In recent years, water massage bed which can provide full body massage is often used in physiotherapy. Compared to other physiotherapy equipment, water massage bed is particularly useful in the fact that it can directly massage the target area on the subject, thus leads to improvement in relieving muscle strain and provides a psychological relaxation effect. However, there is little research that examines the degree of relaxation effect on the human body caused by the water massage bed. In this study, we use a heart rate sensor to evaluate changes of relaxation before and during the massage. We observed that subjective evaluation is strongly correlated to the heart rate based relaxation analysis. In addition, the result of the subjective evaluation is heavily influenced by the changes in autonomic nerve activity in the first 30 seconds of the massage.
Recently, the demand for printed wood grain has been growing. The elements of wood grain of natural wood and printed wood grain are different. These differences result in the differences in characteristics of their corresponding spatial frequencies, and would influence the identification of natural and printed wood grain. In our study, we analyzed the spatial frequency of wood samples. Results showed that a more noticeable the difference in the samples was seen in the high spatial frequency region. We also visually evaluated the discriminability between natural and printed wood grain for various viewing distances. The results demonstrated that it was difficult to distinguish between natural and printed wood grain at long distances, whereas, it was easy at short distances. This suggests that the differences in the high spatial frequency and the presence or absence of half tone has an effect on the distinguishability in natural and printed wood grain samples.
The satisfactory vibrating conditions and the perceptual properties of inducing illusory horizontal shoulder flexion were investigated in this study. The experimental factors were the vibration frequencies of 30, 50, 70, 90, 110, and 130 Hz. We subjectively assessed the presence or absence of an illusion and its vividness on a 5-point scale. Simultaneously, the perceptual time it took for an illusion to appear and the maximum illusory angle was measured. It was found that the maximum occurrence rate of the illusion was 98% at a vibration frequency of 70, 90, 110 Hz. The illusory angle was approximately 30°. It took 7s for an illusion to appear. Based on this knowledge, we plan to develop an interface device that will provide kinesthetic sensations only without the actual motion in a future study. This device could potentially be used for tactile feedback technology in the virtual reality space.
Although products, which “MIBAE (highly attractiveness)” is taken into consideration, have recently been required, factors that are related to MIBAE are not yet clear. In this study, we compared impression between eyeglasses and simple figures, which were associated with eyeglasses, through sensory tests and then extracted factors that affected MIBAE. From the results of statistical analyses, MIBAE is the most comprehensive evaluation terms and varies according to change of simple figures and eyeglasses. It is considered that two evaluation terms (“attractive” and “well-balanced”) were strongly related to MIBAE and a balance between several elements of a product is the most importance factors to produce MIBAE.
In the design of the interior building material that people touch directly, it is important whether they prefer it or not. In this study, we particularly focused on the flooring in wooden interior building materials. We supposed that the physical parameters that affect visual perception were “contrast”, “fiber luster” and “surface gloss”. Their parameters were controlled for the flooring samples by ink jet printing. The impression of general users for flooring was investigated by sensory test. The purpose of this study is to find out relationship between the physical properties and the impression of prepared samples. The results of a series of sensory tests showed that the impression is affected by physical parameters and tree species.
It is important to clarify the potential users' value system when one designs a new product. In this research, the authors reasoned that it is effective for the users to learn various evaluation standards. The first purpose of this research is to lift the potential users with different knowledge and experience to a level which enables them to evaluate a product appropriately by an on-line questionnaire research method. The second purpose of this research is to explicate the elements of a burial cradle that may heal a grief for stillborn. With two purposes in mind, the authors conducted an on-line questionnaire and analyzed the results. As the results, an on-line questionnaire method has increased user's understanding of the product and its benefits. Therefore this product design method could be a useful tool in a product evaluation and its standardization. It may also allow the researchers to obtain more accurate product evaluation from the subjects.
Body gestures and postures are important for non-verbal communication. Emotions play an important role in communicating with human-being and artificial agents and robotics. There are many emotion models based on facial expressions. However, models for body postures are little established for real-time estimation. The pressure sensors on a chair and accelerometers on the body can predict the emotion factors. But the sensors are attached on the body, so a method is necessary for not attaching the devices on the body. We introduce Kinect which consists of remote sensors to measure the body posture. We find the standing postures have two semantic factors: “arousal” and “avoidance”. We construct and evaluate the emotion estimation system in real-time that measures the positions of body parts (a head, hands, arms, shoulders, a body trunk, legs, and feet) and models the relationship between the positions and emotions by regression equation models for each emotion. This paper contributes not only to building a real-time emotion judgment system applied to robots but also to analyzing emotions of standing postures by others.
Walking in a city, people look at streetscapes and many objects along the street. They are everyday sights for the residents of the city, whereas seeing them is a brand-new experience for the visitors. The visitors sometimes discover valuable attractions that the residents are not aware of consequently. An experiment was conducted in which residents and visitors walked in a city and took pictures of what they found interesting. The behavioral data and the picture data were analyzed statistically and unconscious interests of the residents and the visitors were revealed.
Short-pause is one of the important elements of presentation. In this study, we have investigated differences of taking short-pauses between winners and losers of book review presentation game, Bibliobattle. In order to find short-pauses, non-utterance sections in presentations are detected by converting time discrete audio signal to energy. Length, times and appearance position of short-pauses of winners and losers were compared. As a result, the following things were revealed. The first is that the average times of winners' brief (less than 0.4 sec) short-pauses is significantly smaller than losers' one. The second is that the losers' average times of short-pauses which appeared in unnatural position (between noun and postpositional particle or suffix) is significantly larger than winners' one.
Kyoto is one of the most famous historical tourist cities in the world. The final goal of this study is to establish a design system for Machiya-Cafe facades in this historical tourist city. This paper focused on evaluating Machiya-Cafe facades in Kyoto, and the common and different points of the evaluation between Japanese and Koreans. University students from South Korea, who lived in Kyoto-city, and tourists from South Korea to Kyoto participated in these subjective experiments. They evaluated a number of different Machiya-Cafe facades in terms of “Recognition”, “Familiarity”, “Restfulness”, “Regionality” and “Preference”. As a result, it was found that the evaluations of “Recognition”, “Familiarity”, “Regionality” and “Preference” of Machiya-cafe facades by Koreans were common with those of Japanese, whereas the evaluation of “Restfulness” by Koreans differed with those of Japanese.
The eyes play a crucial role in defining the person's impression. However, there are still few studies of evaluation for the impressions of eye's form including the curve of bilateral upper eyelid. Thus, the aims of our study were to analyze and systematize the curve of bilateral upper eyelid using images of 100 Japanese subjects' eyes. Consequently, we classified the curves of males into 5 clusters and females into 6 clusters. Additionally, our study clarified the relationship between the impressions of masculine/feminine and the eye's form elements that consisted of the curves systematized the ratio of the width to height, etc. Concretely, we made 70 subjects to evaluate samples assembled with the eye's form elements by using design experiment. As a result of analysis of variance and multiple comparisons of main effects, we clarified that the bilateral upper eyelid were important form elements affecting the person's impression of masculine/feminine.
We investigated relationships between appearances of gold, silver and copper color, glossiness of surface and material perception of surface in order to understand the perceptual mechanism for gold, silver and copper color. It was found, for high glossy stimuli, that gold, silver and copper colors were perceived in high-saturation, achromatic, and medium-saturation regions, respectively, and that gold, silver and copper appearances strongly correlated with metallic appearance. It was also shown that standard deviation (luminance contrast) of luminance distribution of test images yielded high correlation with gold, silver, and copper color appearances, and with metallic appearance. These results indicate that proper chromaticity ranges, high glossy, and luminance contrast of images are determining factors for perceiving gold, silver and copper colors.
In this study we aim to draw it a hand relatively easily and a person of appreciation fashion illustration that is an abecedarian worth seeing aim at the development of the how to depict newly. Therefore we investigated India-ink painting techniques how to depict in detail and adopted this in how to depict of the fashion illustration generally and rebuilt it systematically We named this new method as “super gradation how to depict in the fashion illustration.” In this paper, we evaluated fixed-quantity of “the shading off coating” that was technique to become the pivot of the new how to depict that we suggested and inspected technique. As a result, in terms of “the shading off coating” of the new method to depict that it suggested, it became clear that was particularly effective that we improved “a spirituality” and “the difference degree” that were a part of the aim spot of the fashion creator if it was careful about “usages of dark Indian ink and the shadow.”
The term presence is widely used to express the performances of audio-visual content and systems. Many advanced audio-visual systems for the perception of a higher degree of presence have been proposed. Meanwhile, methodologies for evaluating the sense of presence derived from these systems have also been discussed for the further evolution of content and systems. Although the emotion of audiences can be considered as one of the key factors in evaluating the sense of presence, the relationship between the time-series changes of the emotion and audio-visual content has not been examined so far. The authors firstly conduct subjective evaluation experiments to investigate this relationship. Based on the evaluation results and extracted audio-visual features, emotion estimation models are constructed to quantitatively estimate the time-series emotion of audiences, evoked from audio-visual content. The performance tests of the models demonstrated sufficient accuracy in estimating the emotion.
To facilitate the visually impaired participate in the society,it is essential that the guide dogs which accompany them should be accepted as well. In this study, we attempted to identify any problems associated with promoting societal participation of guide dogs, by analyzing impressions of the general public concerning guide dogs focusing mainly on morphological aspects. We used the Eye Tracker System (Manufactured by Tobii) to analyze line-of-sight measurements. In addition to it, we used the interval AHP method for subjective appraisal. From the results, it became clear that: (1) compared to high awareness of the name ‘guide dog’, its role and attributes are less understood. (2) the public tend to have more favorable impressions on the visually impaired when they are accompanied by guide dogs.(3) Labrador retriever especially pale colored one is the best favored by the public.