results of comparison between the two types of experiments with/without reference sample showed that all values were statistically significant. Therefore, this study suggests that for haptic evaluation a reference sample is not required.
In this paper, the classification model of subjective affective value, its measurement, and the quantitative-analysis method were proposed first. Next, based on the proposal method, the value measurement experiment including the intuitive and unconscious decision-making phenomenon of the real world was conducted, and also separation and extraction of the affective value, and presumption of the value structure which became a decision-making standard by the analysis and evaluation of the degree of incidence especially were tried. As mentioned above, the validity of the proposal method was examined. As a result, it came to prove the validity of the proposal method.
KANSEI TEXTURE (“Shokushitsu-kan” in Japanese) is defined as a quantitative sensation index on 5D [-1,1]5 cube, where five elements (Roughness, Hardness, Dryness, Warmness, Glossiness) are accepted with 120 selected onomatopoeia words. It aims to represent visual and/or texture information of an object photo/movie for compensating the information gap between the real object and its photo/movie image. The five dimensional cube for KANSEI TEXTURE is compressed to three-dimensional cube [-1,1]3 by doing cognitive experiments with PCA (Principal Component Analysis), and its visualization representation is also proposed for the easy use by general people. The proposal is expected to be used to get visual/tactile perception of the objects in net shopping, robot vision, telemedicine, e-learning, and others, where the real objects are not available but only their still/dynamic images with brief text explanation are obtainable.
This study examined KANSEI that humans feel through experience of Venetian masks. We surveyed 100 Japanese participants about their impressions toward Venetian full- and half-masks using questionnaire that we developed based on Katsumata (2012). We used questionnaires to examine the relationship between mask type and emotional response using Analysis of Variance and Correspondence Analysis. The results were that traditional BAUTA masks were evaluated with positive KANSEI such as love, and wanting to display or ware it. On the contrary, Plague doctor (Medico della PESTE) masks were evaluated with negative KANSEI (e.g. feeling weird, fears, or scared). These results suggest that cultural and historical background influences humans' KANSEI beyond ages, areas, and races.
“Yuzen-zome” is a traditional method of dyeing in Japan. It is still one of the most popular techniques to dye. Especially, the method which a cloth is dyed in Kyoto city called “Kyo-Yuzen-zome”. This method can divide into 10 Processes. Each process is handled by specialist by hand work. In particular, at putting-paste (Nori-oki) process, experts must care which paste they use, Starch-paste or Rubber-paste. In this study, we focused on putting-paste. “Nori-oki” is the second process. These 2 types paste make the different effect to fabrics dyed. At market, the fabric to which starch paste is used has more value than another fabric to which rubber paste is used does. To elucidate the reason, we have the questionnaire survey. We examine the difference in those evaluations between two materials, and we examine the cause of pricing decision between two products.
This research was performed in order to clarify the difference between inexperienced person and experts of Ikebana through impression evaluation during the appreciation of arrangement. In this research, not only arrangement themselves, but also photos of them were used for the evaluation. Experimental results indicated that experts could distinguish the difference of arrangements between experts and inexperienced persons even though they watch Ikebanas or photos. However, it is thought to be difficult for inexperienced person. Concerning of the elements of evaluation, that will lead a new research which element appear in which media and the reason that cause this situation.