This research develops the Experiential Value Scale for Sport Consumption (EVSSC). Drawing from the literature on experiential research, a second-order factor model of experiential value was developed. The items were mainly adopted from the Experiential Value Scale (EVS) by Mathwick, Malhotra, and Rigdon (2001). The original items were generated from in-depth interviews with professional football spectators, in addition to the review of previous research. The reliability and validity of the proposed measures were assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficients and a confirmatory factor analysis. The results provided fair support for the EVSSC. Confirming an acceptable model fit to the data, hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses were conducted by using eleven factors in the EVSSC. Four clusters emerged and were interpreted as “Experiential Valued Spectators,” “Non-Experiential Valued Spectators,” “Intrinsic Valued Spectators,” and “CROI Valued Spectators.” Although the results showed the modification on the EVSSC constructs, the findings and recommendations for future research provide numerous opportunities for advancing our understanding of experiential value marketing.
The use of celebrity endorsers is widespread in many countries. Today, many companies use famous athletes as endorsers for their products. These athletes are expected to accomplish a number of marketing objectives, such as capturing consumers' attention, building a positive image of a product, and increasing consumers' purchase intentions. However, despite the widespread use of athletes as endorsers, the influence of athlete endorsers on consumer behavior has not been well-understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of athlete endorsers on consumers' purchase behaviors through the elaboration of the construct “attractiveness of athletes.” This research consisted of two studies. The first study was conducted to identify the factors of athletes' attractiveness using an exploratory factor analysis. The second study examines what effects the attractiveness has on consumers' purchase behaviors. In Study 1, four factors underlying the attractiveness of athletes emerged. In Study 2, the influence of athlete endorsers on consumer behavior was discussed, followed by a reporting of the results.
The field of sport management has expanded rapidly, and now includes various aspects of sport industry. Researchers as well as practitioners in the sport business have provided various interpretations of the concept of sport management. However, the question “what should be researched and taught in sport management” remains unanswered. The present paper attempted to reexamine the concept of sport management in order to explain the significance of its existence as a science. In order to clarify what aspects of “sport” could be the target in the field of sport management, the author reviewed the structure of the sport industry and concluded that producing sport itself(i.e., sport activities) is the center of the sport industry. The uniqueness of sport product was also examined bacause it would clarify peculiar features of sport management. As discussed in the paper, sport management can be defined as “the management of business related to the production and provision of participant sport and/or spectator sport.”
The Inter-High School Ski Championship, which is one of the biggest winter sports events in Japan, has faced difficulties in recent years. Few cities want to host the event because of the severe economic situation. From the sports tourism perspective, the championship is an important sports event because it can produce a positive economic impact on the host city through consumption by participants. However, there is little research conducted on the scale of the economic impact. Thus, the purpose of this research is to estimate the economic impact of the championship event on the host city. According to the results of input-output analysis, the total economic impact of the participants' consumption and the expenses of hosting the championship were 187 million and 72 million yen, respectively. Thus, the total economic impact of the championship was estimated at 259 million yen: in total the event generated an income of 98 million yen for companies and individuals and tax revenues of 3 million yen for the local government of the host city.