Drawing from the literature on sport consumer behavior and related fields such as marketing, the purpose of this paper is to introduce some new research topics in the field of sport marketing. Based on six categories of customer metrics and two important perspectives of consumer decision making (social identity and customer satisfaction), four important research streams are identified: consumer motivations, social identity, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty. For each research stream, the core issues are introduced based on the conceptualization of key constructs and the theoretical explanations that outline the relationships between antecedents, consequences, and moderating variables. This paper also provides directions for future research that focuses on the development of new concepts, such as brand experiences, brand ethics, brand community, human brands, and customer engagement, which go beyond traditional marketing concepts.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of sport sponsorship with a focus on its research areas. Sport sponsorship has seen a tremendous growth in the past couple of decades with companies spending over 46 billion US dollars in 2010 worldwide (IEG, 2011). With this growth, this specific medium has caught the attention of both practitioners and academicians with respect to its nature and its effectiveness among others. The paper aims to provide the definition of and the uniqueness of the medium, explains some of the theoretical frameworks of past sport sponsorship research, and makes suggestions for future research.
The Japanese Association for Sport Management (JASM) was established only in the recent past, and it includes various fields of research; however, the fact that sport organization studies in JASM are lagging behind cannot be ignored. This study aims to discuss the current issues and future prospects related to the promotion of sport organization studies in JASM. First, this study classifies the articles that were published in three academic journals according to four analysis levels of organization, as shown by Daft (2002); it then reviews the trends in sport organization studies in the field of sport management. Second, this study clarifies the reason why sport organization studies are not actively conducted and asserts that researchers in sport management should consider empirical facts while conducting sport organization studies; moreover, they should be able to recognize the significance and impact of the facts that need to be generalized. Finally, the study discusses important implications for facilitating sport organization studies in JASM.
The purpose of this study was to examine the statistical data analysis techniques employed in sport management studies. For this investigation, content analyses were conducted on 401 articles published in the European Sport Management Quarterly (ESMQ), Journal of Sport Management (JSM), and Sport Management Review (SMR) from 2004 to 2010. The statistical data analysis techniques were classified by levels as basic, intermediate, and advanced statistics. Overall, 213 articles which were categorized as quantitative or mixed research were analyzed. The results revealed that 42.1% of all statistical data analysis techniques in the research article reviewed were categorized as basic, 33.2% were considered advanced, and the remaining 24.7% were found to be intermediate. The results indicates that reader would need a conceptual understanding of basic and advanced statistical data analysis techniques to interpret research reported in the sport management studies.
As well known, Nihon Sumo Kyokai, a foundation running Grand Sumo, is now confronted with a crisis by scandals. It seems that the Kyokai does not have abilities for management. However, at the same time, it seems that the financial performance of the foundation is stable and sound, and if it were, managerial abilities of the foundation should not be entirely denied. The purpose of this paper is to inspect and verify the stability and soundness. At first, 10 years' financial statements are examined from the viewpoint of “income and expenses”, cash flow, balance sheet and net asset. Second, changes of the business are examined collating with financials. As a result, it is found that the financial performance of the foundation is stable and sound, and the business structure and decision making of the foundation has risk-avoiding characteristics. These characteristics made the finance stable and sound. However, at the same time, it seems that the foundation has no means of increasing its revenue except ticket sales. There fore, it will be difficult to recover from the financial damage of cancellation of regular tournament, as a consequence of the lack of governance.
Despite the increasing study of spectator sports, little attention has been given to the study of fan services in Japan. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesized model, which explains the relationships between event satisfaction, team identification and attendance intentions. Data were collected from 211 participants at the Kobelco rugby festival 2010 in Kobe. The data were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analyses. The results indicate that event satisfaction does not have a direct impact on attendance intentions, although it has an indirect effect on attendance intentions via team identification. The findings suggest that sport marketers should pay more attention to the satisfaction for fan events. Furthermore, it is necessary for sport marketers to take a more favorable approach in order to enhance team identification. Future research and managerial implications were also discussed.