The purpose of this study is to find effective design elements to make maps easy to use for people with poor directional ability. We conducted comparative experiments using 12 types of existing maps. 58 subjects tried to find their ways using several maps in large spaces such as shopping malls and stations with rather complex structures. After observing their behaviors, we conducted interviews to clarify supportive design elements of maps to find ways. As a result, we found some effective design elements such as vivid color tones, the right angle of bird's-eye-view, the right degree of deformation of illustrations, readable design from upside down position when maps are rotated, for example. We also found two important requirements of map design; (1) landmarks on maps should be easily collated with real landmarks, (2) relations between different stories of the building should be clearly described.
This study aims to develop a system for assessment of stimulus similarity using event-related potential (ERP). First, we investigated whether one of ERPs, P3 can assess visual stimulus similarity with regard to physical and affective aspects. Visual stimuli are Landolt rings for physical stimuli and facial expressions of emotion for affective stimuli. For each stimulus set, participants engaged in the target detection task, in which they counted target stimuli silently in a sequence of the stimuli during the measurement of electroencephalogram (EEG). To quantify stimulus similarity from EEG data, we applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to ERP amplitudes to discriminate targets from non-targets. To visualize stimulus similarity, we applied multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) to discriminant scores. We obtained MDS mappings that reflect physical similarity, suggesting that our system can be available for assessment of physical similarity. Further research is needed to examine whether our system can represent affective similarity.
In this paper, we construct Kansei retrieval of clothing. This system is designed to search for user's clothing preference by considering their Kansei. Then, this system uses features of clothing images. In previous study, the features were 20 bits and extracted by image processing. However, these features aren't enough for Kansei retrieval. So, our proposal is Kansei retrieval of clothing on the basis of the features extracted automatically. This system is constructed with two neural networks. The first neural network is deep neural network that extracts the features. The second neural network identifies user's evaluation of clothing using the features. In this study, we verified the effectiveness of this system by a simulation. Result of the simulation showed this system was superior to the previous study in 46.65% increasing accuracy of imitating user's Kansei and 30.43% decreasing error of Kansei retrieval. Thus, the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed.
Kyoto is one of the most famous historical tourist cities, and Kyo-machiya that is the Japanese traditional house plays an important role in the street landscape in Kyoto. This study aims to reveal the preferred aging level of machiya facades in the central area of Kyoto city. We took photos of four Kyo-machiyas, and simulated fifteen kinds of aging facades of each machiya. By using the images, we conducted a subjective experiment in which the building facades were evaluated. Twenty female participants observed a facade image selected from 64 stimuli in random order, and evaluated it in terms of “oldness”, “unnaturalness”, “calmness”, “familiarity” and “preference”. The results show that the preference of building facade correlates with “calmness” and “familiarity”, and also that an appropriate oldness level for Kyo-machiya exists.
Roboticists believe that highly, but not perfectly, realistic human-looking robots elicit negative feelings in humans. This is the so-called ‘uncanny valley’ response. Most research on the uncanny valley has used the morphing technique and the morphing rates as the objective scale. However, those findings might come from unnatural and/or unexistable appearance of morphed faces. The present study investigated the uncanny valley by measuring participants' impressions of some existing robots whose degree of human likeness was evaluated by Scheffé's paired comparison method, a kansei-engineering approach. The survey demonstrated the uncanny valley like Mori's (1970) hypothetical graph. Furthermore, as the X-axis, ‘experience’, one of the two independent dimensions in mind perception (Gray, Gray, & Wegner, 2007), showed the pattern of the uncanny valley, but ‘agency’ did not. These results suggest that robots become unnerving when people ascribe to them experience, rather than agency.
It is difficult to reflect personal preferences in one's make-up because there are many make-up products for each part of the face such as cheeks and mouth. This paper proposes a make-up support system based on the colors of favorite facial image. It generates make-up simulation images based on the colors of user's favorite facial image and user's own facial image, and suggests make-up products to realize simulation. As a result of subjective evaluation, we confirmed that the system can generate simulation images and make-up products based on the colors of user's favorite facial image, which will support combining make-up products reflecting personal preferences.
This study investigates how expression type (literal or metaphorical) and topic description type (action or emotional states) affects emotional evaluation of expressions. We collected 368 examples of different expression types and topic description types and four emotion types (relaxed, joyful, angry, and sad). Forty undergraduates rated the emotion of expressions using an affect grid consisting of a two-dimensional valence-arousal space. Analysis of variance results showed that participants rated (i) more positively in positive valence expression (joyful and relax) and more negatively in negative valence expression (angry and sad) on expression of feeling than expression of behavior, and (ii) higher arousal in joyful and lower arousal in relax on expression of behavior than expression of feeling. In addition, linear discriminant analysis showed there was no significant difference between literal expression and metaphorical expression in correct discrimination rate.
While previous studies imply that there is a positive correlation between the openness in the big-five personality traits and the aesthetic preference for visual arts, recent empirical studies also suggest that the aesthetic dimension of value is one of the crucial factors related to individual differences in aesthetic evaluations of arts. Thus, we explored whether openness and the aesthetic dimension of value would affect aesthetic evaluations of paintings. In the survey, 110 undergraduates were asked to evaluate 24 paintings using 4 scales of aesthetic evaluation (beautiful, pleasant, good and likable). They were also asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their degrees of the openness and the aesthetic dimension of value. Results demonstrate that the openness didn't clearly relate to aesthetic evaluations of paintings but that the aesthetic dimension of value significantly related to those.
In recent years, the automotive industry has faced a decline in interest in cars and driving by younger generations, and so we want to find ways to increase driving attractiveness using in-vehicle systems. Since we believe that “feelings of excitement” are critical to increase the attractiveness of cars and driving, we created exciting contents for a driving simulator by focusing on the expectations of drivers and used biological signals to evaluate how to elicit “feelings of excitement” while driving. In this paper, we performed HRV analysis by focusing on the impact of prior information about landscapes and concluded that it elicits “feelings of excitement” using SDNN and RRV. In addition, we clarified that the SDNN and RRV of ECGs are useful physiological indices to detect “feelings of excitement”.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of intervention during occupational therapy on the autonomic nervous function. Thirty healthy subjects were classified into two groups (Group I and Group II) at random. The subjects were supposed to carry out a stencil activity therapy. In Group I, the subjects were intervened by a therapist to assist their activities, while in Group II, the subjects had to complete their activities by trial and error. We measured plethysmography, “mental status”, “self-efficacy”, “anxiety status” before and after the activities. The results showed that “mental status”, “self-efficacy”, and “anxiety level” after the activities were improved in Group I. The amplitude and the wavelength of the plethysmography after the activities were longer than those before them in Group I. This research indicates that the intervention of occupational therapy can make the parasympathetic nerves of the autonomic nervous systems dominant.
This study analyzes the factors for detecting agents to implement a human-like agent in werewolf games, which are new themes in game studies of artificial intelligence. A comparative experiment was conducted to reveal the influences regarding the degree of disclosure of the agent existence; seven players and an agent participated in four games. Communication logs were collected from the game logs. Impressions for each player was reported in questionnaires with five-point scales and detection of the agent were reported in a free writing. Although the most players, who did not know that an agent played the games, did not be aware of the true character of the agent, the most players who knew the existence could detect the agent. The statements of detected agents differed from them of other players. This study concludes that the technical requirement for agents is to adapt to statements of other players.
In this study, we conducted a preliminary investigation about difficulty in everyday life and necessary medical support information for patients who were operated on total hip arthroplasty (THA). According to the result, we developed a remote nursing system for THA patients, and the system was evaluated by nurses. From a result of preliminary research, we devised a structure of contents which can solve patients' difficulty feeled in everyday life by providing appropriate supporting information, and we established a system where patients can get specific information at home when needed. The system evaluation by nurses was generally satisfactory, and we made improvements for the matters pointed out through a group interview. We are planning to do an actual trial operation against THA patients after preparing contents to support patients undergoing bilateral THA.
In this paper, we proposed a new tactile sensor which is small and easy to carry. This tactile sensor is constructed from an elastic body simulating the fingertip of a human and a camera for photographing the elastic body. Then, the elastic body in contact with the object is photographed from the lower side, and the displacement distribution can be quantified by the image correlation method using the photographed image. In the evaluation experiment using the prototype sensor, when the probe with different shapes was pressed against the sensor, the difference in shape of the probe could be identified from displacement distribution. From the deformation history obtained by tracing the specimens with different surface shapes, it was possible to discriminate the difference in the surface shape of the object.
The main subject of our paper is to evaluate qualitatively the ambiguous fashion value. As this approach, we have adapted the repertory grid. The merit of this repertory grid approach is to use the laddering methods which analyze the human cognitive structure. Already the fashion marketing has described qualitatively the cognitive and affective value of the fashion consumers. The fashion marketing has called this fashion value “wearable needs”. As the research method, the first step choice the small sample group in order to elucidate the “Love Metaphor”. Then we interviewed the students about the picture they loved. According to the interview analysis we constructed the repertory grid of “Love Metaphor”.
In this study, a VR-based Doppler effect learning support system was developed. In a real space, it is too difficult for learners to control the position of a sound source and to change his/her position. Whereas, in a virtual environment, learners can control two objects easily. So we constructed a VR-based experimental environment to learn Doppler effect. To control objects in the virtual environment, a dual joystick controller is used. And, we proposed a velocity control approach. Using this approach, learners can control two objects' velocities with the dual joystick controller. Additionally, using a head-mounted display (HMD), they can experience the difference in the sounds in various experimental conditions. From the evaluation of the developed system, it is confirmed that learners can easily control two objects in the virtual environment by using our proposed control approach. Moreover, from the results of learning verification, it is expected that learners can acquire the knowledge of Doppler effect through various experiences in the virtual environment by the developed system.