The theory of “cognitive dissonance” is one of the many topics related to customer satisfaction research. Some research used “free-choice paradigm” which is known to present threats to people in post-decision. However, most of the experiments focus only on theoretical frameworks, leaving aside consumer decision making. Therefore, this paper aimed to clarify the effect of online reviews on post-decision cognitive dissonance. In the experiment, participants were asked to choose the best item from nine earphones, each one of them had online reviews which were manipulated by an experimenter. When some participants saw some reviews which supported their decision, they justified their choices. In contrast, when some participants saw some reviews which unsupported their decision, they didn't only justify but also showed some unpleasant feelings towards the reviews. To conclude, some consumers were strongly influenced by online reviews after purchase.
In this study, we tried to extract and formalize medical experts' professional skills of schizophrenia symptom evaluation that make use of patients' facial information. In our experiment, eight medical experts were asked to evaluate 147 videos depicting 16 patients' faces using a rating scale representing the states of disease progression. The results of the experiment show that, with regard to the most severe state patients, different clusters are characterized by different patterns of these facial features. The results also show that patients' states of disease get worse with the sequential accumulation of several variables among these feature: a downward head and eyes, a loose mouth, and stiff facial expressions. These suggest that facial muscles control is related to symptom evaluation of schizophrenia. It demonstrates the possibility of constructing an automatic system for schizophrenia symptom evaluation using combinations of the six facial features of patients.
Typically, it is difficult to transmit visual images in words. The transmission of the visual image includes various information. Therefore, efficient communication is necessary. In this research, we focused on the relationship between onomatopoeia and modalism, and conducted a survey to measure the distance. We asked for general group and design skill holding group. Transmission of visual image in communication, we collected 200 words of onomatopoeia that are frequently used. Then we carried out relevance research on sensory modality, using the MD (Modal Differential) method. Then, we conducted a hierarchical cluster analysis and the semantic structure analysis which is called as SS analysis. As a result, we drew the SS graph for each cluster, which shows the relevance and order-related structure. The results were compared between the general group and the design skill preservation group, and discussions were made on the differences depending on the attributes of the subjects.
There are two possible ways to improve the comfort of road users. The first is a method of improving the flatness of the road surface besides the performance of the vehicle and the other method of improving the landscape performance seen while driving from the vehicle. From the viewpoint of maintenance of the road administrator, it is desirable to have more choices. However, it is costly to improve the flatness such as cutting overlay. It is necessary to consider measures to make it possible to select more cost effective maintenance management measures. In this study, as a measure for improving landscape characteristics, we examined how comfort during driving will be affected by changes in road components such as road structure, existing slope, planting and so on. We conducted an evaluation experiment at the time of driving on existing road, Hakone turn-pike. Then, we analyzed the relation between road components and evaluation using Quantification Theory I. Then, it was confirmed that the slope surface shape, the slope surface / planting condition, the road alignment, etc. had an influence on the evaluation.
The purpose of this study is to find effective design elements to make maps easier to use for people with poor directional ability. In the previous studies, we found that hand-drawn, illustrated maps were effective for these people. In this study, we tried to find map design elements that can achieve the same effect as realistic illustrations, but via simpler flat graphics. We produced 7 prototype maps that were compared in moving experiments in real space, and their impact was tested with regard to “orientation,” “route transfer,” and “map use,” all of which are challenging for people with poor directional ability. As a result, we clarified that simple graphic elements, such as shadows for buildings, patterns for trees and open spaces, and partial coloring on maps facilitated “orientation”, “route transfer,” and “map use” and confirmed that maps with simpler flat graphics could be as effective as realistic illustrated maps.
In previous studies, we developed the conceptual structure visualization system (CSVS) by combining rough set theory and formal concept analysis. Furthermore, using CSVS, we found “conflict effect”, “neutralizing effect” and “separation effect” as characteristic conceptual structures that were difficult to find by using conventional methods. In this study, we aimed to verify the practicality of CSVS by analyses for data that is larger than data on previous studies, and to find the characteristic conceptual structure by using CSVS. First, we selected web page designs of luxury brands as case studies, and we conducted questionnaire survey related to preference for 12 web page designs with 46 female subjects. Next, we visualized and analyzed characteristic of conceptual structures of subjects' preferences using CSVS. And we confirmed that CSVS was available to find conceptual structures of preferences. In addition, we discovered new characteristic conceptual structure like compound of “conflict effect” and “neutralizing effect”.
This study aims to develop more attractive flower products that matched the color to the customer's kansei in each nation. In this paper, the kansei structures for water lilies were compared between Japanese and Thai people by Principal Component Analysis, and the target six adjectives were chosen: “pure”, “cheerful”, “gorgeous”, “simple”, “pretty”, and “warm”. Then, the relationship between the color of petal and each adjective was analyzed on the Practical Color Co-ordinate System, and it was found that yellow and orange with vivid tone maximize “cheerful” feeling, for example. However, these results were almost the same as the past report about the general effect of color on the visual impression. In our next paper, the effect of color combination in a petal will be clarified by using many gradation patterns on computer graphics.
This study aims to develop more attractive flower products that matched the color to the customer's kansei in each nation. In our previous investigation, the relationship between the color of water lilies and the six target adjectives was analyzed on the Practical Color Co-ordinate System, and the result was almost the same as the past report of the general relationship between the color and the visual impression. In this paper, the effect of the color combinations and the gradation patterns in petals were investigated by using flower graphics image. Six hues and six gradation patterns were prepared as color arrangement for our investigation, and around one hundreds Japanese and Thai participants cooperated with us. As the results, it became clear that appropriate use of color arrangement was effective, and a certain gradation pattern could maximize its effect.
In this study, by proposing a model with a hierarchical relationship, we reconsidered the methodology utilizing the semantic differential technique. The proposed approach divided the subjective evaluation into the evaluative aspect and descriptive aspect, and identified the former as the upper layer expressing the level of value and the latter as a lower layer expressing the level of semantics. The subjective evaluation data was obtained in evaluation experiments measuring the value and semantics for the three-dimensional objects. Based on the obtained data, the proposed model was examined to see whether it can reflect individual differences and the influences of evaluation contexts that have been conventionally been treated as errors. Results showed that the proposed model expressed the influence of context and individual differences and suggested the need for a hierarchical approach beyond the framework of the semantic differential method, such as the conventional EPA structure.
We aimed to reveal typical-color effects to visual search for pictogram. We assumed that the typical colors shorten the response time of the visual search compared to the non-typical colors in the high color-associativity pictograms. In order to verify this hypothesis, we investigated typical colors and color- associativity of each pictogram in the first experiment and measured the response time of the visual search tasks. We analyzed the data through the color- associativity and the complexity of components perspective. As a result, we obtained the two conclusions as follow; 1) typical colors do not always affect response times, 2) response time is shortened in the typical colors pictograms that have the high color-associativity and consist of only one component. These results contribute to proposing the color design which permits efficiency in searching for pictograms in the facilities.
This study is about the connections between the sense of taste image and the sense of shapes. For the previous research, Velasco experimented on the subjects if they felt the exact taste which he assumpted by showing those sample forms. But in this study, we made the subjects output their images of each taste as abstractive sketches. The objective of this research is to find out if there is a unification between many people's image of tastes and the taste which was shown, and to find out the common factors in images of each taste when the subject's images diverged. By mapping the collected taste of image-forms, we found out that there was a certain degree of unification in each taste of image, because each taste showed a different dissemination condition and split into different groups. Also by extracting the forms which people strongly feel the images of the flavors, we found out that there were 40 standard forms and patterns of transformation in total. For the verification, we asked the subjects how the standard forms and their transformation effects their sense of taste of image. And we concluded that there is an advanced form which strongly effects people's sense of taste of image, by transforming the standard forms.
User-based collaborative filtering is one of the most popular recommendation methods, however, it has been pointed out that it is difficult to provide recommendation results with good recommendation accuracy and high recommendation variety simultaneously. To recommend good items for a target user, we consider that the tendency of the target user's Kansei evaluation to items should be explicitly reflected to recommendation methods. In this paper, we focus on pairs of items that there are big differences between target user's evaluation scores of the two items. We regard such pairs as the target user's preference patters, and in this paper, we propose a revised user-based collaborative filtering approach that reflects the tendency of target user's Kansei evaluation to recommendation. The proposed method is based on explicit extraction of target user's preference patterns as interrelated attributes in rough-set-based interrelationship mining and comparison of preference patterns between the target user and other users instead of direct comparison of evaluation scores of items. Experimental results indicate that, in comparison with collaborative filtering, our proposed method can recommend appropriate items for users with at least equal or better accuracy and high variety.
‘MOKUIKU’ is an educational activity for children and adults to deepen their understanding and familiarity of the culture of wood through contact with wood products and learn the significance of wood and its uses. In recent years, wooden toys have been seen as promoting active use of forest resources and wood growth. In this research, classification and analysis of existing ‘MOKUIKU’ toys were carried out to clarify the effect of physical ability on children's education and development. Based on the results, we aim to create evaluation guidelines for ‘MOKUIKU’ toys for preschool children and to create production guidelines. Using a method of classifying 164 ‘MOKUIKU’ toys from the past 10 years (NPO Japan Good Toy Committee approved) into 14 different kinds of play styles, 58 toys were extracted using multivariate analysis. After that, as a result of further analysis using factor analysis and multivariate analysis, we were able to verify the toys suitable for the development of children's intelligence and physical ability, the ease of understanding how to play, and purchasing factors.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the relationship between the female body type and posture and the aesthetic impression it creates. We divided the BMI into 5 levels, body types into 3 levels, and posture into 6 types, making 40 types of sample images created using a 3D body scanner. Questionnaires were conducted with 157 adult women using the SD method. As a result of the principal component analysis, the first principal component axis shows “beauty” and the second shows “plumpness”. From the scatter plot, regarding posture, the weak upright type had the lowest score for beauty. The balanced upright type was considered to be beautiful. The stage of BMI shows plumpness, and when the level of sharpness is low, the level of beauty also tends to be low. The impression of the form of women showed that the elements of posture are strongly related to beauty.
In this study, we propose a new method to investigate the perceptual-motor coordination during first person shooter (FPS) game play and the effect of FPS game experience on it. In an experiment, participants played the FPS game in which horizontally inverted images (inverted condition) or normal images (control condition) were presented. Repeatedly playing the FPS game in the inverted condition increased the game performance (e.g., game score), and in six trials, the performance reached plateau at the same level as that in the control condition. The analyses based on the FPS game experience showed that FPS players were able to learn new perceptual-motor coordination more quickly than non-FPS players. These results not only suggest that the method proposed is useful to investigate perceptual-motor coordination in FPS players, but also support the recent view that the advantage for videogame players is more evident with realistic stimuli and tasks than simplistic ones.