精密工学会誌
Online ISSN : 1882-675X
Print ISSN : 0912-0289
ISSN-L : 0912-0289
61 巻 , 12 号
選択された号の論文の25件中1~25を表示しています
  • 大塚 二郎
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1645-1649
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2010/01/20
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 清水 茂夫, 坂戸 啓一郎
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1650-1655
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 鎌野 琢也
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1656-1660
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 下河辺 明, 佐藤 海二
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1661-1665
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 羽根 一博
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1666-1670
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 金井 彰
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1671-1675
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 牧野内 進, 林 豊, 神谷 三郎
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1676-1680
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 五百井 俊宏, 根本 雅彦, 伊佐山 正, 森下 克彦, 田中 良樹
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1681-1685
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper treats the machine parts visual inspection system for surface defects, such as a crack, a pin-hole and other imperfections. The automated inspection system for defects on the three dimensional surface of machine parts has not been reported in the past, due to the complexity of analyses of light reflection data and the difficulty of measuring conditions. The features of defects are analyzed and classified. Also the features of defects can be indicated in terms of membership functions of the fuzzy technique. A new SPOT CHECK algorithm for defects on three dimensional surfaces of the machine parts has been developed. The moving average method, and the statistical treatment of light reflection data from the surfaces of the parts are applied to the SPOT CHECK method which has been developed. It is possible by using the SPOT CHECK method to measure the defects without influencing the measuring conditions, such as the illumination and the positioning of the parts. The neural network system has been developed, the system uses the membership functions of features of defects as the input data, while the kinds of defects as the output data. It is found that the neural network system has rapid convergence characteristics. The experimental verification results for the recognition of the kinds of defects are satisfactory.
  • 本間 義彦
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1686-1689
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is very important in design problems of automatic production or assembly lines to estimate the fluctuation of daily output which results from the irregular occurrence of trouble and the variance of operational ratio of lines. An analytical method for the variance of operational ratio as the application of analysis for the operational ratio has been presented by previous papers. However, the method needs troublesome computations into practice. In compositions of lines, assembly stations are aligned in various ways, such as series, branched or parallel. Therefore, the method must be simple in calculation. In this report, a simple experimental equation which is given through simulations for production lines with various factors (trouble occurrence ratio, recovery times and buffer capacities) by a digital computer is presented. The presented equation gives appropriate results of variances of operational ratio in automatic production lines. Furthermore, a method to estimate fluctuations of daily products by the presented equation is shown with a numerical example.
  • 野飼 享, 佐野 和生, トーマス シェリダン
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1690-1694
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper discusses a new mechanism for a 3DOF joint which is constructed by a cable-controlled mechanism and an interference drive system. This is equivalent to a parallel mechanism having flexible links. However, it is difficult to drive the mechanism by an ordinary procedure because it has a redundancy of drive-cables given the DOF of the joint. Therefore, in this paper, a transform equation is formulated between the drive system and the joint system, and an effective algorithm is proposed for computation on the tensions of cables based on vector analysis. An experiment for dynamical tracking control of the mechanism as an imaginary walking leg is tried using a computed torque technique. As the result, it is concluded that the cable-controlled mechanism is effective for a 3DOF joint.
  • 東根 亜紀, 大谷 幸利, 高和 宏行, 徳永 剛, 吉澤 徹
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1695-1699
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    位相シフト法を導入した格子パターン投影法に正弦格子を適用するとともに0次のしまの決定を行う方式によって, 実際にレンズ素材の形状計測を行った.正弦格子を利用することによって位相シフトによって, 位相を求める際に生じる検出された位相の倍周期の周期的誤差を低減することが可能になった.さらに, 変形格子像の0次は薄膜色フィルタの補色の関係から決定することが可能になった.以上によって, レンズ素材の測定に有用な測定精度が得られた.さらに, 白色パウダの利用によって透明なレンズ素材に投影された格子パターンの観察を可能とした.これらを用いて, レンズ素材の形状の測定を試み, 実際に「ヒケ」の計測が可能であることを示した.さらに, 本手法は自動計測することも可能である.今後, ここで求まった「ヒケ」のデータを金型の設計にフィードバックし, 役立てていく予定である.
  • 園嵜 昭八, 岩田 耕一, 岩橋 善久
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1700-1704
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    A verification of a measurement method of surface profile along a circle with no standard is carried out. For the measurement, spacings between two unknown surfaces located almost in parallel are measured along a circle. One of the surfaces is rotated around the center of the circle and the spacings are measured again. This procedure is repeated many times. From these data, the profiles of two surfaces are calculated with a system of simultaneous linear equations. For the purpose of a verification experiment, a simple surface measuring apparatus is constructed which has 12 electric comparators arranged along a circle. Their zero point positions correspond to one of two surfaces. A random inclination and a random displacement can be given intensionally to the surface to be measured. The surface profiles obtained by different experiments agree well with each other and with the profiles obtained with a 3-dimensional measuring machine.
  • 寺田 英嗣, 牧野 洋, 今瀬 憲司
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1705-1709
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Cycloid Ball Reducer has been developed for use.for servo mechanism elements. Motion principle of the reducer has been analyzed, and it becomes clear that there is the optimal value of trochoid factor which affects on pressure angle and radius of curvature. In this report, the fundamental design parameters of Cycloid Ball Reducer are investigated and derived, to adapt external type reducers with trochoidal groove or teeth. The strength of trochoidal groove for this reducer is analyzed using Hertz's theory. It is proved that the strength of reducer is influenced on center distance modification factor, ball diameter factor, ball number and module of this reducer. As the results, one of the design method that is based on theoretical strength, can be shown. Also, this method is able to evaluate the allowable load torque for this reducer.
  • 洪 俊憙, 川上 和彦, 古谷 涼秋, 高増 潔, 大園 成夫
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1710-1714
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper is intended as a development of new process control method of making high quality of products in machining process Conventional process control methods are for off-line control and cannot be determined optimal control limits according to cutting state in machining process. The proposed method is applicable to on-line process control and determination of optimal control limit according to cutting state of machining process in short time. By introducing new parameter of actual measured geometrical deviation (AMGD), it becomes clear that it can obtain control limit based on geometrical relation. The proposed method is constructed reasoning networks by learning fuzzy neural network and generalize the control limit by fuzzy reasoning. The control limits of geometrical tolerances are shown by simulation.
  • 松添 雄二, 秋山 伸幸, 谷内 俊明, 近松 秀一
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1715-1719
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    In an automatic detection system for small particles on patterned wafers, the optical system which eliminates insensitive regions on a linear image sensor has been developed. The real image of wafer is splitted into two parts by the split mirror set on the real image plane of the detection system. The insensitive regions are eliminated by setting the linear image sensors whose pixels are shifted by a halfpixel relatively, on these two real images. The relative displacement between the two real image detected by the sensors is 0.5±0.1 pixel over the view field of 3mm and the shading of images is 23%. The intensity of images with the split mirror becomes twice as much as that with the half mirror.
  • 王 樹華, 寺田 英嗣, 牧野 洋, 清水 晃
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1720-1724
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2010/01/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    Shape data input of an industrial art object can be easily performed by using a teaching robot. The objective of this research is to reduce the random errors in the teaching data and to obtain smooth curved lines and surfaces. By this, 3D graphic expression and machining of an industrial art object can be made easy. For characteristic lines, the least square method is used to fit a polynomial expression. For curved surfaces, two parameters (ui, vi) for expressing surface are used, and the teaching data are sorted with respect to these parameters. The least square method is then used to fit polynomial expressions on the curved surfaces. Finally, the fitted polynomial expressions are used to calculate corrected value of teaching data for generating smooth curved lines and surfaces.
  • 根岸 真人, 出口 明信, 安藤 学, 瀧本 雅文, 中村 宣夫
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1725-1729
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    For the purpose of fabricating free-form optical elements to an accuracy of 80 nmPV, the CSSP (Canon Super-Smooth Polisher) has been developed. This device finishes workpieces by alternately repeating contour measuring and corrective polishing. In such a system, contour measuring is important because it limits the final accuracy of the workpiece. This paper focuses on the CSSP's on-machine contour measuring method. A contact probe is employed to ensure adaptability to free-form contours with maximum tilt angles of 35 degrees. A unique probe structure is proposed, by which both inclination and motion errors of the probe are simultaneously compensated. The flaw problem is discussed from an experimental point of view. Using a ceramic air slide and a linear motor, the contact force was controlled to a constant of 2 mN, which is much smaller than the force of 260 mN that causes a yield stress on workpieces made of calcium fluoride. The probe's scanning speed of 4 mm/s was achieved by speeding up this force controller. The margin of force error during contour measurement was under 0.2 mN. A coordinate measuring method using fourteen axes interferometers was also proposed for compensation of the major mechanical motion errors of the probe and the tables. The measurement results showed good repeatabilities of 3 nmRMS for a 540 mm line measurement, and 9 nm RMS for a φ 500 mm aspherical surface measurement.
  • 中村 篤史, 秋山 伸幸, 谷内 俊明, 近松 秀一
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1730-1734
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper discusses the optimum configuration of illumination system which detects small particles on a patterned specimen by illuminating a laser diode obliquely. A luminous part of laser diode spreads in a line. The real image of luminous part has to be projected with a rotational angle of θ around an optical axis of illumination. The angles of rotation and tilt asked for realizing the above mentioned condition are analyzed theoretically and experimentally. A new optical system with two cylindrical lenses is proposed and analyzed experimentally to reduce the width of illuminated area. Using this new optical system, the width is reduced to 1/2 - 1/3 compared with conventional optical system.
  • 後藤 英一, 峠 睦, 大渕 慶史
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1735-1739
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    前報で報告した装置をパルスステージに搭載し, 砥石軸方向に送りをかけられるようにして切れ刃摩耗面の画像をとらえる装置を製作し, 得られた2値画像を調べた.その結果を以下に示す.
    (1) 作業面の切りくず部分は画像に出力されない.
    (2) “画像の谷のっぶれ” はみられたが, 画像は切れ刃摩耗面の位置と対応している.
    (3) 画像の安定性は, ほぼ信号の量子化誤差の程度である.
    (4) 切れ刃の摩耗面積と本装置によって得られる画像の面積とは, 調べた範囲では, ほぼ直線的な関係にあることがわかった.
    (5) (1) ~ (4) から, 本測定で得られた画像を切れ刃摩耗面とみなしてよいと思われる.
  • 市川 茂樹, ジュハルトノ , 小奈 弘, 吉本 勇
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1740-1744
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2010/01/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    For the ceramic ball bearings in the step of the practical use, for which it is required to build up the data base on the various conditions in the life test, the sample size and testing time are the important problems in the life tests. The staircase method is discussed for these problems. This paper presents the life tests by the staircase method which involves comparison with the basic dynamic load rating by Weibull method, using the two kinds of ceramic ball bearings which differ from each other in the determining mechanisms of life. As the results the basic dynamic load rating by the staircase method is in agreement with that by Weibull method, and the testing time in the staircase method is shorter than that in Weibull method. It appears that the basic dynamic load rating of alumina ball bearings is extremely lower than that of silicon nitride ball bearings.
  • 趙 暁明, 葛 東方, 堤 正臣
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1745-1749
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2010/01/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究では, DXFファイルから加工曲面の点群データを得て, それをもとにしてボールエンドミルによる仕上げ加工における干渉検出方法と回避方法とを検討して, 検出時間短縮のために, 投影面の決定と分割サイズとを提案した.さらに, 提案した方法を用いて, 工具位置を算出できるプログラムを開発した.以上の討論と計算結果から以下の結論が得られた.
    (1) 回避方向を求めるとき, 干渉部分だけでなく加工曲面全体の特性を考慮して, より適当な回避方向が求められる.
    (2) 干渉点の座標値により回避角度が求められるので, 干渉部分は1回だけで回避できる.
    (3) XY面, YZ面及びZX面の中から有利な投影面を選択してから, 工具の直径を投影面の領域分割サイズとすると, 計算時間が大幅に短縮できる.
    なお, 本研究では, 加工曲面の規則性 (平面, 軸対称曲面など) を考えていないので, 規則曲面の計算時間が無駄になった.今後, 加工曲面の規則性を判断して, それに対応する無干渉工旦位署を生戌するプログラム左作成する予定である.
  • 白樫 高洋, 龔 衛国, 帯川 利之
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1750-1754
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2010/01/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    For monitoring tool wear in machining process, a method of diagnostic impulse excitation was discussed. The dynamic characteristics of the tool vibration, especially, damping ratio of the tool in machining process, will change with the tool wear development. In order to measure the dynamic characteristics of the tool vibration in machining, the diagnostic impulse excitation was applied to the tool in the direction of feed and then the behavior of the tool vibration was measured under some wear conditions. The behavior was analyzed through FFT and the damping ratio of the tool was measured in machining process. The damping ratio was linearly increased with the development of flank wear. The increment of the damping ratio was different in each cutting condition, but it could be uniquely determined by the area of the flank wear. The feed rate did not affect on the increment of the relation between the damping ratio and the flank wear, but the parallel shift of the relation was seen, so that larger feed rate will give the larger damping ratio. The increment of the damping ratio will be caused from the interaction between wear and cut surface. As the vibration energy is consumed in the interaction, the energy consumption mechanism was discussed. And the widely available method to monitor the flank wear was proposed and discussed with the experimental ones.
  • 広瀬 喜久治, 後藤 英和, 森 勇藏, 芳井 熊安, 安武 潔, 垣内 弘章, 坂本 正雄, 堤 建一
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1755-1759
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    Adsorption processes of NH3 on Si (001) -2×1 surface have been investigated by the first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations. The total energy calculation shows that NH3 adsorbs molecularly on the cave site with the adsorption energy of 5.89eV and the relaxation of surface Si dimers is crucial in determining the adsorption eitergy. The optimized configuration of the adsorbed NH3 is found at 1.86Å above the topmost Si surface with the N-H bond length of 1.32Å and the H-N-H bond angle of 92.0°.The dissociative adsorption process of NH3 is also studied. The decomposition process of NH3 to form NH2 and H has the activation barrier of at most 0.4 eV. After the decomposition, however, both NH2 and H adsorb to the Si surface dangling bonds without activation barrier. The dissociative adsorption is more stable than the molecular adsorption of NH3; the total energy of the former is 7.37eV, while that of the latter is 5.89eV.
  • 萩原 親作, 帯川 利之, 谷内 浩
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1760-1764
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    The shape and size of abrasive grains during lapping varies complicately and irregularly. In this study, the aspect ratio of grain size and the fractal dimension of the grain external form were used as shape characteristics of grain in order to evaluate grains with lapping time. The results obtained are summarized as follows : (1) The fractal dimension increases due to microscopic fracture and decreases due to macroscopic fracture or attritious wear. (2) The aspect ratio and the fractal dimension, which are grain shape characteristicsis of the macroscopic shape and the microscopic surface complication of grain respectively, can be used for evaluating grain shape variation during lapping.
  • 井原 透, 川上 勲, 諸 潔
    1995 年 61 巻 12 号 p. 1765-1769
    発行日: 1995/12/05
    公開日: 2010/01/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the previous report, a methodology that could predict the limit value of the chatter vibration, of which the main reason was the outer configuration changes of workpiece in lathe-turning, was proposed. On basis of this method, an application system that could predicate the boundary of cutting conditions, for example, the cutting depth, had also been built up. The input information to the system was a series of changing sizes of the workpiece during lathe-turning. The system, however, has no sub-system to measure the size of the work piece in real-time automatically. To overcome this weakness, a sub-system using picture processing techniques by CCD camera was developed in our resent research. This paper is going to report on how this sub-system has been established and the running results of the new system.
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