In order to evaluate pad surface condition to stabilize removal rate in oxide-CMP(Chemical Mechanical Polishing), chemical modification on pad surface was evaluated under no conditioning process as an opposite phase. As the result, the pad surface was hydrolyzed in accordance with no conditioning process proceeding. Silanol groups contained in slurry or generated by oxide polish combined with polarized molecules in poly-urethane material of the pad by a hydrogen bond. The pad surface stacked silica component with the silanol groups leads to removal rate drop due to inhibition of chemical reaction to polish oxide film. The pad treatment by means of the following Si substrate polish contributed to removal rate recovery of oxide film. The behavior suggested that not only geometrical factor of pad surface such as asperity or roughness but also chemical factor of pad surface such as hydrophilicity or hybrid formation has an influence on keeping removal rate. The removal rate recovery of oxide film after Si substrate polish was attributed to silanol groups elimination on pad surface which was caused by condensation between silanol groups on pad surface and hydroxyl groups on Si surface.
This paper describes the influence of electrolytic water dilute NaCl on the surface of Fe-42wt% Ni alloy (it is abbreviated to alloy 42 hereafter). First, we clarified the etching characteristic of electrolytically-oxidized water and electrolytically-reduced water against alloy 42 by the immersing experiments. What becomes clear is that electrolyticallyoxidized water has twice as big etching ability as HCl solution and that there is no etching operation in electrolyticallyreduced water. Next, we clarified two things by the surface analysis of the test pieces. One is that both electrolytically-reduced water and electrolytically-oxidized water are able to improve the cleanliness of the surface of the alloy 42. The other is that the oxide film layer can become thick by immersion into the electrolytically-oxidized water. The study indicates that electrolytic water can be applied to washing process of alloy 42 surface.
In another optical telemeter system developed by one of the authors with others, data is input through the parallel port of the personal computer. Recently, note book computers with no parallel port but with USB port have increased. Thus, an optical telemeter system with input through a USB port of personal computer has been developed. To achieve faster transmission rates of data the both procedures are adopted. On the micro-controller of data sending side, the A/D conversion is executed at the same time as the preceding data is being sent out to LED. On another micro-controller of data receiving side, the one-packet data are saved in one buffer memory at the same time as the preceding one-packet data in another buffer memory are being sent to personal computer through the USB port. It has been confirmed that the data transmission rate of 8,385data/s for 12bit data is achieved under 230.4kbps.
ODV (OmniDirectional Vision) is an optical system which has the view angle more than 180° with little distortion. If this ODV can be made smaller than now, various applications for medical and/or industrial fields will be expected. The optical system of ODV for side view is composed of a primary mirror and a secondary mirror. Therefore, the machining method for making these small mirrors was investigated. At first, the occurrence of interference fringes and the decrease in resolving power due to tool marks were examined. The experimental analysis made it clear that it was necessary to reduce the tool marks per unit length in order to decrease the interference fringes, while the tool marks hardly affected the resolving power . The reflect side of the mirror has the thin part because of the mounting space for CCD camera. Therefore, the cutting test of thin part in simple model was carried out. It was found that the distortion didn't occur in the reflected image as long as the flatness was less than about 150nm. Then, the ring-shaped jig was used for holding the mirrors, since these structures were very small and flexible. It was confirmed that the accuracy of mirrors cut with using this jig was within the permissible range. As a result, the making method of high precision mirrors for small size ODV was established in this study.
In order to manufacture the part of a small lot at lower cost and shorter lead-time, various techniques, such as a rapid tooling, reverse engineering and high speed milling, are proposed. Recently, milling-combined laser metal sintering system, which is the device of sintering the metal powder and milling the sintered metal with end mill at the one process, has been developed to produce the injection molding dies. In this report, the sintering characteristics of the metal powder used for rapid tooling with Yb fiber laser are described. Relationship between the scanning speed of laser beam and the width of sintered material on the different surface plate are investigated. Moreover, the cross section of sintered material is analyzed with EPMA and cutting force is measured by the dynamometer in the various conditions. As a result, it was shown that the suitable irradiation energy for laser sintering should be selected to obtain the good shaped structure, which is occurred the melting, the cohesion and the solidification of the metal powder repeatedly. The shape of sintered material is formed like a spherical in the conditions of too much energy supply, and not formed partially in the conditions of a little energy supply. The melted metal powder with the generated heat by laser irradiation alloyed with the plate surface on the process of the solidification. The specific cutting force of sintered material on the surface with sandblast is quite larger than that on the standard surface by the difference of the wetting of melted metal powder.
In this paper, the shaft response characteristics of a floating bush hydrostatic gas bearing with an external damping (fluid damper) are investigated. The damping coefficients of fluid damper are defined by the damper clearance and the fluid viscosity. Several kinds of silicone oil, each of which is of different viscosity, are used as the damper fluid. When an impact force acts on the rotor, the rotor response generally shows under-damping. When the damping coefficients of fluid damper increase, the rotor response shows a change from under-damping to over-damping vibrations. Therefore, using the fluid damper can shorten the settling time of the rotor to about 2 natural period (5ms) of fundamental vibrations. The respective settling times for the rotor and the floating bush are almost the same. The optimum damping coefficient of fluid damper is set around 1. of damping factor in the fixed bush - floating bush bearing system.
Ball splines were standardized by JIS in 2004 and now they are examined in ISO / TC39 as power transmitting components. In this paper the ball load distribution and basic dynamic load rating for ball spline type AII are discussed theoretically by considering the re-circulation of balls in each row including a spline shaft bending deformation with radial load and the crownings of nut raceway both end portions. The ball load distributions in case of even arrangement, condition I for the effective number of balls, Zt = ZtI = 9 and uneven arrangement, condition II for the effective number of balls, also Zt = ZtII = 8 are discussed with ball re-circulation. The results are as follows. (1) Under the application of pure torque, the ball load distributions for each condition I and II are even except the crowning portions and the shaft deformation does not occur, and maximum ball load in condition II is shown Pmax II ≤ 1.03Pmax I in accordance with ball re-circulation. (2) Under the application of pure radial load, the ball load fluctuation is Pmax II ≤ 1.19Pmax I without shaft deformation and further Pmax II ≤ 1.15Pmax I with shaft deformation. (3) Under the application of combined radial load and torque, the ball load fluctuation is Pmax II ≤ 1.07Pmax I in case of without shaft deformation and further Pmax II ≤ 1.07Pmax I with shaft deformation. (4) The basic dynamic load rating CF* for ball spline can be classified into pure torque CMx, pure radial load CFy, combined radial load and torque CFy+Mx etc. In case of pure torque, the CMx value by this report is agreed with ISO's load rating for condition I theoretically. (5) In case of combined radial load and torque, it is made clear that the load rating for CFy is remarkably decreased in accordance with the increase in load eccentricity and CFy+Mx value approaches to the basic dynamic load rating for pure torque CMx.
A fast obstacle avoidance algorithm based on sensor data is required for an autonomous vehicle to move at high speed. When a vehicle is nonholonomic and it has polygonal body, the method using configuration space is usually applied to such a vehicle. But, it is complex and it needs much computing power. On the other hand, artificial potential field is often used for real-time obstacle avoidance, however, most of them consider a vehicle as an omnidirectional movable point. Therefore, we propose a new method of practical obstacle avoidance for a nonholonomic vehicle with rectangular body. Application points of repulsive forces from obstacles are located in both the front and rear of vehicle's body. Their forces are generated according to the distances between obstacle and vehicle's body. Rear forces are transferred to the front by inverting and the resultant force moves the vehicle. This idea is very simple and its effectiveness has been shown by simulation.
For the purpose of enlarging the work space of manipulator, this study proposes the trajectories for saving energy about throwing motion. In this paper, equations of motion of a manipulator, whose mechanism has two actuated joints and a passive revolute joint for a tray, are derived in consideration of characteristics of driving source. In order to prevent the object falling from the tray, the passive joint for the tray is rotated by inertia force about actuated joints. Considering the condition about motion of the tray, trajectories for saving energy of two actuated joints are calculated by iterative dynamic programming. Initial searching region of dynamic programming is a shape which is surrounded by two cosine-wave translated in parallel. This proposed searching region is used as an initial range of the iteration method, and the region is shifted to minimize the energy consumption of the motor. The dynamic characteristics of manipulator controlled based on above mentioned trajectory are analyzed theoretically and investigated experimentally.
Artificial neural networks which have been used for agent learning have mostly employed back-propagation and recurrent neural networks. We, however, have observed that there exists another network structure in life—a small world network, which is used by C-elegance, a kind of eelworms. We examined not only the performance of the small world network but that of a regular graph network and a random graph network. We applied these three networks to agent learning problems, and when we compared them with back-propagation and recurrent neural networks, it became clear that in the case of small world network structures, it has the same or even better performance as compared to back-propagation and recurrent neural networks despite a lower number of synapses.
In this paper, a camera simulator that simulates camera properties and simple methods to obtain its parameters are proposed. The camera simulator simulates distortion, limb darkening, blur by defocus, blur by aberration, motion blur, variation of pixel sensitivity, random noise, gamma correction, and salt and pepper noise. As for methods to obtain camera parameters, parameters of blur by aberration and distortion are obtained by getting an image of a stripe pattern, and parameters of limb darkening, variation of pixel sensitivity, random noise and salt and pepper noise are obtained by getting a number of images using a camera covered by a diffuser. Fundamental experiments show that the constructed Camera Simulator and the proposed methods to obtain camera parameters are effective.
Fly-fishing and lure fishing have been positioned as sports deliberately different from the traditional Japanese fishing-style. In the case of lure fishing, casting is the element which anglers must master in order to cast a lure at an appropriate position. Lure fishing constitutes various elements, for example, casting, reeling, hooking and landing, but the importance that casting holds is extremely large. This study uses experimental and computational analysis to investigate the dynamic behavior of lure casting. The casting process and the timing of the line leaves are important for the proper presentation of lure. Moreover, the shape of a rod before the lure released is important for a long cast or controlled cast. However, it is difficult to grasp the phenomenon or to make a numerical model. Therefore, the most suitable casting method will be clarified from the viewpoint of sports engineering and human dynamics. In this paper, the system of rod and lure is modeled, and the behavior of the rod and the flying distance of a lure are calculated in the case that line tension is considered. The difference of the behavior and flying distance with line tension is investigated. And suitable timing that angler releases the line is clarified. Moreover, hang length of lure is investigated and proper length is obtained.
In this paper, we propose a method of generating individual facial models based on a generic facial model with not only a skin model but also additional data such as skull model, facial expression muscle model, etc. When the generic facial model is transformed into individual facial models by GFFD (Generalized Free-Form Deformation), not only skin model but also additional data are automatically altered into a suitable state for individual faces at the same time. By using this method, we can easily do a simulation of facial expression or hairstyle without making additional data for each individual facial model.