The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of conversation during driving on safety. This study investigated the driving performance and the hazard detection performance in different conversation conditions. The experimental factors were whether a driver conversed with a passenger next to him or her or via cell phone, conversation method (by cell phone or with passenger), hands to control a steering (one handed or two handed), and difficulty of conversation (easy or difficult). The participants were required to simultaneously carry out a simulated driving task and a hazard detection task. The results showed that there was no significant difference of the hazard detection performance (the reaction time and the percentage miss) among the conversation conditions. This indicates that hands-free phone conversation and conversation with a passenger deteriorate the hazard detection performance and impair the driving safety although the current regulation prohibits only hand-held phone conversation.
In this study, we focus on the ability to recognize pain perceptions and thoughts and the ability to self-regulate cranial nerve activity occurring in the brain by self- introspection, and examined the effects of auditory neuro-feedback training (hereinafter referred to as NFBT) affects chronic pain patient. The case was a male who suffered from cervical spinal cord injury and chronic pain appeared around the shoulder joint. In this study, ABA method was used, we conducted control training of α waves using auditory feedback for phase B and did not give auditory feedback at phase A. As a result, the bodily perception sense and the catastrophic thought of pain improved, and the effect was confirmed even after the completion of training. These findings suggested that auditory NFBT for chronic pain may be effective not only to improve biasedness and distortion of pain perception but also to improve physical perception abnormality.
Based on the results of the evaluation experiment consisting of multiple items using the Curve Drawing Method (CDM), the hierarchy between higher-level comprehensive evaluation and lower-level individual evaluation was examined. CDM has been devised as a continuous time-series Kansei evaluation method to replace physiological functions. A 77-minute lecture was used as the stimulus. Evaluation curve patterns were obtained for 5 items from the participants (N = 49): degree of comprehension, sense of belonging, sense of security, elation, and sense of fun. Based on the results, we examined the degree of agreement (correlation) between the composite curve obtained by averaging the value of “sense of belonging, sense of security, and elation” with the pattern of each curve for the “degree of comprehension” and the “sense of fun”. The results indicated that lower individual evaluations contributing to comprehensive evaluations could be specified, which cannot be achieved by using physiological indices.
In this study, we tried to reveal the effect of steering wheel torque on steering feeling using physiological measurement and Kansei evaluation. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were measured during driving with three types of steering wheel torque. In addition, steering feelings were evaluated after driving. We analyzed physiological indices and Kansei evaluation values. As a result, a correlation was found between the physiological indices and some emotions in the participants who had a negative impression on the steering wheel torque of hydraulic power steering. Therefore, we could find out the possibility of estimating some emotions from EEG and ECG indices.
We have been developing an EEG-based communication aid “Neurocommunicator” (NC) for people with severe motor disabilities. The NC utilizes an event-related potential (ERP), the cognitive component of the EEG. Here, we studied the feasibility of the NC for the cognitive assessment to detect subtle symptoms of mild cognitive impairment. We recorded the EEG data from 40 normal adult subjects, as the control group, during the target only task, the oddball target task, and the target selection task. We supposed that the task became more difficult in this order. While we observed the ERP to the targets in all tasks, the differential response between the target and the nontargets systematically changed by the task difficulty. These results suggest that the combination of these three tasks could have potential to reveal the cognitive processes such as bottom-up and top-down attention, which should be important to evaluate the cognitive impairment.
In this paper, we describe a method for estimating psychological impressions (e.g., “Pretty”, “Elegant”, “Romantic”, “Cool”, “Formal”, etc) from color images. Essentially, the Earth Mover’s Distance (EMD) is employed to map a given image onto the color image scale, a two-dimensional emotion space comprised of a WARM-COOL axis and a SOFT-HARD axis, on which many color combinations and Kansei words are located. To validate our proposed method, we collected real images from the Web and compared our EMD-based results with human evaluation results. The comparison demonstrated that EMD-based Kansei mapping is a promising method for extracting psychological impressions from color images.
In this paper, we investigated how readers perceive the emotions of writers based on the emoticons in their tweets, and clarified the influence of emoticons on emotions. Initially, we conducted a questionnaire and the emotions associated with tweets (with and without emoticons) and the emotions associated with the emoticons were quantified. Multiple regression analysis was then applied to three types of emotion data, and relationships among them were established in the form of regression equations. Finally, the accuracy of the regression equations was estimated for learned and unlearned data, and their effectiveness and robustness were evaluated. The following 10 types of basic emotions were utilized as targets: “Sadness,” “Dislike,” “Relief,” “Fear,” “Excitement,” “Liking,” “Joy,” “Surprise,” “Anger,” and “Shame.”
This paper describes the trends in the phonemes used in naming by using the attributes of objects. The study used the names of characters in video games and automobiles as the targets of analysis. Through categorizing the objects based on their attributes, the study sought to verify if there existed a difference in the used phonemes between the categories. Resultantly, the study has clarified the phonemes used to illustrate the smallness, lightness, and weakness in addition to the phonemes used to depict the largeness, heaviness, and strength between two objects. In addition, the study had also employed evaluation experiments to verify the trends in the phonemes used in naming, which was derived from the analyses of the objects’ attributes, and to verify whether the phonemes used in the naming process matched with the people’s impressions. Throughout this process, the study has found the objects’ specific naming trends and the characteristics of the phonemes. By conducting the same analysis process for many objects, the study hopes to propose a supporting method for the naming process of specific objects.
This study aimed to construct a cognitive model of facial youthfulness. First, we investigated which higher-order impressions (e.g. lively, clean, etc.) compose youthfulness on the hypothesis that youthfulness is a complex impression. Then, we investigated which lower-order impressions (e.g. wrinkles, translucency, etc.) account for the constituent impressions of youthfulness. Eight trained participants rated 27 impressions of 32 women’s facial images in their 50s. Factorial analysis and multiple regression analysis were conducted on the rating data. Our investigation revealed that youthfulness consisted of lively impression and clean impression in addition to estimated age, while lively impression was the main constituent of youthfulness. Further analyses showed that those three impressions respectively related to strong appearance of eyes, perceived translucency, and wrinkled appearance. Based on these results, we proposed a cognitive model representing that youthfulness is a complex impression composed of three higher-order impressions, which are affected by particular facial features.
Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a new technology that enables communication for patients in totally locked-in state using brain activities. In this research, we examined optimal mental task for near-infrared spectroscopy-based BCI from among six mental tasks. SVM was used for learning, and the classification accuracy for each tasks through 8-fold cross validation was calculated. As a result, it was suggested that the music imagery had high discrimination accuracy and was a practical task.
In recent years, while data mining has attracted attention, formal concept analysis has the disadvantage that although it can understand the inclusion relation between attributes, it doesn’t know what kind of meaning or inclusion relation the attributes have. Therefore, in this study, the inclusion of the attributes and the visualization of the correlation are realized by combining the Hasse diagram by formal concept analysis and the layout diagram of the attribute of quantification theory type III for visualizing the meaning between the attributes. Moreover, in order to confirm usefulness of the proposed method, we developed a simultaneous visualization system of inclusion and correlation combining formal concept analysis and quantification theory type III, and evaluated the proposed method using verification data. As a result, it was confirmed that useful information that can’t be obtained only by formal concept analysis or quantification theory type III can be extracted.
There are many examples of consumer behavior research focusing on media and content. It has been posited that word of mouth through the media and emotional value of content are important factors influencing purchase intentions. However, although both have been verified separately in conventional research, there are few verification examples which include the presence or absence of mutual interaction. Therefore, in this study, media and content contributing to purchase intention were evaluated by a factorial randomized controlled trial for the automobile industry. Using the multiple comparison method, the results showed that the influence of content was larger than that of media, and the superiority of design and user experience was also indicated. However, the influence of functional values, such as driving performance and advanced technology, was low. The results also confirmed that no mutual interaction occurred. These would be useful as suggestions for promotion strategies.
A market where the cooking is enjoyed as experiential consumption is being roared. Enjoyment eventually improves quality of life (QOL) via elevated positive feeling. Analogously, it is meaningful to elucidate the cooking-related factors that uplift feeling to enrich the eating habits. In this research, we tried to establish a questionnaire that measures the factors to represent uplifted feelings associated with cooking. First, a qualitative pilot survey was conducted. 104 items related to the uplifted feeling by cooking were collected. Then, 600 participants answered online-questionnaire to quantitatively evaluate the degree of uplifted feelings for each item. Exploratory factor analyses revealed that the items were classified into seven factors: special feeling, cooking characteristics, physical wellness, crowding, amount and stability, rationality, and appearance. Internal consistency for each factor was satisfactory. High convergent validity was indicated based on correlational analyses. These together indicated the factors are adequate to measure uplifted feeling regrading cooking.
This paper describes the quantitative evaluation of inner branding. Inner branding is a concept that “changes the awareness of employees themselves”. For example, how employees work can be considered part of the brand. In other words, it is important that employees work with awareness of their own brand is an important factor in instilling the brand. Employee hospitality is also an inner branding. We also need a brand name and a logo, but one of the factors is the cooperation of our employees in order to build a good brand. Generally, with regard to branding, no research has been found on their quantitative evaluation regardless of inner or outer. With this background, the authors have attempted to derive evaluation items for quantitative evaluation of inner branding, and have proposed a quantitative evaluation method by CS analysis. Here, practical verification is performed to apply the CS analysis method to inner branding evaluation. We conducted a questionnaire survey on company managers and employees in the field. This paper describes the effectiveness of this evaluation method as a result of applying CS analysis to the data in the field.
One of the important Kansei values of automobiles is engine sound. Engine sound determines the character of a car and is an important element for branding. However, since popular cars sold around the world have diverse preferences for customers in each region, they will inevitably be developed to reflect the demand for improvement of mass production cars while compare with the level of competing cars. It is same for engine sounds, and when providing engine sounds with new Kansei values, a different approach is required. Therefore, in this research, we used Kansei engineering, devised a new process to realize engine sound of a new concept, and verified its usefulness. Specifically, we introduce an example of engine sound design based on the concept of “Woody sound”.
To improve the safety of autonomous cars, their obstacle detection capability in bad weather must be substantially improved. Haze is a major factor that degrades outdoor images. Although various dehazing schemes have been proposed, a dehazing scheme designed to improve obstacle detection capability has not been reported. Hence, we present a dehazing algorithm that enhances the safety of an autonomous car. This algorithm should be able to work in real time, even using edge computers typically installed as car electronics. Furthermore, this algorithm should work on grayscale images, as systems dependent on color images are often unaffected by environmental color changes caused by factors such as a setting sun. The empirical results showed that our grayscale image-based proposed algorithm is comparable to the results of current cutting-edge methods, and operates in real time.