精密工学会誌
Online ISSN : 1882-675X
Print ISSN : 0912-0289
ISSN-L : 0912-0289
63 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の25件中1~25を表示しています
  • 稲崎 一郎
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 16-20
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 星 鐵太郎
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 21-26
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 澤岡 昭
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 27-30
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 松本 和男
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 31-34
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    以上述べてきたことをまとめてみると, 21世紀のもの作りを支える人材とは, もの作りを喜びとして感じる高い感性を持ち, 好奇心が強く, 新たなことに挑戦する意欲に満ち, 成功するまでやり抜く粘り強さを持った人ではないだろうか.間近に迫った21世紀に向けて, このような人材を育成するために, 企業や教育機関, 学会が果たすべき役割はますます重要となる.我々企業においても官, 学との連携を強くし, 今後ともこのような人材育成に努力していきたい.
  • 小川 秀夫, 大西 孝治
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 35-38
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2010/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    大学関係者, 大企業の生産技術者にとって, ともすれば疎であったかもしれない職業能力開発による人材育成について, その発足, 体系, 現状, これからの方向についてみてきた.
    職業能力開発は経済の成長期には成長期としての, 停滞期には停滞期としての, また産業構造の転換期には転換期としての労働力の確保, 円滑な労働移動, 在職者の職業能力の高度化等でその経済社会を反映した役割が求められる.筆者らのかかわっている公共職業能力開発施設もその設備, カリキュラム等の刷新に努力し, 産業・企業の要求にこたえるとともに, 「人材高度化支援事業」として, 事業主団体等と連携してオーダメード型の多様な職業訓練の開発・実施等を推進するとともに, 「中小企業人材育成プロジェクト」の活用による支援等も行っている.
  • 佐藤 眞
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 39-41
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 小川 徹
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 42-44
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 鈴木 宏正, 山本 徹也, 金井 崇, 木村 文彦
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 45-49
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this research is to develop methods to rapidly create rough three dimensional shape models for free-formed. objects. Such methods are useful for designing concept models of products and animation characters. Conventional parametric surface modelling methods are too cumbersome for this aim. The basic representation of the shape in this approach is a triangular mesh (a polygon with triangular faces), thus it is easy to change the shape. The theory of “Welch-Witkin Approximations to Thin Plate Surfaces” is used to give surface characteristics to the mesh and makes it possible to manipulate the triangular mesh as if it were a surface model. Based on this theory, two kinds of modelling methods, surface faring and surface subdivision, are proposed for generating triangular mesh models.
  • 窪田 敦之, 田浦 俊春
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 50-54
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper presents a methodology to support collaboration in engineering whose style is called asynchronous and idea integrative. “Idea integrative” style means that multiple engineers are involved in the same subject and make ideas for the subject. “Asynchronous” style means that engineers' working time are different from each other and it is difficult for them to have meetings for discussion on the subject. The key to support this kind of collaboration style is to make media with which engineers can talk as if they talk with partners to understand thought of the partners and know history of engineering. Visualization method of history and ways of interaction between engineers and this media are proposed from the viewpoint of virtual re-experience of other engineers' engineering processes. In this paper, a prototype system is also presented.
  • 戸井 武司, 村瀬 芳典, 大久保 信行
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 55-59
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this research is the reduction of relative motion between two locations of main functional part of precision device under various conditions. First, sensitivity analysis is described which takes only one location, relative motion or objective frequency band into consideration in conventional method. Next, new sensitivity analysis is proposed to consider not only objective frequency band but also relative motion. The new method is applied for a simple numerical model and experimental model, and structural modification is carried out for the reduction of relative motion to compare of conventional methods. Moreover, relative motion between objective lens and stage that are main functional part in microscope for inspection of large scale integration circuit is analyzed by new sensitivity method for reducing relative motion in low frequency band. The image deflection can be reduced by structural modification and evaluated using two dimensional position sensor quantitatively.
  • 安武 潔, 竹内 昭博, 垣内 弘章, 奥山 佳正, 芳井 熊安, 川邊 秀昭
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 60-64
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    InGaAs/GaAs strained-layer single quantum well (SSQW) structures have been grown at temperatures from 200 to 540°C by migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE). Fabricated structures were characterized by comparing the measured wavelength of photoluminescence (PL) emission peak with the theoretically calculated one for ideal quantum wells. In the SSQWs made at high temperatures (400 - 540°C), large PL peak shifts to the shorter wavelengths than the calculated ones were observed. This blue shift of the PL peak was attributed to the surface segregation and desorption of In atoms. Lowering the growth temperature of MEE below 300°C, the In segregation was suppressed and the designed PL wavelength from the SSQW was obtained. It was shown that the preparation of GaAs (2 × 4) -As surface without excess Assticking and the long migration time of group III atoms were needed to obtain the high PL intensity from SSQW.
  • 柴坂 敏郎, 坂田 和夫
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 65-69
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    To improve flexibility and productivity for a manufacturing system, a comprehensive monitoring system is proposed in this study. The system is integrated with three main components acting in parallel, and with two elements. First component is the evaluation system of the cutting states in the general situation. Second is the quantitative estimation system based on achievement, and last one is the qualitative estimation system based on analogy of experience and knowledge. These componets monitor the cutting condition with different level based on the thinking process of a skilled worker. One of elements is the classification system to determine the utilization of the qualitative or quantitative estimation system. The other element is to give notice of the cutting state to a worker. Those main systems in this paper were constructed with artifical neural networks based on sensing the cutting force signals for the estimation of the tool wear in face milling. It was found that the normal and abnormal cutting conditions were recognized by the evaluation system. The average relative error of tool life was 6.3 % for the quantitative estimation, and 19.0 % for the qualitative one. From the results obtained, it can he inferred that former system improves productivity, later one develops the flexibility of machining systems, and the proposed estimation system is used to improve the reliability of the manufacturing.
  • 金沢 憲一, 中川 歩, 三浦 崇
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 70-75
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Mechanical properties of sweet potato are examined experimentally by compressive tests. And the computer simulation is conducted using FEM, on the separating process that sweet potato is cut by a knife-edged cutter with flat blade. The results obtained are as follows : (1) The calculation result almost corresponds to the process which sweet potato is separated by the preceding crack caused by a cutter except initiation. (2) The variety of cutting force is also the same as the experiment on each blade angle of a cutter. (3) In calculation, the effect of blade angle on two factors, the peak of cutting force and the cutting energy, is similar to the experiment. But both calculated values are higher than the experiment due to the high frictional coefficient between the separated surface and a cutter, which is obtained by a simple frictional test.
  • 奥山 繁樹, 奥田 広樹, 岩谷 健史, 河村 末久
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 76-80
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Temperature distribution of the CNC surface grinding machine, SPG-25, during the warmingup operation and the thermally induced relative displacement between the wheel spindle and the machine table are discussed. The test machine shows relatively high temperature elevation around the hydrostatic oil slides and top of the column on which the AC servomotor is mounted. The relative displacement in Y-axis, δy, reaches 9.5μm after the 3-hour warming-up and it gradually decreases. The displacement in X and Z axes are relatively small and stable. Thermal deformation of the test machine is theoretically investigated by using the finite element method, and δy is confirmed to be mainly caused by the convex deformation of the machine bed due to the temperature elevation around the hydrostatic oil slides. In order to compensate the relative displacement, the oil temperature is set 2 degrees less than the room temperature and δy was diminished by 30%.
  • 恩田 一
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 81-85
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    A Laser Beam Writing machine is very easy to use for making various patterns such as photo masks. In the Laser Beam Writing machine, line width control is effective to shorten the patterning time. Two means for line width control are presented and tested, these are changing the focusing lenses and controlling laser power. The test results in the fact that 30 times of line width control is achieved using 4 types of focusing lenses and laser power control. The thickness of the photo-resist affects the line width, and this is proved by the experiments. The bank shape of the exposed lines depends on the numerical aperture of these lenses, so that the mixed use of these lenses is effective for a specific pattern. Additionally, the mechanism of exposure is analysed theoretically and compared with the experiment. The analysis meets well with the experiment in the case of a low numerical aperture lenses. The effect of thickness of photo-resist on the exposed line width is verified to he presented as the threshold energy of the photo-resist.
  • 稲村 豊四郎, 武澤 伸浩, 社本 志郎, 中原 尚寿, 島田 尚一, 毛利 尚武, 佐田 登志夫
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 86-90
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2010/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    By using renormalized molecular dynamics (RMD) proposed by the authors, computer experiments of machining defectless monocrystal silicon of various size have been carried out to investigate crack initiation process. The results show that a defectless monocrystal silicon can be machined in ductile mode in any scale in an absolute vacuum but exhibits brittle-ductile transition depending on the scale of machining in normal atmosphere. The effect of atmosphere taken into account in this study is adsorption and invation of atmospheric molecules into microcrevices created in both static and dynamic manners in a crystal during machining. The paper describes detailed mechanism of the process of crack initiation together with the discussion from micro dynamics points of view why ductile mode machining is always possible either in small scale or in case of f.c.c. metals.
  • 太田 稔, 宮原 克敏, 庄司 克雄
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 91-95
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper, relationship between the residual stress in the ground surface of silicon nitrides, with various grinding conditions and the grinding factor was investigated, in order to make clear the foundamental grinding factors which affect the residual stress. Moreover the force acting on a grain cutting edge which was dynamic force in grinding was calculated, and relationship between the force acting on a grain cutting edge and the residual stress was investigated. The results are summarized as follows : (1) The compressive residual stress in the ground surface becomes large with the increase of the grain size and the hardness of bonding material of grinding wheel. (2) The compressive residual stress tends to increase with the increase of the surface roughness. (3) Considering only mechanical stress, the compressive residual stress is increased with the increase of the obtained force acting on a grain cutting edge, and the stress is saturated at a certain value.
  • 後藤 賢治, 水本 洋
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 96-100
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2010/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    球のウエビネスの創成に及ぼすラッピング用砥石の影響を明らかにするために, 性状の異なる砥石で加工実験を行った.得られた結論を要約すると次のようになる.
    (1) 低次のウエビネスの修正には, 軟らかい砥石が効果的であり, ある程度, 研磨量を大きくすることが必要である.
    (2) 中次および高次のウエビネスは細粒の軟らかい砥石を使用して, 低い研磨速度で研磨するとよく修正される.
    これらの結論を基にウエビネスの小さい高精度鋼球を量産するための, 次のような2段階ラッピングシステムを考案した.
    第1段階 : 軟らかい粗粒の砥石で低次のウエビネス値が低く, かつある程度の粗さを有する球を製作する.
    第2段階 : 細粒の軟らかい砥石に入れ替えて, 中次および高次のウエビネスを修正する.
    このシステムにより真球度29nm, 表面粗さRa=2nm, ウエビネスの低次, 中次, 高次の値がそれぞれ249,399, 1893nm/sで, 従来品よりもウエビネス値の低い鋼球を量産でき, このような高精度鋼球を組み込むことで, 軸受の振動レベルを低減できることが確かめられた.
  • 奥住 文徳, 平田 敦, 吉川 昌範
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 101-102
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 伊藤 俊治, 成清 辰生
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 103-107
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2010/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    累進レンズの断面曲線を評価する方法として, シンプレックス法を応用した手法を提示し, 以下の結論を得た.
    (1) 参照3次元モデルとして, 遠近両用レンズの形状を選択し, あらかじめ4本×55とおりの取付け誤差を用意した場合, 本測定法では, 91%のシミュレーション結果が測定精度0.05μm (rms) 以下で測定可能であった.
    (2) マスタとして, 軸外放物面鏡を選択し, 本測定法で測定実験したところ, 測定精度0.67μm (P-V) maxを得た.
    (3) 試料として, 遠近両用レンズのガラスモールドを選択し, 測定実験した.繰返し性は0.29μm (rms) であった.
    また, 本方式では, 探索により参照3次元モデルから選び出した曲線と走査測定データとのXY平面上での位置関係は, 個々の走査ごとに基本的には無関連だから, 3次元的な総合的評価はできない.レンズなどの光学部品の品質管理には, 3次元的な評価が望ましいので, 今後, 非軸対称形状の3次元的な測定に拡張する予定である.
  • 明田川 正人, 高田 孝次, 高橋 秀昭, 佐々木 成寿, 鈴木 斉城
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 108-113
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2010/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper presents a potential image processing method to determine the in-plane geometrical distortion of an STM image and to calibrate it using a regular crystalline lattice. The method is based on two-dimensional FFT analysis, that is, the dimension of a raw STM image is calibrated through comparing the two-dimensional power spectrum of the raw STM image with the ideal one of a regular crystalline lattice. A dual tunneling unit STM with one X-Y stage and two tunneling units independently controlled in the two Z-axes has been utilized for comparative length measurement using a regular crystalline lattice as reference scale. To improve the measurement accuracy, the present method is applied in processing the raw images obtained from the dual tunneling unit STM. The experimental results, in which highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is used as a reference scale for measurement of 10-1 000 nm length, show the feasibility of the present image processing method and the possibility of a comparative length measurement with sub-nanometer resolution using the dual tunneling unit STM.
  • 城 道介, 佐々木 智義
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 114-118
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    A high-accuracy algorithm for kinematic analysis of closed loop mechanisms using pair-axis motor and link-pair graph has been developed. This paper added to the algorithm an efficient procedure called Gap-Pair Method for reducing the augmented error through iterative integration. At any time when the error must be checked, the mechanism is reconstructed according to the computed value of relative angular displacement at each pairs beginning from the root link along the tree-path of link-pair graph. The coordinate system of leaf link at the initial node of co tree pair is calculated twice along positive and negative tree-path in order to determine the Gap-Pair axis motor and the gap angle. The Gap-Pair is inserted between the two leaf links as a new drive pair of a virtual mechanism where the original drive pair is locked. Then the new pair is driven until the gap is reduced and the correct angular displacement at every original pair is given. Computational experiments are performed to confirm the accuracy improvement by this method.
  • 金森 哉吏, 梶谷 誠, 益田 正
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 119-123
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2010/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    レーザ光平面による位置計測法の原理に基づき, 二次元位置計測を行う方法およびキャリブレーション方法を提案し, 試作システムによって実験を行った.その結果次の結論を得た.
    (1) 2つの回転する平面を用いて二次元空間の位置座標を計測する方法を示した.
    (2) キャリブレーション方法について, シミュレーションによる検討を行った.その結果, 9点の基準点の配置法は計測平面の4つの端点を含み, 対角線の交点および対角線上に4点を配置する方法 (図6 (b) のSquareX) が良いことが明らかになった.この場合, 角度計測のばらつきを±1''とすると, キャリブレーション誤差は±5μmとなる (表2 (b)).
    (3) 1000mm×800mmの平面の計測範囲を持つ計測システムを試作した.SquareX法を使用したキャリブレーションを行うことにより, 計測誤差は±0.15mmであった.
    さらに精度を向上させるためには, 計測空間に発射されるレーザ光平面の運動を正確に表すようなモデルを作成し, 回転する平面の方程式とする必要がある.また, これらのモデルのパラメータをあらかじめ決定するようなキャリブレーション方法を開発する必要がある.
  • 石原 満宏, 佐々木 博美
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 124-128
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper describes the prototype of a 3-D shape measuring apparatus for inspection of LSI chips. The measuring principle of the apparatus is based on a shape from focus method. A maj or problem of the shape from focus method for practical use is the time required for acquisition of images at distinct focal planes. The newly developed mechanism has greatly reduced the time. This mechanism has simple structure and performs real-time (video rate) acquisition of the images with high positioning repeatability. In the experiment using the prototype of the apparatus, the acquisition time of 8 distinct focal plane images was within 0.15s and the repeatability was within 0.25 μ m in standard deviation.
  • 園嵜 昭八, 岩田 耕一, 岩橋 善久
    1997 年 63 巻 1 号 p. 129-133
    発行日: 1997/01/05
    公開日: 2009/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper describes a measurement of surface profile along a circle with no standard. For the measurement, spacings between two unknown surfaces located almost in parallel are measured along a circle. One of the surfaces is rotated around the center of the circle and spacings are measured again. This measuring procedure is repeated until the one is rotated all round. The profiles along the circle on two unknown surfaces are calculated using the spacing data. A new algorithm using Fourier expansion for the spacing data is given to reduce the calculating time. Computer simulation shows the validity of the algorithm and the effect of the measuring error of the spacing on the calculated profiles. The algorithm is also applied to the experimental data and the calculated profile agrees well with the profile obtained with a 3-dimensional measuring machine.
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