精密工学会誌
Online ISSN : 1882-675X
Print ISSN : 0912-0289
ISSN-L : 0912-0289
60 巻 , 11 号
選択された号の論文の24件中1~24を表示しています
  • 橘 邦英
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1543-1548
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 後藤 俊夫
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1549-1553
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 田頭 博昭
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1554-1558
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 田地 新一
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1559-1564
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    以上, プラズマエッチングの新技術の考え方とその表面反応モデル, エッチング特性を述べた.とくに, 低温エッチングや滞在時間制御エッチングについて, これからの技術課題の解決に対する極めて高いポテソシャルとディープサブミクロンレベル以降の超微細加工法としての考え方を紹介した.ここで付記したいのは, 半導体デバイスの高集積化・インテリジェント化には, 本特集を越えた新技術, 新概念のエッチング技術が必要なことである.英知を集め, 産業を支えうる技術の創出を進めることが肝要である.
  • 堀池 靖浩
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1565-1570
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 広瀬 全孝, 宮崎 誠一
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1571-1576
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    亀紙数の都合で偏光解析による表面反応研究については十分言及しなかったが, 赤外領域の分光エリプソメトリーは, 反応のリアルタイムモニタとして有効である4) 5) .気相反応モニタに赤外領域でのIRLASが有効であるが, 表面反応のリアルタイムモニタにも, 赤外偏光解析, IRRAS, フーリエ変換赤外全反射分光など赤外分光法が役立っている.表面分子結合の振動スペクトルを反応空間の影響を受けずに直接検出できる点で, 表面敏感赤外分光法は, 今後の表面反応研究の強力な手段となる.また, これらの診断技術は高度化し複雑化する半導体プロセス開発に対しても, 表面反応のリアルタイムモニタと反応のリアルタイム制御という可能性をひらく.今後, 表面反応診断の基礎研究と先端プロセス材料開発技術とがうまく結びついて発展することを期待したい.
  • 本田 智, 蔵野 哲哉
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1577-1581
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2010/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    このグリッパの特徴をまとめると次のようになる.
    (1) 物体を把握する前に, モータの回転角速度をω.に設定し, 加振指を制振させて待機する.把握動作に移り, 物体と加振指が接触すると, 動吸振振動子の振幅が縮小するので, 物体との接触を確認できる.
    (2) グリッパを△xだけ持ち上げる動作を把握力を強めながら繰り返すと, 物体を把握するために必要な最小の値まで把握力が増加したとき, 物体が強制力の1周期の前半では持ち上がり, 後半では滑り落ちる現象が現れる.受振振動子は, このような物体の振動によって非線形な振動をし始める.
    (3) 受振振動子と動吸振振動子が正弦波で振動し, さらに振幅が一致するまで把握力を強めると, 物体は強制力の1周期のすべてで滑り落ちなくなり, 物体が制振した状態で把握される.このときの把握力は, 物体を滑り落とさない最低の力に物体を安定して把握するために必要な余有の力を加えた最適な力となる.
  • 初澤 毅, 豊田 幸司, 谷村 吉久, 奈良 誠, 豊永 修司, 原 信也, 岩崎 裕隆, 近藤 一彦
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1582-1585
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2010/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    A small interferometer for the use of precise scanning electron microscopy has been developed. Optical components and a piezo-driven mechanical scanner are integrated on a small disk of 130mm in diameter. the device is small enough to be installed in the vacuum chamber of regular scanning electron microscopes (SEMs), and enables absolute linewidth niasurements based on laser wavelength. The performance of the system is evaluated and compared to those of an absolute linewidth measurement system we have developed before. The results show good agreement of a couple of nanometers in the sub-micrometer linewidth measurements. This system can be applied to various types of microscopes such as scanning probing microscopes (SPMs). and useful as an important device for calibration service in the precise micro-length measurement.
  • 小泉 邦雄, 伊藤 良直, 佐々木 基文, 岩城 敏博, 岡部 佐規一, 横山 恭男
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1586-1590
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Static force to an actuator is switched by a microcomputer in which displacement of an impacter is compared with on-off positions stored and decides on-off timing of the excitation. The switching causes self-excited impact vibration by rectangular pulsive force train. The paper presents estimation of drive condition for the steady-state motion by energy supplied dissipation per unity time, the power dissipation, for comparison of the motions having a different period. The optimum bipolar drive condition by the power estimation is available in the case that both the switch on position for the pull up force and the switch off position for the pull down force agree with impact position, in addition that the pull down force is acted in the moment of cut of the pull up force. In other words, the power is minimized by bang-bang drive. In the case of unipolar drive by the pull down force, there is not the practical condition, because the duration of force decreases to infinity and the force level increases to infinity. Hence it is reasonable that the force level is selected as high as possible and its corresponding duration of the pull down force is determined.
  • 清野 慧, 張 世宙
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1591-1595
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    A new calibration method which needs no accurate reference instrument is proposed to calibrate precision angle sensors. In the first step of the method, the mean sensitivity of an angle sensor is determined by applying the self-calibration principle of a rotary scale. For this calibration, a special system has been constructed with two coaxial rotary tables driven by stepping motors individually. In the next step, the linearity error of a pair angle sensors are determined by applying the self-calibration principle which has been developed for the displacement sensors. Using this method, the linearity error of the calibration curve can be determined within an uncertainty limit, which is given by the resolution of the angle sensors, electric noise and thermal drift of the system. Angle sensors using critical angle prism have been developed which have measuring range 1296 s (arc) and resolution of 0.05 s (are). These angle sensors have been calibrated by the proposed method. It was found that the repeatability error of the calibrated mean sensitivity was less then 0.02%, and the repeatability error of the calibrated linearity error was about 0.1 s (arc).
  • 仇 時雨, 須田 大春, 牧野 洋
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1596-1600
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Clothoid is a planar curve, of which curvature is proportional to the length of the curve measured from the origin of the curve. In this paper a method of clothoidal interpolation by “tangent method” which can realize continuity of curvature is described. By applying the method smoother interpolation curve is obtained between freely given 2-dimensional point series. The criteria of continuous curvature is formulated by slightly correcting the tangents of given pass points. The algorithm of the method is mentioned and some results are shown.
  • 橋本 純, 佐藤 和郎
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1601-1605
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    A circle cutting method for plate glass is proposed. Using this method, plate glass can be cut into many small circle plates almost simultaneously, irrespective of the number of plate glass desired cut. This method is called “Elastic Working” which aggressively exploits the progress of natural cracks occurring at the fracture of brittle materials. The characteristics of this method are as follows. (1) The plate glass can be cut almost without generating noise, waste or dust. (2) The cut section is perpendicular to the face of the plate glass. (3) The energy required to cut is minimal and the cutting time is very short. (4) The ceramic plate can also be cut as well as the plate glass.
  • 梅原 徳次, 加藤 康司, 水口 信一, 中村 茂
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1606-1610
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Lenses, mirrors and mold dies of high accuracy require local uniform grinding in micron scale for their best quality. A new type of magnetic fluid grinding is introduced for this purpose. The grinding system consists of actuators, a magnetic ball as a tool, non-magnetic workpiece (borosilicate glass), non-magnetic abrasive grains, a segment of magnet and magnetic fluid. The effect of magnetic field on grinding properties is carefully observed. It is concluded that the local uniform grinding in micron scale is possible by this method, which means that the combination of magnetic fluid and magnetic field can provide unique micro grinding.
  • 窪田 英毅, 田部井 英世, 佐藤 崇
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1611-1615
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The experiments described in this paper are to obtain basic data needed for forming segmentalized chips and to examine the effectiveness of the handling of these chips in comparison to the chips formed by conventional drilling. The segmentalization that a continuous chip is divided into small parts per one revolution of drill was carried out by an exciting device, developed in this study, with oscillation superimposed to the feed of drilling. On the formation of three-divided chips in the work material of steel (SS 41) occurred chipping on main cutting edges in the neighborhood of chisel edge while in the case of the work of aluminum (A 1050) it did not occur. This chipping is caused by iterative motion of the cutting edges. The estimation of the handling was taken as a measure of the weight of the chips cumulated near the drilled hole and their bulk. The chips are cumulated almost near the hole in this drilling and their bulk became 1/11 in steel and 1/5 in aluminum of the chips formed by conventional drilling, respectively.
  • 上田 隆司, 鳥居 明人, 山田 啓司
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1616-1620
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    In surface grinding of steel, the temperature in the surface layer of the workpiece and the temperature of cutting grains on wheel surface are measured by means of a new method, in which an optical fiber accepts the infrared flux radiated from the object and transmits it to an infrared detector InAs cell. This I.R.P. is suitable for measuring the temperature of a very small object whose temperature changes rapidly. The influence of the physical properties of workpiece and grinding conditions on the grinding temperature and the thermal partition coefficient are investigated. A carbon steel, a stainless steel and a cast iron are used as work materials. The thermal partition coefficients obtained by experimental results are compared with those obtained theoretically.
  • 平田 養, 中島 晃, 岡田 健, 柳沢 隆
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1621-1625
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Reports of study for welded bellows with cracks have apparently not been published to date. The purpose of this investigation is to understand the relationship between the state of stress of welded bellows with micro cracks and the fatigue life. Stresses of welded bellows with cracks were calculated for several different crack lengths by finite element method (FEM), and lives of bellows with cracks were examined by fatigue test. The fatigue life, i. e. the number of cycles to failure was arranged against the remaining wall thickness measured after test instead of the crack length. As a result, it was found that there is a regular relationship between the stress amplitude of peak stress calculated by FEM and the fatigue life of bellows. And then, it was shown that the life of bellows becomes longer than the life estimated using a theoretical S-N curve calculated by Manson's method. Stress intensity factor range (ΔK) and crack propagation rate (da/dN) were also calculated using the results of stress analysis by FEM and fatigue test. The relationship between ΔK and da/dN obtained was almost coincident with the earlier result of fatigue crack growth test of Inconel 718 in the region of da/dN >1.5 × 10-6mm/cycle, and the propriety of the present results was confirmed.
  • 池上 昌之, 中野 敬之, 吉川 昌範
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1626-1630
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    An apparatus for fabricating diamond powders by means of arc-discharge plasma jet CVD (chemical vapor deposition) method was developed with an attachment for collecting the fabricated powders. It was found that a nickel substrate is the best material for fabrication and a scratching brush made of piano wire of diameter 0.2mm is fit for collecting diamond powders. With this apparatus, diamond powders of diameter 15μm can be fabricated in 5 minutes, and the collecting ratio is 60%, that is 12.4mg per hour.
  • 安井 平司, 佐藤 郁, 松永 竜二, 鈴木 幸雄
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1631-1636
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2010/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Al2O3砥粒による磁気ディスク基板の高平滑ポリシング特性 (除去速度, 平滑化速度および到達微小うねり等) に及ぼすポリシング条件 (ポリシャの種類, ポリシング圧力, 平均相対速度, 砥粒濃度等) の影響を実験的に検討し, 考察した.主な結果をまとめると以下のようになる.
    1) 軟質ポリシャの方が硬質ポリシャより微小うねりと表面粗さともに良いが, 除去速度は低くなる.
    2) 軟質ポリシャでは,
    (1) 除去速度は, ポリシャ硬度, ポリシング圧力, 平均相対速度および砥粒濃度を増加すると増加する.
    (2) 表面粗さは, 高ポリシング圧力にすると悪くなるが, 平均相対速度や砥粒濃度の影響は比較的受けにくい.
    (3) 微小うねりは, 低ポリシング圧力, 低砥粒濃度で良くなり, 平均相対速度にはほとんど影響されない.
    3) 硬質ポリシャでは,
    (1) 平均相対速度が増加すると, 除去速度の増加率は減少する.特に, 低ポリシング圧力では, ある臨界平均相対速度以上では, 除去速度が減少する.
    (2) 低ポリシング圧力, 高平均相対速度では, スクラッチが発生し, 表面粗さが悪くなる.
    4) ポリシャAを用い, P=3.7kPa, Va=1.5m/s, Cg=1.1~2.3%のポリシング条件で, 約4nmの終末微小うねりが得られた.
  • 中島 利勝, 大橋 一仁, 山本 哲
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1637-1641
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Frictional characteristics of ground surface of aramid fiber reinforced rubber (AFRR), which is one of the advanced composite materials for transmission belt, are dominated by grinding conditions, and form and size of aramid fibers which aren't removed projecting on the surface of matrix rubber in grinding. In this paper, the coefficient of static friction is analytically described based on Hertz's theory of elastic contact in terms of arrangement of aramid fiber in matrix rubber, occupying ratio of fiber on contact surface of AFRR with pulley and so on, and the validity of this analysis is also discussed by comparing the theoretical coefficient with the measured one. It is pointed out that the coefficient of static friction on ground surface of AFRR can be predicted by fiber diameter, fiber content, length of projecting fiber, width of fiber end and coefficient of static friction of matrix rubber and aramid fiber. Though the coefficient of static friction on ground surface of AFRR is analyzed for four ideal conditions of projecting fiber, the measured coefficient agrees well with the analyzed one for the case that fibers are uniformly arranged in hexagonal form and ground in the direction of a central diagonal of this hexagonal fiber arrangement. Furthermore, the validity of this analysis is shown by investigating effects of pressure on contact conditions between pulley and ground surface of AFRR.
  • 黒部 利次, 山田 良穂, 酒井 直人, 上田 修治, 新宮 克喜
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1642-1646
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Local area polishing has been done by using a newly-developed fine pressure controlling machine. Fine pressure yielded by repulsive magnetic force between an electromagnet and permanent one, has proved to be excellent polishing performance on the optical glass. Polishing rate at any point on the workpiece should depend on the shape of a pad as well as the polishing condition, such as relative motion of polishing pad and workpiece. In the present study focusing on the reduction of surface waviness in the order of nanometer, the effects of pad shape on the polishing characteristics are experimentally and analytically examined. It is found that the profile of polished surface can be controlled by the shape of the polishing pad, and that the developed technique is very effective in the modification of the surface profile in nanometer scale.
  • 奥山 繁樹, 吉田 剛, 望野 治久, 河村 末久
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1647-1651
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The corner dullness which deteriorates the corner shapes is often generated at the ends of the ground machine parts. The aim of this study is to find the measures for diminishing the corner dullness under one-pass-plunge grinding. Through the theoretical study, which is based on a model considering the wheel to workpiece relative displacement, effects of the grinding condition on the shape of the dullness are clarified. Some of the factors have opposite effect on the height of the dullness from its length and they also have contrary effect on the size of the exit-dullness to the entrance. In order to diminish the height of the exit-dullness, which usually have significant effect on deteriorating the corner shape, it is important to decrease the wheel depth setting, table speed, and wheel radius and to increase the wheel speed. However, the chattering tends to occur around the starting point of the grinding pass when utilizing the grinding wheel of small radius or minute down-feed. When a backup material is set beside the workpiece during the grinding process, the size of the dullness can be effectively diminished.
  • 進村 武男, 王 鳳輝, 多々見 俊宏, 安原 鋭幸, 吉川 昌範, 奥住 文徳, 楊 政峰
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1652-1657
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 東 正毅, 水谷 好宏, 中倉 清
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1658-1662
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    本報では, 立体, 面を自由に組合せて立体形状を生成したり修正するために, 立体, 面, およびこれらを組合せた形状をシェルとして表現し, 非多様体シェル演算により統一的に処理する方法を提案した.
    これにより, 設計者は, 設計途中の不完全な立体形状を自由に作成でき, また, 面と立体を自由に組合せた形状から, 立体部分を自動的に抽出することができる.非多様体シェル演算による処理法では,
    (1) 面, 立体よりなる3次元形状を, 3次元領域の境界であるシェルにより統一的に表現する.これらのシェル間の演算を, シェルが交差した干渉線に沿って非多様体オイラ操作による面問の結合分離を行うことにより, 正則集合演算と, 面と立体の組合せ, 面と面の組合せ, およびこれらからの立体の抽出を統一的に処理する.
    (2) 演算の取消操作やパラメトリック設計では, 干渉線に世代番号を格納し不要シェルを管理することにより, 取消しに関連するシェルを探索し, 非多様体シェル演算により取消し, 復元操作を行う.
    などの特徴があり, 他の3次元領域を用いる方法とは異なり, 必要最小限の情報の管理と操作により, 効率的な処理法が実現できた.
    本研究の一部は, 平成5年度文部省科学研究費一般研究 (C) (課題番号 : 05650151) の補助を受けて行われた.
  • 村山 長, 大場 史憲
    1994 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 1663-1668
    発行日: 1994/11/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is important to generate and evaluate assembly sequences in product design stages for reducing manufacturing costs. This paper proposes a method for generating the assembly sequences efficiently. In the method, the problems of generating the assembly sequences are decomposed into subproblems, and the decompositions are represented as AND/OR graphs. To generate the sequences, an algorithm for searching the AND/OR graphs, which are reduced by using heuristics, is developed. This algorithm is efficient especially to generate the assembly sequences for the design objects got by modifying the original ones whose assembly sequences have ever been generated. The efficient generation of assembly sequences is achieved by using the assembly sequences of the original design objects. Based on the method, a system is developed, and an example is given by using the system to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.
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