Generally, the use of public funding for constructing stadiums and arenas is justified by the expected region-wide economic impact, or positive externalities and public-goods aspect of sports. However, it remains unclear whether these impacts or benefits are fully supported by academic evidence. This study, therefore, presents a systematic mapping review of literature to assess the impacts and benefits of sports facilities. Quasi-experiment studies published in peer-reviewed journals since 1997, presenting evaluations of the impact of sports facilities and professional sports teams as well as monetary assessments of their intangible benefits, were reviewed. A structured overview of 52 selected studies, conducted primarily in the United States, is provided. The review presents the scope and type of impact, outcome variables, methodological approaches, and main findings of these studies. The paper presents a series of implications for policymakers and researchers on sports facility management in Japan.
Given an increase in the number of participant sports events, it has become crucial to attract a high number of tourists from outside the city in order to make such events successful. One of the key factors is service quality; however, the literature on sport tourism has conducted limited investigation on service quality and its dimensions in the context of participant sports events. This study aims to develop scales for measuring service quality in participant sports tourism for race events. This study used qualitative and quantitative data and employed multiple steps, respectively, to construct the scale and examine its reliability and validity.
The results of the CFA indicated an acceptable model fit for 50 items with 18 factors in seven dimensions (Event Outcome, Couse, Event Venue and Physical Environment, Administration, Tourism Outcome, Tourism Attraction, and Accommodation). The findings provide suggestions for managerial implications and future research in sport tourism.