In this study, thirty-three papers were reviewed to clarify the current status and remaining issues of research on life skills development through physical education and sport. Two databases are used to extract papers related to life skills development through sports activities. One is The SPORTDiscus database, which consists of international sport sciences literature, and the other is The CiNii database, which consists of Japanese literature in all fields. Keywords such as “life skills” and “social skills” were used to search both databases. Results of this study revealed that there are lots of studies which support life skills development through physical education and sport, but their results are not clear except for those of sports programs using The SUPER program developed by Danish et al. (2002). Additionally, it was recognized that remaining issues are 1) to verify the generalization to life skills, 2) to focus on the influences of the acquisition of life skills on personality variables such as self-esteem, self-efficacy and time perspective, and 3) to identify the concrete experiences in physical education and sport relating to life skills development. Finally, studies which need to be conducted in Japan were presented.
Sense-control (SC) training of ground reaction force when acquiring cornering skills was investigated. SC training can facilitate internal-standardization in the sense-control of loading and reaction forces in the direction of the resultant vector of inertia and gravity. Conversely, conventional (C) training cannot do so because it is based on external criteria given by instructors. Male participants (n=6) of identical skill levels were equally divided into two groups. In Experiment 1, Group A practiced SC training and Group B repeated C training. In Experiment 2, Group A had no training, such that retention could be assessed, whereas Group B practiced SC training to reconfirm its effects. The relevant skills in both groups were analyzed using the riding time of slalom, inward lean angle of the trunk, riding time on a straight 30m course, and cornering sense scores. The results of Experiment 1 showed significant positive effects of SC training on Group A compared to Group B, as indicated by above measures. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that Group A retained the shorter riding time of slalom, whereas after SC training, Group B showed the same riding time of slalom as Group A. We suggested that SC training facilitates acquiring balancing skills in the trunk-skill system by using internal-criteria as combination of sense-control factors. It is concluded that SC training is more effective for acquisition of the relevant skills than C training.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of anxiety level and level of task difficulty (putting distance) on the putting performance of amateur golfers under pressure. Seventy-five golfers participated. Four distances (1.25m, 1.50m, 1.75m, and 2.00m) were established as putting distances with a particularly high level of failure anxiety. Club movement kinematics (club head's linear amplitude, movement time, and mean velocity), putting score, and final resting position of missed putts were used as performance indicators. Participants hit one putt each from each distance under both low-pressure and high-pressure conditions. From the results of cognitive anxiety measured based on a questionnaire and somatic anxiety measured based on heart rate, it was confirmed that the pressure situation established by this research functioned effectively for the participants. From the results of analysis of variance, for the club's linear amplitude, movement time, mean velocity, and putting score, no significant association between anxiety and putting distance was apparent. On the other hand, from analysis of the final resting position of missed putts, it was conceivable that 1.50m putts were particularly impacted by pressure. Moreover, from the reduced movement time of the follow-through by participants with increased cognitive anxiety under pressure, the research suggested that cognitive anxiety had a greater impact than somatic anxiety on decrease of performance under pressure.
This study investigated the influence of strenuous physical exercise on the attentional function by considering the specific example of rugby. Using a group version of the “Stroop and reverse-Stroop test” that was composed of four tasks (Hakoda and Sasaki, 1990) as an index of the attentional function, we compared the pre- and post- attentional function between 12 male university students who participated in a rugby match (rugby group) and 41 male students who attended a classroom lecture (control group). We found that in the control group, the number of correct answers for all four tasks increased, showing a practice effect. In the rugby group, only the Stroop interference task induced an increase of correct answers whereas the reverse-Stroop interference task did not induce any improvements of the performance. These results suggest that rugby related physical exercise improved the control function of the interference from verbal information, but not from color information.
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