The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between club performance and revenue in Japanese professional football clubs. In Europe, Union of European Football Association (UEFA) decided to introduce financial fair play (FFP) for the purpose of the sound management for all clubs. In Japan, J.LEAGUE decided to introduce the club license system in 2013. In this way, the importance for the management of J.LEAGUE club would increase. This paper examined, the relationship between revenue and club performance in the J.LEAGUE club by making use of analyzing the panel data from 2005 to 2010. As a result, two-way fixed effect model was selected. This implied that there were differences among each club and there were time effects between seasons. From the scale of fixed effect, clubs in metropolis were not always profitable. And we found that club's performance do not significant affect the revenue.
The drivers of team attachment and repurchase behavior are complex. What remains unexplored is to examine the effects of spectator motives on team attachment and repurchase behavior among event attendees of a new professional sport league. Using a sample of 1228 attendees at J. League games in 1998, the authors demonstrate that (1) spectator motives consist of six factors, (2) the attraction-stage motives have significant effects on the attachment-stage motive (soccer club attachment) that in turn influences attendance frequency, and (3) the effects of the attraction-stage motives on the attachment-stage motive are enhanced by two moderating variables (gender and stadium size). The results suggest that managers must differentiate the marketing of individual athletes from the marketing of game, soccer, and club, specifically for male consumers and spectators attending games at small stadiums.
Sports in Japanese higher education (HE) institutions have been offered as physical education by institutions and sports circles by students' own operations with some degree of support from institution. There are almost no sports services opened to entire student body on campus as student affairs. This study attempts to review the case in the United States by analyzing literature from the industry to become a reference for new frameworks of student sports revitalization in HE in Japan. The presentation is divided into six sections; 1) historical review of U.S. and Japanese student affairs and recreational sports programs (RSP) 2) student development theories 3) standards & outcomes 4) purpose 5) program outline 6) discussion on RSP implementation in Japan. In conclusion, further researches should be implemented to investigate U.S. RSP student affairs functions and its organizational structures as feasible frameworks when student sports structure has to be reorganized in HE in Japan.
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