The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cognitive function in the elderly and various common activities. Participants were 92 community-dwelling elderly over 65 years. The new Stroop test II was used to measure cognitive function (information-processing speed and attention). Three domains of activities of daily life (physical, social and cultural activity) were examined. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that physical activity was associated with cognitive function (attention) and cultural activity was also associated with cognitive function (information-processing speed). In addition, analysis of variance indicated that participants who engaged in three activities had improved cognitive function in comparison to participants who engaged in only one activity. Findings suggest that activities of daily life may play an important role to protect against cognitive decline associated with aging.
Our study aimed to investigate the influence of emotional intelligence (EQS; Uchiyama et al., 2001) on the psychological competitive ability (DIPCA.3; Tokunaga and Hashimoto, 2000) of female basketball players, with the view of improving their competitive performance. In analysis I, we divided college basketball players into a high-performance group (HPG; 89 players) and a low-performance group (LPG; 203 players) on the basis of competitive results. By multiple-regression analysis with a stepwise method, we examined the influence of EQS 9 factors on each DIPCA 7 subscale; this indicated that the HPG score was significantly higher than the LPG score for the t-test. Results indicated that (1) Self-control and Situational Awareness positively influenced the HPG on multiple subscales in DIPCA; (2) Self-awareness was found to have a positive effect in the LPG on multiple subscales in DIPCA; and (3) Altruism in the HPG and Empathy in the LPG had negative effects, especially on Concentration. In analysis II, we conducted the same analyses for top basketball players who belonged to a national team (NT; 16 players) or to company teams (CT; 61 players). We examined the influence of EQS 9 factors on each DIPCA 4 subscale, which indicated that the NT score was significantly higher than the CT score. These results indicated that (1) EQS factors positively influenced both the NT and the CT on DIPCA subscales; (2) a positive effect on DIPCA subscales was definitive in the NT and its strength tended to be the strongest among the four groups; and (3) Empathy and Altruism had a negative effect on the DIPCA subscales in the CT.