The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of whole-body movement under pressure. The study participants, who were right-handed male university students (N=16), performed "tomeken ," which is a bilboquet technique, for 300 acquisition trials followed by 15 test trials. In the test, a small audience observed participants who had been informed that they could receive a performance-contingent money reward. The results showed that, in this study, a modest level of psychological stress was induced, as the average of the state anxiety scores increased (p <.001), whereas the average of the heart rates did not. Although the performance of "tomeken " improved during acquisition (p <.05), it was not hindered in the test. A two-dimensional analysis of the movement revealed that some measures reflecting variability of elbow and knee movements decreased from the last phase of acquisition to the test. In addition, a difference between the timing of knee flexion and the timing of elbow extension in the ball-catching phase decreased (p <.05). No change was found for the electromyography activities of upper-arm muscles. These results suggested that a modest level of psychological stress, which did not lead to change in performance, could modify the movement variability and timing coordination of upper and lower limbs in whole-body movement.
This study examined the perceptual effect of color and /or figuration information in human models created using computer graphics (CG) on anticipatory judgments of tennis serves. Fourteen skilled and fourteen novice tennis players attempted to anticipate serve direction by observing one live-action image and four CG animations (polygon, shadow, stick, and point-light) edited in accordance with a temporal occlusion paradigm. The dependent variable was the correct responses of serve directions (anticipation accuracy). The shadow, stick, and point-light models were simplified variations of the color and/or figuration information within a polygon model. At an occlusion of 30 ms before the moment of racket-ball impact, the skilled player's anticipation accuracy was superior to the chance level (50%) in the live-action and polygon model conditions, but not in the other three model conditions. In contrast with the results of skilled players, the novice player's anticipation accuracy did not exceed the chance level in all the conditions (model and occlusion). Moreover, the skilled players made more accurate judgments than their novice counterparts in the live-action and polygon model conditions. These results suggested that the skilled players used the color and figuration information in human models as visual information when they picked up the essential kinematic information from opponent's movement patterns. In addition, there were no significant differences in the skilled player's anticipation accuracy between the live-action and polygon model conditions. This led to the conclusion that our polygon model had sufficient quality to evaluate the superior anticipatory performance of skilled tennis players.
This study aimed to investigate the influence of sport experience in physical education classes (PEC) on life skills acquisition between athlete students who participated in athletic clubs and non-athlete students. Investigation based on the causal model incorporating satisfaction as a positive dimension of mental health using Structural Equation Modeling with multi-group analysis was conducted using data obtained from 770 students (413 athlete and 357 non-athlete students). These students answered questionnaires on sport experience in PEC (self-disclosure, cooperation, challenge, and enjoyment) and the acquisition level of life skills (intrapersonal and interpersonal skills). The results indicated that (1) satisfaction mediated the positive effect of sport experience in PEC on life skills acquisition in both groups, and (2) a clear difference of positive effect was found in regard to challenge, i.e., "active practice to enhance athletic level". Concretely, only an indirect effect was found in athlete students, while only direct effects were found in non-athlete students. Moreover, it was indicated that the total effect of sport experience in PEC on life skills acquisition in non-athlete students was stronger than the total effect in athlete students.